Literature 2017

Literature Archive2014 | 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018

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16 April 2018

Gottschlich G. 2017: Hieracia nova Alpium VII. – Stapfia 107: 11-28.

Abstract:
“Four new species and six new subspecies of the genus Hieracium L. (Compositae) from the South Eastern Alps (Friuli-Venezia-Giulia, Italy) are described and illustrated. Their taxonomic relationships are discussed.”

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12 April 2018

Štěpánek J. & Kirschner J. 2017: Taraxacum names published by J. Murr: Typification and taxonomic interpretation. - Phyton (Horn) 57: 11-18.

Abstract:
“Josef Murr (18641932) published a number of Taraxacum names but only a part of them are covered by IPNI. Moreover, most of the names remain neglected, without typification and/or taxonomic interpretation. Taraxacum names published by J. Murr are analysed, typified and interpreted in the present paper; lectotypes had to be chosen from Herbarium collections other than the main personal herbarium of J. Murr (originally deposited in IBF but destroyed by floods in 1985). Taraxacum handelii Murr is shown to belong to sect. Borealia Hand.-Mazz. The lectotype of Taraxacum perincisum (Murr) Murr belongs to the taxon usually referred to as T. oxoniense Dahlst.; the former, older name must therefore replace T. oxoniense. The type of the name T. pseudopalustre Murr belongs to what was described as T. irrigatum Kirschner & Štěpánek recently and, as an older name, it must be used as correct for this taxon. Comments are presented about the authorship of T. reichenbachii and other names for which J. Murr published nomenclatural combinations. A brief biography of J. Murr is also given.”

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22 March 2018

Mercadali i Corominas G. & Galán de Mera A. 2017: Taraxacum sect. Palustria (Compositae) en la península ibérica. – Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 74(e064): 1–17.

Abstract:
“After detecting new records for Taraxacum sect. Palustria (Compositae), a first taxonomical revision of this section is provided for the Iberian Peninsula. Four taxa, T. aginnense, T. ciliare, T. litophyllum and T. raii, are recognized, of which T. aginnense and T. raii are new for the Iberian flora. From each one of them, its morphological description, geographical, ecological and phenological data, and conservation status are presented. In addition, an identification key, as well as several images showing the main morphological characters are given. This work also includes comments on T. mediterraneum group (T. sect. Erythrocarpa) because its morphological similitude and ecological affinities with Iberian plants of T. sect. Palustria.”

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15 March 2018

Tavakkoli Z., Akhlaghi Miraliyari V. & Gharemaninejad F. 2017: Leaf anatomical studies of the genus Hieracium (Asteraceae) in Iran and its taxonomic implication. – Iran. J. Bot. 23: 115–129.

Abstract:
“Leaf anatomy of 17 taxa of the genus Hieracium belonging to two subgenera and six sections was examined using light microscopy in order to evaluate its systematic important. The studied anatomical characteristics show considerable variability among different species but are constant among different populations of one species. 28 characters were examined and among them, some characters have taxonomic value and can be used in delimitation of subgenera, sections, subsections and species. The most important characters are: presence or absence of lateral vascular bundles; main midrib shape; the thickness of epidermis, parenchyma, collenchyma and cuticle; the length of vascular bundles, xylem and phloem; lamina symmetry; the number of lateral vascular bundles and in few cases stomata size, the shape of epidermal cells and anticlinal walls. Moreover, an identification key to leaf anatomy of the species of Hieracium in Iran is given.”

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1 March 2018

Ishizawa K. 2017: Origins of Ixeris x sekimotoi: evidence from crossing experiments between I. polycephala and I. debilis. – J. Phytogeogr. Taxon. 65: 15-21.

Abstract:
“Crossing experiments between Ixeris polycephala (2x) and I. debilis (6x) were made to verify the hypothesis that I. xsekimotoi Kitam. is their interspecific hybrid. Fertile seeds were germinated and their hybridity was identified by measuring the DNA content using flow cytometry. Most of them were formed when the seed parent was I. polycephala. F1 plants showed intermediate characters between the two species, consistent with the description of Ixeris xsekimotoi in Kitamura(1936). They were tetraploids according to DNA content and produced fertile seeds through self-pollination suggesting that I.xsekiomotoi is of hybrid origin between I. polycephala and I. debilis.”

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1 March 2018

Gottschlich G. 2017: Hieracium diaphanoides subsp. forstense: eine neue Unterart der Pfalz (Rheinland-Pfalz, Deutschland). – Mitt. Pollichia 98: 75-78.

Abstract:
Hieracium diaphanoides subsp. forstense, a new subspecies from Palatinate (Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany) is described and illustrated. The taxonomic relationship is discussed.”

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13 February 2018

Tyler T. 2017: Does Hieracium sect. Pulmonarioidea occur in Scandinavia? Finding a place for species of the Depilata group. – New J. Bot. 7: 147-151.

Abstract:
“The taxonomic position and evolution of the five Scandinavian montane species previously referred to the informal group Depilata of Hieracium are discussed. There is very little modern information about these species and as they have not been listed under any of the currently accepted sections of the genus they are at risk of being completely forgotten. They have always been considered as intermediate between H. sect. Alpina and sect. Prenanthoidea, but as discussed here they can hardly be included in either of these sections. However, C European species intermediate between the same two sections have been referred to H. sect. Pulmonarioidea and it appears appropriate to include the Depilata here as well. Hereby, the geographic range of H. sect. Pulmonarioidea is most significantly enlarged and its morphological circumscription is somewhat amended. The morphology of Scandinavian H. sect. Pulmonarioidea is described and a brief overview of the species and their distribution is provided. In addition, the possibility that the species concerned may have evolved in situ in Scandinavia through hybridisation between members of H. sect. Alpina and sect. Prenanthoidea is discussed.”

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13 February 2018

Richards A. J. & Doogue D. 2017: Notes on some Taraxacum (Asteraceae) from Ireland including description of four new species in section Celtica. – New J. Bot. 7: 136-146.

Abstract:
“In the context of substantial recent collections of Taraxacum in the Irish Midlands, this paper records some additions to our knowledge of Irish dandelions. Four new species in Taraxacum section Celtica A. J. Richards are described, T. aesculosum, T. gaelorum, T. hibernicola and T. inclinorum; only the first is known outside Ireland, where the first three are quite widespread. Taraxacum pietii-oosterveldii H. Øllgaard, a relative of T. nordstedtii Dahlst., is newly recorded for Ireland from six Irish vice-counties; it also has not yet been recorded from Britain. The rare British wetland species T. anglicum Dahlst. and T. palustrisquameum A. J. Richards are recorded from Ireland for the first time, and the Spanish species, T. nietoi A. J. Richards, apparently extinct in Britain, has persisted in an Irish locality for 10 years. A new variety of T. ronae L. J. Margetts which lacks leaf spotting is described as var. immaculatum A. J. Richards; this variety seems more common in Ireland than the type. Taraxacum ronae is a common and widespread species in Ireland.”

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11 January 2018

Gottschlich G. 2017: Ergebnisse von Herbarstudien zur Gattung Hieracium in Bayern. – Ber. Bayer. Bot. Ges. 87: 83–92.

Abstract:
Herbarium revisions of critical Hieracium species in Bavaria resulted in changes of geograohical status: Hieracium doronicifolium is new for Bavaria and Germany, H. cavillieri, H. stenoplecum and H. vollmannii are to be cancelled for Bavaria and Germany. H. stenoplecum sensu Zahn is renamed in H. entleutneri.”

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21 December 2017

Mateo Sanz G., Sáez Goñalons L., Egido Mazuelas F. del & Gómiz García F. 2017: Aportaciones al conocimiento del género Hieracium L. en España, XXVII: especies del macizo del Cardó (Tarragona). – Fl. Montiber. 69: 67–80.

Abstract
Hieracium vinyasianum Font Quer is revalided and also five new other species of Hieracium L. (Compositae, Lacutuceae) are here described from Cardó Mountains (Tarragona, NE Spain).”

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14 December 2017

Gottschlich G., Drenckhahn D., Meierott L. & Meyer N. 2017: Pilosella velutina – neu für Deutschland. – Bot. Rundbrief Mecklenburg-Vorpommern 54: 26-33.

[Occurrences as garden escapes of Pilosella velutina, which is very similar to but distinct from P. officinarum by the abundant presence of stellate hairs also on the upper leaf faces, are reported from Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Bavaria. They are the first records of this species, which is otherwise restricted to the Western Alps, from Germany. A dot distribution map of its native distribution based on revised herbarium material is provided].

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23 November 2017

Slovák M., Kučera J., Lack H. W., Ziffer-Berger J., Melicharková A., Záveská E. & Vďačný P. 2017: Diversification dynamics and transoceanic Eurasian-Australian disjunction in the genus Picris (Compositae) induced by the interplay of shifts in intrinsic/extrinsic traits and paleoclimatic oscillations. – Molec. Phylogen. Evol. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2017.11.006

Abstract
“Understanding transcontinental biogeographic patterns has been one of the main foci of the field of biogeography. While multiple explanations for transcontinental disjunctions have been proposed, little is still known about the relative importance of intrinsic and extrinsic traits for the diversification dynamics of disjunct taxa. Here, we study the evolutionary history of the genus Picris L. (Compositae), a great model for investigating the diversification dynamics of transoceanic bipolar disjunct organisms. Ancestral state reconstructions indicate that the most recent common ancestor (MRCA) of Picris was a semelparous and heterocarpic herb that lived in unpredictable environments of North Africa and West Asia. Diversification analyses suggest a significant shift in speciation ca. 1 million years ago, likely associated with the onset of the mid-Pleistocene revolution. Longevity characters are correlated with the evolution of particular fruit types and with environmental conditions. Heterocarpic species are mostly semelparous herbs strongly linked with unpredictable habitats, while homocarpic taxa are mostly iteroparous plants occurring in predictable environments. Binary-state speciation and extinction analyses suggest that homocarpy, iteroparity, and habitats predictability accelerate diversification. Although the combination of homocarpy and iteroparity evolved in several lineages, only members of the P. hieracioides group were able to colonise Eurasia and expand to Australia by transoceanic dispersal. Those findings indicate that large-scale colonisation events depend on a complex interplay of intrinsic and extrinsic factors.”

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16 November 2017

Majeský L., Krahulec F. & Vašut R. J. 2017: How apomictic taxa are treated in current taxonomy: A review. – Taxon 66: 1017–1040.

Abstract
“Gametophytic apomixis (asexual seed formation without syngamy of female and male gametes) is a highly interesting mechanism for researchers in plant biotechnology, genetics, evolutionary biology, and taxonomy. Apomixis evolved repeatedly and independently in the evolution of multiple genera. It is an effective reproduction barrier and, consequently, conserved apomictic genotypes may become overrepresented in nature. Apomictic plants may easily colonize free niches with only one or a few individuals and outcompete outcrossing plants. In spite of the indisputable pros of asexual reproduction, apomixis also has several cons. One of the most commonly mentioned is the accumulation of deleterious mutations in asexual lineages and decreased genetic variation. However, apomicts in general can be genetically highly diverse. The most common sources of this variation are the accumulation of mutations, hybridization with sexual plants, and facultative apomixis. Facultative apomicts are highly variable in their level of residual sexuality, which increases their genotypic and phenotypic variation. Even in the case of obligate apomicts, gene flow is possible due to functional male meiosis and the production of viable pollen grains by apomicts. Apomixis occurs in plant genera in which hybridization together with polyploidization play an important role in diversification and causes severe problems in taxonomy. How to accommodate apomictic taxa in taxonomic treatments, and understanding what should and what should not be referred to as a species are intriguing questions. This review aims to provide an overview of the main characteristics of "apomictic genera" and the approaches used to treat apomictic taxa within these genera. To achieve this aim, the review was divided into several parts. Firstly, the distinctive features of apomictic reproduction and apomictic taxa are described together with issues related to the taxonomic evaluation of apomictic taxa. The second part discusses approaches in the known apomictic genera, and the final part presents the authors' view on important points, which need to be taken into account in the classification of apomictic taxa.” [includes also North American Crepis, Hieracium, Pilosella and Taraxacum]

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14 November 2017

Arista M., Berjano R., Viruel J., Ortiz M. A., Talavera M. & Ortiz P. L. 2017: Uncertain pollination environment promotes the evolution of a stable mixed reproductive system in the self-incompatible Hypochaeris salzmanniana (Asteraceae). – Ann. Bot. 120: 447–456.

Abstract
“Background and aims
The transition from outcrossing to selfing is a repeated pattern in angiosperm diversification and according to general theory this transition should occur quickly and mixed reproductive systems should be infrequent. However, a large proportion of flowering plants have mixed reproductive systems, even showing inbreeding depression. Recently, several theoretical studies have shown that mixed mating systems can be stable, but empirical studies supporting these assumptions are still scarce.

Methods
Hypochaeris salzmanniana, an annual species with populations differing in their self-incompatibility expression, was used as a study case to assess the stability of its mixed reproductive system. Here a descriptive study of the pollination environment was combined with measurements of the stability of the self-incompatibility system, outcrossing rate, reproductive assurance and inbreeding depression in four populations for two consecutive years.

Key Results
The reproductive system of populations exhibited a geographical pattern: the proportion of plants decreased from west to east. Pollinator environment also varied geographically, being less favourable from west to east. The self-incompatibility expression of some populations changed markedly in only one year. After selfing, progeny was mainly self-compatible, while after outcrossing both self-incompatible and self-compatible plants were produced. In general, both reproductive assurance and high inbreeding depression were found in all populations and years. The lowest values of inbreeding depression were found in 2014 in the easternmost populations, which experienced a marked increase in self-compatibility in 2015.

Conclusions
The mixed reproductive system of H. salzmanniana seems to be an evolutionarily stable strategy, with selfing conferring reproductive assurance when pollinator attendance is low, but strongly limited by inbreeding depression. The fact that the highest frequencies of self-compatible plants appeared in the environments most unfavourable to pollination suggests that these plants are selected in these sites, although high rates of inbreeding depression should impede the complete loss of self-incompatibility. In H. salzmanniana, year-to-year changes in the frequency of self-incompatible individuals are directly derived from the balance between reproductive assurance and inbreeding depression.”

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14 November 2017

Tojibaev K. S., Beshko N. Yu., Batashov A. R., Karimov F. I., Lee D.-H., Turginov O. T., Usmonov M. X., Kodirov U. H. & Tajeddinova D. 2017: Ten new records of vascular plants for the flora of Uzbekistan (Asteraceae). – Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 47: 171–179.

Abstract
“Ten species of vascular plants newly recorded in Uzbekistan are presented. The first record of Anthemis ruthenica from the northern side of the Alay range is confirmed, and the species was found for the second time in a neighborhood of Tashkent as an alien. Carduus arabicus as a native plant in Central Asia is recorded for the first time from Western Pamir-Alay. Chondrilla brevirostris, C. macrocarpa, and C. phaeocephala are from the desert and adyrs zones. Crinitaria tatarica and Crepis mira collected from Western Tien-Shan are presented, Olgaea baldschuanica first recorded on the Babatag range of mountains as a subendemic species and Erigeron andryaloides from the Hissar range are reported here as among the flora of Uzbekistan. The former Centaurea apiculata Ledeb. was accepted as a synonym of C. scabiosa L. subsp. apiculata. All records were collected in different habitats of Uzbekistan. Taxonomic remarks, pictures and distribution maps for these species are provided.”

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28 September 2017

Fırat M. 2017: Gundelia rosea (Asteraceae), a new record for the Flora of Turkey with contributions to its systematics. – Acta Biol. Turc. 30: 31–35.

Abstract
Gundelia rosea Al-Taey & Hossain (Asteraceae) is reported as a new vascular plant record for the flora of Turkey. Gundelia rosea is previously known from Iraqi Kurdistan (northern Iraq) and Iran. It is for the first time collected from Hakkari Province in eastern Anatolia, Turkey. The expanded morphological description, photographs in habitat, and distribution map of the new record are presented.”

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27 September 2017

Firat M. 2017: Gundelia mesopotamica (Asteraceae), a new lactiferous species from Mardin (Turkey). – Acta Biol. Turc. 30: 64–69.

Abstract
Gundelia mesopotamica, a new species is described and illustrated from Mardin province, Turkey. From the morphological point of view, G. mesopotamica appears to be similar to G. cilicica, but from which it differs in several morphological features including plant height, colour of corolla, indumentum of all plant and cephaloid flowers number. A comprehensive description of this new species is provided, including detailed photographs, geographical distribution, habitat and ecology, vernacular name and IUCN conservation status.”

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27 September 2017

Koseva B., Crawford D. J.,Brown K. E., Mort M. E. & Kelly J. K. 2017: The genetic breakdown of sporophytic self-incompatibility in Tolpis coronopifolia (Asteraceae). – New Phytologist http:/dx.doi.org/ 10.1111/nph.14759

Abstract
“Angiosperm diversity has been shaped by mating system evolution, with the most common transition from outcrossing to self-fertilizing.
To investigate the genetic basis of this transition, we performed crosses between two species endemic to the Canary Islands, the self-compatible (SC) species Tolpis coronopifolia and its self-incompatible (SI) relative Tolpis santosii. We scored self-compatibility as self-seed set of recombinant plants within two F2 populations.
To map and genetically characterize the breakdown of SI, we built a draft genome sequence of T. coronopifolia, genotyped F2 plants using multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG), and located MSG markers to the genome sequence. We identified a single quantitative trait locus (QTL) that explains nearly all variation in self-seed set in both F2 populations.
To identify putative causal genetic variants within the QTL, we performed transcriptome sequencing on mature floral tissue from both SI and SC species, constructed a transcriptome for each species, and then located each predicted transcript to the T. coronopifolia genome sequence. We annotated each predicted gene within the QTL and found two strong candidates for SI breakdown. Each gene has a coding sequence insertion/deletion mutation within the SC species that produces a truncated protein. Homologs of each gene have been implicated in pollen development, pollen germination, and pollen tube growth in other species.”

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22 September 2017

Chubar E. A. 2017: Онтогенез и жизненная форма Nabalus tatarinowii (Asteraceae) и их значение в таксономи рода Nabalus [Ontogenesis and life form of Nabalus tatarinowii (Asteraceae) and their significance in the taxonomy of the genus Nabalus]. – Bot. Zhurn 102: 628–642.

Abstract
“The life cycle of Nabalus tatarinowii is described. The results of our research show that the species belongs to the group of pleiocyclic monocarpic plants with monopodial rhizome and shoot system, and with adventitious root tubers and root buds, rather than to the groups of long-rhizomatous perennials or taproot biennials. To use life form features in the taxonomy of the genera Prenanthes and Nabalus it is necessary to do supplementary ontogenetic and morphological researches.”

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14 September 2017

Mateo Sanz G., Egido Mazuelas F. del & Gómiz García F. 2017: Aportaciones al conocimiento del género Hieracium en España, XXVI. – Fl. Montiber. 67: 72–92.

Abstract
“Several new species of Hieracium L. (Compositae, Lacutuceae) are here described from Spanish mountains and also other ones are commented as new record for different provinces of Spain.”

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14 September 2017

Mateo Sanz G. & Egido Mazuelas F. del 2017: Aportaciones al conocimiento del género Hieracium en España, XXV. – Fl. Montiber. 67: 52–71.

Abstract
Hieracium atropictum Arv.-Touv. is proposed as a principal species endemic of Pyrenees and Northern Spain. We also comment all the iberic species that we think are related with this species, several of them were already known but others are proposed here as new species.”

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14 September 2017

Mateo Sanz G., Egido Mazuelas F. del & Fidalgo Prieto E. 2017: Novedades sobre el género Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) en España, V. ["IV"] – Fl. Montiber. 66: 156–163.

Abstract
“Several species of Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) found in Spain are here commented or described as new.”

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14 September 2017

Mateo Sanz G. & Egido Mazuelas F. del 2017: Novedades sobre el género Pilosella Hill en España, IV. – Fl. Montiber. 66: 147–155.

Abstract
“Several species of Pilosella Hill (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) found in Spain are here commented or described as new.”

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14 September 2017

Mateo Sanz G., Egido Mazuelas F. del & Gómiz García F. 2017: Aportaciones al conocimiento del género Hieracium en España, XXIV. – Fl. Montiber. 65: 67–121.

Abstract
“20 new species of Hieracium L. (Compositae, Lacutuceae) are here described from Spanish mountains and also other ones are commented as new record for different provinces of Spain.”

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13 September 2017


Kirschner J.,  Štěpánek J. & Zeisek V. 2017: Taraxacum sect. Orientalia (Compositae-Crepidinae) and the West Himalayan dandelions: A new interpretation. – Phytotaxa 312: 1–17.

Abstract
“The Taraxacum flora of the West Himalaya represents one of the dandelion diversity hotspots, with at least 17 sections and about 150 known species. A number of names published from that region were referred to T. sect. Orientalia Handel-Mazzetti in the literature. All these names are revised and newly interpreted, with emphasis on plants erroneously determined as T. stenolepium. The revision is based on both older herbarium collections and a new material from expeditions of the late L. Klimeš. A new section, T. sect. Squamulosa, is recognized. An nrDNA ITS sequence analysis including the only sexual member of T. section Squamulosa and the other sexual taxa known in Taraxacum shows a separate position of T. sect. Squamulosa. The new section is compared with sections Primigenia, Coronata and Orientalia. Amended descriptions, range extensions and new interpretations are presented for another seven species previously mistakenly referred to T. sect. Orientalia. The true T. sect. Orientalia is analysed and briefly characterized; it is shown to be absent from the West Himalaya.”

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13 September 2017

Coşkunçelebı K., Gültepe M. &  Makbul S. 2017: Rediscovery of Tragopogon dshimilensis (Asteraceae), endemic to Turkey. – Phytotaxa 316: 51–58.

Abstract
Tragopogon dshimilensis K. Koch is endemic to Turkey. This neglected species had been known from the original collection and was not included in the Flora of Turkey. Recently it was recollected from its type locality (A8 Rize: Cimil) and several adjacent localities. Based on two authentic specimens deposited at P and B, as well as new collections from Eastern Anatolia, an emended description and typification of T. dshimilensis are presented here, and its conservation status is also indicated.”

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13 September 2017

Galán de Mera A., Linares-Perea E.L. & Vicente-Orellana J.A.V. 2017: Taraxacum (Asteraceae) in the Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands. — Ann. Bot. Fennici 54: 273–285.

Abstract
Taraxacum species collected in the Azores, Madeira and the Canary Islands are reported, described and illustrated. Most of them are new records, especially for the Canary Islands flora where T. canariense is the only one reported previously. Taraxacum guanchicum A. Galán & E. Linares & Vicente Orell. is described as a new species from Gran Canaria and Tenerife. A key to and a distribution map of all the species studied are provided.

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13 September 2017

Tyler T. 2017: The last step towards a full revision of Hieracium sect. Vulgata in Sweden. – Nordic J. Bot. 35: 305-321.

Abstract
“This article presents a summary of what has been achieved during the last 20 years within the project ‘The hawkweeds (Hieracium s.s.) of Sweden’ in general, and concerning Hieracium sect. Vulgata in particular, a review of our present understanding of the taxonomy and evolution of this group, as well as some new results and classifications that will be implemented in a forthcoming monographic treatment of the section in Swedish. A complete nomenclatural checklist (including synonyms and type material) of the 229 accepted species is included as an appendix and these species have been assigned to 23 informal species aggregates based on a multi-variate analysis based on morphology and what is known about their ploidy level and molecular variation. Complete lists of the morphological characters considered important in the group as well as relevant literature are also included as appendices. Seven species are described as new to science or newly elevated to the rank of species: H. anderssonii T. Tyler, H. chroocentrum (Dahlst. ex Zahn) T. Tyler, H. cramiceps T. Tyler, H. hemimaculatum T. Tyler, H. maculato-ornatum T. Tyler, H. ragnarii T. Tyler and H. vietulifolium (Johanss. & Sam.) T. Tyler.”

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4 September 2017

Gottschlich G., Domina G. & Di Gristina E. 2017: Hieracium umbrosum subsp. abietinum (Asteraceae), a further example of amphi-Adriatic disjunction. – Pl. Biosystems 151: 792–794.

Abstract
“So far considered as endemic to Greece, Hieracium umbrosum subsp. abietinum is reported as new for the Italian flora. Its presence has been noted on the Pollino National Park (S Italy). Morphological, ecological and taxonomical notes are given. This discovery increases the list of taxa showing an amphi-Adriatic distribution.”

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24 August 2017

Peng X.-L., Gao X.-F. & Zhang L.-B. 2017: Youngia jiulongensis (Crepidinae, Cichorieae, Asteraceae), a new species from Sichuan, China. – Novon 25: 298–301.

Abstract
Youngia jiulongensis Y. L. Peng, X. F. Gao & Li Bing Zhang, a new species of Asteraceae from western Sichuan, China, is described. This new species is similar to Y. mairei (H. Lév.) Babc. & Stebbins and Y. pilifera C. Shih in having blackish brown achenes, a white pappus, and fewer capitula, but distinct from the latter two in having a taller stature (28–50 cm vs. 8–30 cm), two or three well-developed, undivided caudical leaves, sparsely toothed leaf margins, acute leaf apices, long non-winged petioles, reduced pubescence on the whole plant, glabrous phyllaries, and midveins of all inner phyllaries plane.”

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23 August 2017

Gurdal B., Kirschner J., Štěpánek J. & Özhatay N. 2017: Contributions to the genus Taraxacum (Asteraceae) — five new species records for the flora of Turkey. – Pl. Biosystems http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2017.1359212

Abstract
“Five Taraxacum species are recorded for the first time for the flora of Turkey: T. caudatuliforme (sect. Taraxacum), T. erythrospermum (sect. Erythrosperma), T. fascinans (sect. Palustria), T. oblongatum (sect. Taraxacum) and T. darbandense (sect. Erythrocarpa). Descriptions, distributions in Turkey and photographs are provided. Chromosome numbers were counted, and for T. erythrospermum (2n = 16), T. oblongatum (2n = 24) and T. caudatuliforme (2n = 24), the latter is reported for the first time.”

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21 August 2017

Dieringer G. & Cabrera L. 2017: Pollination and reproductive biology in a hill prairie population of Nothocalais cuspidata (Asteraceae: Cichorieae). – Amer. Midl. Naturalist 177: 289–298.

Abstract
Nothocalais cuspidata (Pursh) Greene (Asteraceae) is a plant species of conservation concern in Missouri; it typically occurs as isolated populations in hill and sand prairies which are themselves rare and fragmented habitats. The present study was undertaken to understand its reproductive biology as a hill prairie member and the possibility of reduced reproductive output in this isolated habitat. Nothocalais cuspidata is an early spring-flowering, nonclonal, primarily self-incompatible perennial that exhibits a 4 wk flowering phenology with most florets open to cross-pollination over a 2–3 wk period. The attractive UV reflective florets were visited by six species of halictid and solitary bees. The study population did experience depressed reproductive output in 2014 compared to 2004, with open-pollinated florets producing 19.1% fewer fruits than in 2004 along with a 37% decline in population size over a 13 y period. We suggest the depressed fruit production experienced is likely due to the unpredictable spring weather associated with early flowering and sporadic pollinator visitation in an isolated habitat leading to large variations in reproductive success over time or a reduction in compatible mating types as the population declines.”

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21 August 2017

Ghafoor A., Qaiser M. & Abid R. 2017: Notes on Cichorieae (Asteraceae) from Pakistan and Kashmir: some additions and corrections. – Pakistan J. Bot. 49: 1323–1325.

Abstract
“In this study, 9 new combinations, 6 at species level and 3 at varietal level in the tribe Cichoreae have been proposed from Pakistan and Kashmir. Of these, seven taxa, previously placed in Cicerbita Wallr. and one species of Prenanthes L. are now transferred in the genera viz., Melanoseris Decne and Lactuca L. A new combination, Crepidiastrum afghanicum (Podlech) A. Ghafoor & Qaiser comb. nov., is also proposed. This taxon is a new record for Pakistan. In order to validate the new combinations and records, basionym, complete reference and a key to differentiate all the four genera viz., Lactuca, Cicerbita, Melanoseris and Prenanthes is also given.”

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21 August 2017

Mehdi R. & Abid R. 2017: A new specis of Scorzonera L. (Cichorieae - Asteraceae) from Pakistan. – Pakistan J. Bot. 49: 1335–1338.

Abstract
Scorzonera baluchistanica R. Mehdi, R. Abid & M. Qaiser is presented as a new species from Pakistan. Its detail description with illustration and a comparison with two closely related species i.e., S. koelpinioides Rech.f. and S. longipapposa Rech.f. along with key is also provided.”

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1 August 2017

Kilian N., Hand R., Hadjikyriakou G. N., Christodoulou Ch. S. & Bou Dagher-Kharrat M. 2017: Astartoseris (Cichorieae, Asteraceae), a new, systematically isolated monospecific genus accommodating Lactuca triquetra endemic to Lebanon and Cyprus. — Willdenowia 47: 115–125.

Abstract
“The taxonomy of Lactuca triquetra, a scoparious subshrub of localized distribution and uncertain generic placement, is assessed. The taxon was described in the early 19th century from Lebanon and more than 100 years later also discovered on Cyprus. Referring to new molecular phylogenetic results published elsewhere, morphological characters, in particular of the achenes, are reconsidered. It is inferred from the available evidence that the diploid species represents an orphan lineage, which diverged from its ancestors already in the Middle Miocene, when the Cichorieae subtribes Crepidinae and Lactucinae started diversifying. Both molecular and morphological data indicate that the species holds a position mediating between both subtribes. The taxonomic conclusion is drawn to place the species in a new genus of its own, Astartoseris. The taxon is illustrated and a comprehensive description, distribution map and brief ecological characterization are provided. Its threat status in both countries is assessed for the first time.”

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1 August 2017

Štěpánek J. & Kirschner J. 2017: Taraxacum sect. Palustria (Compositae, Cichorieae) in Bulgaria revised, with three new species. — Willdenowia 47: 155–165.

Abstract
“Three new species of Taraxacum sect. Palustria (Compositae, Cichorieae) are described from Bulgaria, viz. T. abruptilobum, T. basilicum and T. rumelicum. The new species, on the basis of detailed, standardized descriptions and illustrations, are compared with similar species of this section. All the seventeen species of T. sect. Palustria in Bulgaria are agamospermous. An identification key to the members of T. sect. Palustria in Bulgaria is given.”

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3 July 2017

Reyes-Chin-Wo S., Wang Z.-W, Yang X.-H, Kozik A., Arikit S., Song C., Xia L.-F, Froenicke L., Lavelle D. O., Truco M.-J., Xia R., Zhu S.-L., Xu C.-Y., Xu H.-Q., Xu X., Cox K., Korf I., Meyers B. C. & Michelmore R. W. 2017: Genome assembly with in vitro proximity ligation data and whole-genome triplication in lettuce. – Nature Communications 8: 14953.

Abstract
“Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is a major crop and a member of the large, highly successful Compositae family of flowering plants. Here we present a reference assembly for the species and family. This was generated using whole-genome shotgun Illumina reads plus in vitro proximity ligation data to create large superscaffolds; it was validated genetically and superscaffolds were oriented in genetic bins ordered along nine chromosomal pseudomolecules. We identify several genomic features that may have contributed to the success of the family, including genes encoding Cycloidea-like transcription factors, kinases, enzymes involved in rubber biosynthesis and disease resistance proteins that are expanded in the genome. We characterize 21 novel microRNAs, one of which may trigger phasiRNAs from numerous kinase transcripts. We provide evidence for a whole-genome triplication event specific but basal to the Compositae. We detect 26% of the genome in triplicated regions containing 30% of all genes that are enriched for regulatory sequences and depleted for genes involved in defence.”

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29 June 2017

Kilian N., Sennikov A., Wang Z.-H., Gemeinholzer B. & Zhang J.-W. 2017: Sub-Paratethyan origin and Middle to Late Miocene principal diversification of the Lactucinae (Cichorieae, Compositae) inferred from molecular phylogenetics, divergence-dating and biogeographic analysis. – Taxon 66: 675-703.

Abstract
“The Lactucinae or Lactuca alliance include approximately 200 species distributed across the Northern Hemisphere and Africa. They were not recognised as a separate lineage until the late 20th century and their circumscription is still not fully settled. The generic classification of no other group of the Cichorieae has faced as many controversies as the Lactuca alliance and competing taxonomies coexist. This paper provides the first molecular phylogeny of the subtribe on a global scale as a major step towards its revised systematics. The sampling includes almost 60% of the species-level diversity and spans all species groups. Two datasets were created, one including the nrDNA ITS region, the other five concatenated non-coding plastid DNA loci. Maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference were used to produce a robust phylogenetic backbone. The diversification and expansion of the Lactucinae in a geohistorical context was reconstructed by estimating the age of their lineages using relaxed molecular clock dating and by inferring the ancestral areas using Bayesian binary analysis. The redelimited monophyletic Lactucinae are composed of seven lineages that also include Prenanthes, which is confirmed to have a single species, P. purpurea. The positions of two further lineages shift between Lactucinae and Crepidinae in the nuclear and plastid DNA phylogenies. Incongruence between the phylogenies suggests events of ancient reticulation or incomplete lineage sorting in the formation of these latter two lineages and in two of the seven other Lactucinae lineages. The phyloge- netic results show a dilemma for Lactucinae systematics: most generic concepts proposed to date are highly artificial but the resolved phylogenetic lineages do not constitute practicable taxonomic entities with our current knowledge. Diversification of the subtribe is inferred to have taken place since the Middle Miocene. Biogeographic analysis proposes that the clade originated in the mountains of the landmass mediating between the European and Asian continents and delimited in the south by the Tethys Sea and in the north by the Paratethys Sea. Several independent migrations have occurred into various parts of Asia, Europe, tropical Africa and North America.”

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26 June 2017

Gemeinholzer B., Granica S., Moura M., Teufel L. Zidorn C. 2017: Leontodon ×grassiorum (Asteraceae, Cichorieae), a newly discovered hybrid between an Azorean and a mainland European taxon: Morphology, molecular characteristics, and phytochemistry. – Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 72: 32–39.

Abstract
“In Seefeld, Austria, Leontodon ×grassiorum Zidorn, a new Leontodon s.str. (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) hybrid was discovered. The new nothospecies is a hybrid between an Azorean endemic Leontodon species, commercially available as an ornamental plant, the recently described Leontodon hochstetteri M.Moura et L.Silva, and the most common Leontodon s.str. species in Austria, L. hispidus L. The origin of the new hybrid is discussed as well as the proper naming of its Azorean parent established. The new hybrid was morphologically and phytochemically characterised. Moreover, DNA-samples were analysed and discussed in the context of hybridization. The observed patterns are discussed with special emphasis on the importance of chemical markers in the discovery and characterisation of hybrids.”

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30 May 2017

Doostmohammadi M. & Kilian N. 2017: Lactuca pumila (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) revisited—additional evidence for a phytogeographical link between SE Zagros and Hindu Kush. – Phytotaxa 307: 133–140.

Abstract
Lactuca pumila, so far known only from a single gathering from E Afghanistan, is shown to occur also in the SE Zagros range, Kerman province, southeastern Iran. The new locality extends the range of the species about 1000 km south-westward and this disjunction further highlights the floristic link between the SE Zagros and the Hindu Kush as well as Central Asian mountains. Fruiting plants, so far not known of the species, confirm it as a member of the L. rosularis group, which includes four closely related species of rosette herbs confined to rock crevices in the montane to alpine zone of the Iranian–Afghan highlands. The relationships of the two disjunctly distributed populations and of the species is corroborated by a molecular phylogenetic analysis. A key to the species of the L. rosularis group, a full description, photographs of life plants, SEM images of achenes and a distribution map of L. pumila are provided, and the generic classification is discussed.”

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30 May 2017

Tabassum S. & Bonser S. P. 2017: Allometry in the terminal velocity – dispersal architecture relationship explains variation in dispersal and offspring provisioning strategies in wind dispersed Asteraceae species. – Austral. J. Bot. 65: 149–156.

Abstract
“Competition can simultaneously favour high dispersal ability (to transport offspring to more favourable habitats) and large seed size (to maximise offspring provisioning). In wind dispersed Asteraceae species, seeds are enclosed within an achene with hair-like projections from the achene form a pappus that acts as a parachute to aid in dispersal. There is potentially an allometric relationship between terminal velocity and pappus to achene volume ratio (dispersal architecture), with changes in dispersal architecture resulting in disproportionately high or low impacts on terminal velocity. We tested the hypothesis that competition induces shifts in dispersal architecture depending on the allometric relationship between terminal velocity and dispersal architecture. We estimated dispersal architecture of diaspores from seven wind dispersed Asteraceae species from environments with low and high neighbour densities. We also estimated diaspore terminal velocity for a subset of these species by recording drop time in a 2 m tube. Diaspores of one species had dispersal architecture promoting higher dispersal under high neighbour density, diaspores of two species had dispersal architecture promoting lower dispersal under high neighbour density, and dispersal architecture was not significantly different between high and low density environments for four of the species. Species showed a common allometric relationship between terminal velocity and dispersal architecture. The allometric relationship predicts dispersal architecture changes across environments differing in neighbour density. Species with dispersal architecture promoting higher dispersal under high neighbour density do so where small increases in dispersal architecture yield large decreases in terminal velocity. Our research suggests that the nature of allometric relationships between traits can help to explain allocation strategies across environments.” [Cichorieae species: Hypochaeris radicata, Lactuca serriola, Sonchus oleraceus]

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11 May 2017

Meierott L., Kirchmeier P. & Štěpánek J. 2017: Taraxacum ciliare (sect. Palustria), neu für Baden-Württemberg und Deutschland. – Ber. Bot. Arbeitsgem. Südwestdeutschl. 8: 3–5.

Abstract
“Marsh dandelions (Taraxacum sect. Palustria) are threatened in all German federal states and are of considerable interest from a conservation point of view. In May 2009, Taraxacum ciliare Soest, a new species for Baden-Württemberg and Germany, was discovered near Wallhausen (Lake Constance). In this article, characteristic features and its known distribution are described.”

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9 May 2017

Kirschner J. & Štěpánek J. 2017: A revision of Taraxacum sect. Atrata, a dandelion group centred in the Middle Asia, and the problem of Taraxacum brevirostre. – Phytotaxa 305: 225–261.

Abstract
“The two most primitive Taraxacum sections (Asteraceae, Cichorieae-Crepidinae) in high mountains of Middle Asia and adjacent regions are characterized by almost smooth achenes, frequent absence of discernible cone and a thick beak. One of them, a recently recognized T. sect. Atrata was studied, characterized in detail and its members reviewed. The section is centred in Kyrgyzstan and SE. Kazakhstan and extends to NW. Mongolia in the north, to Pakistan and Ladakh in the southeast and W. China in the east. Eighteen species were found to belong to T. sect. Atrata, nine of them are described as new. All taxa were revised nomenclaturally and the names newly interpreted. Taraxacum sect. Atrata is compared with T. subsect. Epyramidata Orazova (= sect. Oligantha auct.), the other primitive group, also with the highest species diversity in Middle Asia. A special analysis was carried out of T. brevirostre; its syntypes studied and the lectotype described in detail and interpreted as a taxon marginal to T. subsect. Epyramidata.”

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9 May 2017

Maroofi H. & Rategar A. 2017: Tragopogon erostris Boiss. & Hausskn. (Asteraceae: Cichorieae, Scorzonerinae), the correct name for T. maroofii Mahmoodi & Safavi and T. kurdicus Safavi & Maroofi. – Phytotaxa 302: 294–297.

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26 April 2017

Wu F.-Y. & Yahara T. 2017: Recurved Taraxacum phyllaries function as a floral defense: experimental evidence and its implication for Taraxacum evolutionary history. – Ecol. Res. 32: 313–329.

Abstract
“Florivores directly decrease the reproductive success of plants by consuming pollen and seeds; thus, plants often have defense mechanisms against florivory. Here, we show that the recurved phyllaries of an agamospermous hybrid dandelion, Taraxacum japonicum x officinale, function as a physical barrier to slug florivory. We allowed Lehmannia valentiana, a European slug naturalized in Japan, to feed on eight pairs of the hybrid dandelion and T. japonicum, a Japanese species with erect phyllaries. Consequently, the slugs only damaged T. platycarpum flowers. The slugs either moved back from recurved phyllaries or spent more than twice as long on recurved than on erect phyllaries. When we removed the recurved phyllaries, the slugs stayed on hybrid and T. japonicum phyllaries for equal lengths of time. In addition to recurved outer phyllaries, the hybrid dandelion has erect inner phyllaries that are longer than those of T. japonicum, which effectively conceal the florets at night protecting them from slug florivory. Using the taxonomic literature, we have confirmed that recurved phyllaries evolved in many species in several parts of Europe, but are rare in East Asia. These findings suggest that European dandelions acquired recurved phyllaries as a defense mechanism under antagonistic coevolution with florivorous slugs, but this coevolution did not occur in East Asia.”

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21 April 2017

Gottschlich G., Scafidi F. & Di Gristina E. 2017: Hieracium pollinense (Asteraceae), an endemic species to the Pollino National Park (Southern Italy) rediscovered. – Acta Bot. Croat. 76: 95–97.

Abstract
“The presence of Hieracium pollinense Zahn in Italy is confirmed here after 132 years since its first description based on a single collection made in 1877 in the Mt. Pollino. It is a calcicolous species, so far represented by one population, belongs to the H. sect. Villosa. In line with the IUCN criteria its conservation status assessment is “endangered”.”

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30 March 2017

Richards A. J. & Ferguson-Smyth C. C. 2017: Notes on the Taraxacum (Asteraceae) flora of the Orkney Islands, British Isles. – New J. Bot. 6: 71–78.

Abstract
“We report the results of a visit to Orkney with the purpose of clarifying our knowledge of endemic and localised Taraxacum (Asteraceae) species on the islands. Two new species are described, the Orkney endemic Taraxacum claudiae A.J. Richards and Taraxacum rufofructum A.J. Richards, the latter being based on Taraxacum rubellum auct. angl. non M.P. Christiansen. Taraxacum calophyllum Dahlst., previously overlooked, is recognised as a distinctive endemic relative of Taraxacum duplidentifrons Dahlst. More localities are reported for Taraxacum orcadense Dahlst., endemic to Orkney, and Taraxacum tanylepis Dahlst., also known from the Outer Hebrides. The number of Taraxacum species reported from Orkney now stands at 55, three of which are endemic to those islands.”

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20 March 2017

M. Salih R. H., Majeský Ľ., Schwarzacher T., Gornall R. & Heslop-Harrison P. 2017: Complete chloroplast genomes from apomictic Taraxacum (Asteraceae): Identity and variation between three microspecies. – PLoS ONE 12(2):e0168008

Abstract
“Chloroplast DNA sequences show substantial variation between higher plant species, and less variation within species, so are typically excellent markers to investigate evolutionary, population and genetic relationships and phylogenies. We sequenced the plastomes of Taraxacum obtusifrons Markl. (O978); T. stridulum Trávniček ined. (S3); and T. amplum Markl. (A978), three apomictic triploid (2n = 3x = 24) dandelions from the T. officinale agg. We aimed to characterize the variation in plastomes, define relationships and correlations with the apomictic microspecies status, and refine placement of the microspecies in the evolutionary or phylogenetic context of the Asteraceae. The chloroplast genomes of accessions O978 and S3 were identical and 151,322 bp long (where the nuclear genes are known to show variation), while A978 was 151,349 bp long. All three genomes contained 135 unique genes, with an additional copy of the trnF-GGA gene in the LSC region and 20 duplicated genes in the IR region, along with short repeats, the typical major Inverted Repeats (IR1 and IR2, 24,431bp long), and Large and Small Single Copy regions (LSC 83,889bp and SSC 18,571bp in O978). Between the two Taraxacum plastomes types, we identified 28 SNPs. The distribution of polymorphisms suggests some parts of the Taraxacum plastome are evolving at a slower rate. There was a hemi-nested inversion in the LSC region that is common to Asteraceae, and an SSC inversion from ndhF to rps15 found only in some Asteraceae lineages. A comparative repeat analysis showed variation between Taraxacum and the phylogenetically close genus Lactuca, with many more direct repeats of 40bp or more in Lactuca (1% larger plastome than Taraxacum). When individual genes and non-coding regions were for Asteraceae phylogeny reconstruction, not all showed the same evolutionary scenario suggesting care is needed for interpretation of relationships if a limited number of markers are used. Studying genotypic diversity in plastomes is important to characterize the nature of evolutionary processes in nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes with the different selection pressures, population structures and breeding systems.”

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17 March 2017

Dítě D., Dítětová Z. & Eliáš P. 2017: Hadomor malotúborový (Scorzonera parviflora) - takmer vymiznutý druh slovenskej flóry. Scorzonera parviflora – nearly disappeared species of the Slovak flora. – Bull. Slov. Bot. Spoločnost. 39: 61–72.

Abstract
“Our contribution provides information on historical and recent occurrence of Scorzonera parviflora in Slovakia. The species was documented or published from 23 localities; most of them were found in the Podunajská nižina lowland, less frequently in the Záhorská nižina lowland. Isolated sites are situated in the Turčianska kotlina and Hornádska kotlina basins. Concerning coenological relations, only a few phytosociological releves with Scorzonera parviflora are available, occurring in the vegetation of the association Scorzonero parviflorae-Juncetum gerardii. Nowadays the species grows only in two neighbouring sites in the Hornádska kotlina basin (Spiš region, north Slovakia), where it is restricted to halophytic vegetation developed around mineral springs emerging from the deep ground. In the site Sivá brada it grows within a relic association Glauco-Trichophoretum pumili (alliance Caricion davallianae), which was reported exclusively from the basins of the Western Carpathians.”

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10 March 2017

Vitek E. & Noroozi J. 2017: Gundelia tehranica (Compositae), a new species from Iran. – Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 119: 243–248.

Abstract
Gundelia tehranica is described from Iran, the characters are discussed.”

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10 March 2017

Vitek E. & Noroozi J. 2017: Gundelia rosea (Compositae), a new record from Iran. – Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 119: 249–256.

Abstract
Gundelia rosea is stated as well defined species different from G. tournefortii. It is first time reported from Iran, the characters are discussed.”

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10 March 2017

Vitek E., Yüce E. & Çakıcıoğlu U. 2017: Gundelia glabra Miller (Compositae) – an ignored taxon. – Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 119: 235–242.

Abstract
“The status of Gundelia glabra Miller is clarified, a neotype is chosen, the characters and the distribution of the species are discussed.”

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10 March 2017

Vitek E., Leschner H. & Armağan M. 2017: Gundelia tournefortii L. (Compositae) – an approach. – Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 119: 227–233.

Abstract
“A drawing has been determined as lectotype for Gundelia tournefortii, the corresponding historic specimen has been chosen as epitype. Some uncertainties remain: e.g. the colour of the flowers. The analyses of photos from the internet and the comparison with recently collected material allows to describe the characters of Gundelia tournefortii.”

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8 March 2017

Gruenstaeudl M., Carstens B. C., Santos-Guerra A. & Jansen R. K. 2017: Statistical hybrid detection and the inference of ancestral distribution areas in Tolpis (Asteraceae). – Biol. J. Linn. Soc. 2017  https://doi.org/10.1093/biolinnean/blw014

Abstract
“Many historical biogeographic studies do not account for the effect of hybrid taxa on phylogenetic tree inference, despite recent advances in the statistical identification of such taxa. This investigation aims to illustrate the impact that hybrid taxa can have on ancestral area reconstructions of the plant genus Tolpis, which displays an evolutionary history possibly indicative of a back-colonization of the continental Mediterranean. We evaluate and apply two statistical hybrid detection methods, JML and STEM-hy, which assist in identifying reticulate patterns of allele coalescence. We also evaluate and apply a software tool, P2C2M, to test the fit of genetic loci to the multispecies coalescent model (MSCM). The application of these tools to a previously published data set of three nuclear DNA markers indicates the presence of several potential hybrid taxa in Tolpis. One nuclear marker is found to display a reduced level of reticulate history, a good fit to the MSCM and minimal signal of gene flow across archipelagoes. Ancestral distribution areas are reconstructed on gene and species trees of Tolpis before and after the exclusion of putative hybrid taxa using stochastic character mapping, parameterized likelihood reconstructions, and reconstructions under continuous-time Markov chain models. The results of these reconstructions indicate that taxa of hybrid origin may have a considerable impact on ancestral area reconstruction and that it is important to account for such taxa prior to biogeographic analysis. We conclude that Tolpis has likely had a time-consistent distribution in island habitats and originated on the Canary Islands.”

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6 February 2017

Müller C.M., Schulz B., Lauterbach D., Ristow M., Wissemann V. & Gemeinholzer B. 2017: Geropogon hybridus (L.) Sch.Bip. (Asteraceae) exhibits micro-geographic genetic divergence at ecological range limits along a steep precipitation gradient. – Pl. Syst. Evol. 303: 91–104.

Abstract
“We analyzed the population genetic pattern of 12 fragmented Geropogon hybridus ecological range edge populations in Israel along a steep precipitation gradient. In the investigation area (45 × 20 km2), the annual mean precipitation changes rapidly from 450 mm in the north (Mediterranean-influenced climate zone) to 300 mm in the south (semiarid climate zone) without significant temperature changes. Our analysis (91 individuals, 12 populations, 123 polymorphic loci) revealed strongly structured populations (AMOVA ΦST = 0.35; P < 0.001); however, differentiation did not change gradually toward range edge. IBD was significant (Mantel test r = 0.81; P = 0.001) and derived from sharply divided groups between the northernmost populations and the others further south, due to dispersal or environmental limitations. This was corroborated by the PCA and STRUCTURE analyses. IBD and IBE were significant despite the micro-geographic scale of the study area, which indicates that reduced precipitation toward range edge leads to population genetic divergence. However, this pattern diminished when the hypothesized gene flow barrier was taken into account. Applying the spatial analysis method revealed 11 outlier loci that were correlated to annual precipitation and, moreover, were indicative for putative precipitation-related adaptation (BAYESCAN, MCHEZA). The results suggest that even on micro-geographic scales, environmental factors play prominent roles in population divergence, genetic drift, and directional selection. The pattern is typical for strong environmental gradients, e.g., at species range edges and ecological limits, and if gene flow barriers and mosaic-like structures of fragmented habitats hamper dispersal.”

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28 January 2017

Herwijnen Z. O. van & Manning J. C. 2017: A review of the history and taxonomy of the enigmatic southern African endemic wild lettuce Lactuca dregeana DC. (Asteraceae: Lactuceae: Lactucinae). – S. Afr. J. Bot. 107: 352–358.

Abstract
“We review the herbarium material and taxonomic literature pertaining to Lactuca dregeana DC., a poorly understood southern African endemic species that is closely allied to and sometimes treated as conspecific with the European L. serriola L. Published molecular and karyological analyses on the species have all used cultivated accessions of undetermined origin. On the basis of morphology, historical occurrence, and ecology we conclude that L. dregeana represents a distinct genotype and should be maintained as a separate species unless analysis of appropriately documented material indicates otherwise. We lectotypify the name to fix its application and provide a complete description of the species, with illustrations, and a distribution map, as well as an identification key to the native and naturalised Lactuca species in South Africa. The paucity of recent collections of L. dregeana in herbaria suggests that the range of the species has been significantly reduced over the past century. Efforts should be made to determine its current distribution in the wild, especially given its close relationship to cultivated lettuce.”

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