Literature 2019

Literature Archive: 2015 | 2016 | 2017 | 2018 | 2019

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17 May 2019

Gottschlich G. 2019: Taxonomische und nomenklatorische Änderungen in der Gattung Hieracium für die Neuauflage der "Exkursionflora für Österreich und die gesamten Ostalpen". – Neilreichia 10: 53–68

Abstract:
“Results of preliminary studies on taxonomy and nomenclature of Hieracium (Asteraceae) relating to the next edition of the "Excursion Flora for Austria and all the Eastern Alps" are presented: Hieracium clusii is recognized at specific rank; H. tephrosoma s. lat. is divided into H. tephrosoma s. str. and H. kuekenthalianum; H. duronense is synonymized with H. antholzense; H. pseudinuloides is validated; four new subspecific combinations are made under H. atratum, H. balbisianum, H. cavillieri and H. inuloides; H. variifurcum is combined to Pilosella variifurca; the date of publication of H. cochleare is corrected; and 9 names are lectotypified.”

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17 May 2019

Gottschlich G. 2019: Bisher nicht bekannte oder berücksichtigte Nachweise von Hieracium- und Pilosella taxa in Austria ". – Neilreichia 10: 85–96.

Abstract:
“In preparation of the 4th edition of the "Flora for Austria and all the Eastern Alps", 41 records of Pilosella and Hieracium taxa are published that were not yet known in a federal state of Austria or not considered in the last edition of the excursion flora: Pilosella amaurocephala is new for Austria, 28 records are new for a federal state and 12 records are verifications of rare or old records.”

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9 May 2019

Cho M.-S., Yang J. Y., Yang T.-J. & Kim S.-C. 2019: Evolutionary comparison of the chloroplast genome in the woody Sonchus alliance (Asteraceae) on the Canary Islands. – Genes 10(3): 217.

Abstract:
“The woody Sonchus alliance consists primarily of woody species of the genus Sonchus (subgenus Dendrosonchus; family Asteraceae). Most members of the alliance are endemic to the oceanic archipelagos in the phytogeographic region of Macaronesia. They display extensive morphological, ecological, and anatomical diversity, likely caused by the diverse habitats on islands and rapid adaptive radiation. As a premier example of adaptive radiation and insular woodiness of species endemic to oceanic islands, the alliance has been the subject of intensive evolutionary studies. While phylogenetic studies suggested that it is monophyletic and its major lineages radiated rapidly early in the evolutionary history of this group, genetic mechanisms of speciation and genomic evolution within the alliance remain to be investigated. We first attempted to address chloroplast (cp) genome evolution by conducting comparative genomic analysis of three representative endemic species (Sonchus acaulis, Sonchus canariensis, and Sonchus webbii) from the Canary Islands. Despite extensive morphological, anatomical, and ecological differences among them, their cp genomes were highly conserved in gene order and content, ranging from 152,071 to 152,194 bp in total length. The number of repeat variations and six highly variable regions were identified as valuable molecular markers. Phylogenetic analysis of 32 species in the family Asteraceae revealed the phylogenetic position of the woody Sonchus alliance within the tribe Cichorieae and the sister relationship between the weedy Sonchus oleraceus and the alliance.”

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30 April 2019

Crawford D.J., Moura M., Borges Silva L., Mort M. M. Kerbs B. Schaefer H. & Kelly J. K. 2019: The transition to selfing in Azorean Tolpis (Asteraceae). – Pl. Syst. Evol. 305: 305–317.

Abstract:
Asteraceae have the most endemic species of any flowering plant family in oceanic archipelagos, and these insular endemics display a higher frequency of self-compatibility (SC) compared to mainland composites. However, little attention has focused on the evolution of selfing in situ in islands. The genus Tolpis (Asteraceae) in the Macaronesian archipelagos consists predominantly of self-incompatible (SI) or pseudo-self-compatible plants, with one documented occurrence of the origin of self-compatibility (SC) in the Canary Islands. This study reports SC in two small populations of T. succulenta on Graciosa Island in the Azores. Progeny from the two populations exhibit high self-seed set. Segregation in F2 hybrids between SC and SI T. succulenta indicates that one major factor is associated with breeding system, with SC recessive to SI. Molecular phylogenetic analyses show that SC T. succulenta is sister to SI T. succulenta in the Azores, suggesting that SC originated from SI T. succulenta in the Azores. Plants on Graciosa are morphologically distinct from SI populations of T. succulenta on other islands in the Azorean archipelago, with smaller capitula and lower pollen-ovule ratios, both indicative of the selfing syndrome. The factors that may have favored selfing in these populations are discussed, as are the conservation implications of SC. Finally, the issue of whether the two SC populations are cryptic species worthy of taxonomic recognition is discussed.”

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11 March 2019

Urtubey E. & al. 2019: Systematics of Hypochaeris section Phanoderis (Asteraceae, Cichorieae). – Syst. Bot. Monogr. 106: 1–204.

Abstract:
“This revision treat the 41 South American species of Hypochaeris, plus the northwest African H. angustifolia, all now placed in a single monophyletic section Phanoderis. The New World species constitute subsection Phanoderis, and the single African species comprises subsection Africana. The species in South America represent a challenge in classification; molecular clock investigations suggest that the entire complex diverged approximately within the past 1 million years. From an ancestor in northwestern Africa, similar to the present-day H. angustifolia (the phylogenetic sister-species), have come 41 species in a relatively short geological time. These species are similar genetically; routine DNA sequencing with normal markers provides little differentiation. With Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, distinct groups can be resolved, some with very strong statistical support other less so. Species arer morphologically reasonably well defined, but the differences are subtle, requiring field experience for accurate identification of taxa. ... Several new taxa and combinations are presented ...”

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11 March 2019

Uhlemann I., Eggert M., Schiemann J. & Thiele K. 2019: Zum Wiederanbau von Taraxacum koksaghyz (Asteraceae) als Kautschuklieferant in Deutschland. – Kochia 12: 19–35.

Abstract:
“Cultivation of diploid, sexual Taraxacum koksaghyz from Central Asia as rubber producer is re-established in Germany. The invasive capability of this species with regard to the native vegetation is extremely low, as shown in competition experiments in grassland and agricultural fields which led to a complete collapse of T. koksaghyz populations within one year. Hybridization events with native Taraxacum populations were not observed. The early stage of domestication of T. koksaghyz is characterized by an extraordinary morphological variability which is documented.”

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21 February 2019

Mráz P.,  Zdvořák P., Hartmann M., Štefánek M. & Chrtek J. 2019: Can obligate apomixis and more stable reproductive assurance explain the distributional successes of asexual triploids in Hieracium alpinum (Asteraceae)? – Pl. Biol. 21: 227–236.

Abstract:
“Although reproductive assurance has been suggested to be one of the most important factors shaping the differential distributional patterns between sexuals and asexuals (geographic parthenogenesis), it has only rarely been studied in natural populations of vascular plants with autonomous apomixis. Moreover, there are almost no data concerning the putative relationship between the level of apomictic versus sexual plant reproduction on one hand, and reproductive assurance on the other.

We assessed the level of sexual versus apomictic reproduction in diploid and triploid plants of Hieracium alpinum across its distributional range using flow cytometric analyses of seeds, and compared the level of potential and realized seed set, i.e. reproductive assurance, between the two cytotypes under field and greenhouse conditions.

Flow cytometric screening of embryos and endosperms of more than 4,100 seeds showed that diploids produced solely diploid progeny sexually, while triploids produced triploid progeny by obligate apomixis. Potential fruit set was much the same in diploids and triploids from the field and the greenhouse experiment. While in the pollination‐limited environment in the greenhouse apomictic triploids had considerably higher realized fruit set than sexual diploids, there was no significant difference between cytotypes under natural conditions. In addition, sexuals varied to a significantly larger extent in realized fruit set than asexuals under both natural and greenhouse conditions.

Our results indicate that triploid plants reproduce by obligate apomixis, assuring more stable and predictable fruit reproduction when compared to sexual diploids. This advantage could provide apomictic triploids with a superior colonisation ability, mirrored in a strong geographic parthenogenesis pattern observed in this species.”

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14 January 2019

Kim S.-H., Mejías J. A. & Kim S.-C. 2019: Next generation sequencing reveals the complete plastome sequence of newly discovered cliff-dwelling Sonchus boulosii (Asteraceae: Cichorieae) in Morocco. – Mitochondrial DNA Part B 4(1): 164-165.

Abstract:
The complete chloroplast genome sequences of newly discovered cliff-dwelling species of Sonchus, S. boulosii, were reported in this study. The S. boulosii plastome was 152,016 bp long, with the large single copy (LSC) region of 83,988 bp, the small single copy (SSC) region of 18,566 bp, and two inverted repeat (IR) regions of 24,731 bp. The plastome contained 130 genes, including 88 protein-coding, six ribosomal RNA, and 36 transfer RNA genes. The overall GC content was 31.2%. Phylogenetic analysis of 12 representative plastomes within the order Cichorieae suggests that S. boulosii is closely related to S. oleraceus.

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