Literature 2021

Literature Archive:  2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022

Not all members of the International Cichorieae Network do have access to botanical libraries. As a service we would like to point to recent publications regarding Cichorieae. However, some articles will escape our attention. Therefore, your hints to recent publications are always welcome. 

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Collected by Norbert Kilian (Berlin) & Robert Parsons (Melbourne)

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21 January 2022

Jiménez J. F., Ramírez-Rodríguez R., Melendo-Luque M., Suárez-Santiago V. N. & Sánchez-Gómez P. 2021: Genetic diversity and structure of the narrow endemic species Crepis granatensis: implications for conservation. – Pl. Biosystems https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2021.2013336.

Abstract
In this study, we studied the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of the endangered endemic Crepis granatensis, using amplified fragments length polymorphism (AFLP) and plastid DNA (cpDNA). No genetic divergences were obtained using cpDNA markers. Three primers combinations selected from a total of 12 produced a total of 421 fragments, of which 418 (99.3%) were polymorphic. The total genetic diversity of C. granatensis was moderate (Ht = 0.260). Neís gene diversity ranged from 0.202 to 0.258. The fixation index (Fst) was 0.137, suggesting low to moderate genetic differentiation among populations. The AMOVA analysis revealed that genetic diversity was mainly concentrated among individuals within populations (74%), while 8% was found among populations and 18% among regions. The Bayesian analysis and PCoA identified two genetic clusters: one corresponded to La Sagra population and the other corresponded to the Mágina populations. Based on our genetic results, it is necessary to preserve the evolutionary potential of C. granatensis by protecting all extant populations. Both in situ and ex-situ conservation measures should be considered. Reinforcement, reintroduction, and translocation programmes could be performed if necessary. Finally, such conservation strategies should be considered both in the current recovery plan and management actions for the species."

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7 January 2022

Woellner R., Bräuchler C., Kollmann J. & Wagner T. C. 2021: Biological flora of Central Europe: Chondrilla chondrilloides (Ard.) H. Karst. – Perspectives Pl Ecol. Evol. Syst. 54, 125657: 1-20.

Abstract
Chondrilla chondrilloides (Asteraceae) is a rare and endangered early-successional plant species endemic to the Eastern European Alps. Its distribution is restricted to near-natural braided rivers and to alluvial fans. The species was common along Alpine gravel rivers, but has declined markedly due to river regulation and degradation in the 19th and 20th century, while some recent restoration projects benefit the plant. Its population declines were caused by habitat fragmentation and destruction as a consequence of extensive hydro-engineering. This paper summarises the published material on taxonomy, morphology, habitat requirements and distribution of the species. The review is complemented by own research data and a phylogenetic assessment of extant and extinct populations within the infrageneric context. A summary on location, size and structure of the remaining populations in the north-eastern and south-eastern Alps is combined with data on seed germination and the habitat niche of the species, with a particular focus on differences between northern and southern populations. Chondrilla chondrilloides forms meta-populations on consolidated gravel bars and older terraces, with extinction and recolonisation due to floodplain dynamics; small populations quickly recover from few founder individuals. Populations in the southern parts of the species’ range are larger with bigger plants and more reproduction, while germination is very high in all populations. Thus, C. chondrilloides has characteristics that allow it to respond rapidly to degradation and restoration of its habitats along gravel rivers in the Eastern Alps."

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16 December 2021

Xu L.-S. & Chen Y.-S. 2021: Phylogeny, origin, and dispersal of Dubyaea (Asteraceae) based on Hyb-Seq data. – Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 164, 107289: 1-7.

Abstract
Dubyaea DC. is a small genus of Asteraceae that is almost exclusively endemic to the Pan-Himalayan region. Within Dubyaea, phylogenetic relationships remain poorly understood. Here, our well-supported phylogeny based on Hyb-Seq data shows that all samples of Dubyaea in this study belong to a monophyletic group, which is sister to the clade of Soroseris, Syncalathium, and Nabalus. Dubyaea (s. str.) can be divided into three major clades, which are supported by flower color as well as morphological features of the stems and basal leaves. Based on our phylogenetic results, we performed biogeographic analyses and inferred that Dubyaea arose in the late Miocene in Hengduan Mountains and its eastern areas. Following its evolutionary origin, Dubyaea underwent diversification in situ as well as spread to the Himalayas."

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16 December 2021

Kirschner J., Štěpánek J., Kamińska M., Trávníček P., Trejgell A. & Vončina G. 2021: The reassessment of Taraxacum pieninicum reveals polyploidy, agamospermy and a substantial range extension. – Preslia 93: 341–361.

Abstract
A remarkable West Carpathian endemic member of Taraxacum sect. Erythrocarpa (Compositae, Crepidinae), Taraxacum pieninicum Pawłowski, is reassessed from the viewpoint of its reproduction, ploidy level and taxonomy. Numerous previous experimental papers present T. pieninicum as a sexual diploid. On the basis of new, taxonomically verified material from the Pieniny Mts, using flow cytometry, FCSS and chromosome counting, T. pieninicum is shown to be a tetraploid (2n = 4x = 32) diplosporous agamospermous taxon. It proved to be conspecific with populations from western Slovakia, originally described as T. erythrocarpum Kirschner et Štěpánek. Thus, Taraxacum pieninicum is not endemic to the Pieniny Mts, but occupies a wider geographical range in the northernmost and westernmost Carpathians. It is a morphologically and taxonomically distinct member of the section Erythrocarpa, a section almost confined to the Mediterranean area in Europe. It is hypothesized that the progenitors of T. pieninicum should be sought in the northern and central Balkans and its migration or diversification probably followed the South and East Carpathian route."

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26 November 2021

Ferrer-Gallego P.P. 2021: Typification of fourteen Linnaean names in the genus Hieracium (Compositae). – Taxon 70: 880-896.

Abstract
The typification of fourteen Linnaean names in Hieracium, viz. Haurantiacum, H. auricula, Hchondrilloides, Hcymosum, Hdubium, H. glutinosum, Hhedypnoides, Hincanum, Hmurorum var. pilosissimum, Hmurorum var. sylvaticum, Hporrifolium, H. pumilum, Hsabaudum and Htomentosum, is discussed. The designation of the nomenclatural types is based on the consultation of Linnaeus's original material and the literature cited in the respective protologue. The names are lectotypified using specimens preserved at UPS-BURSER and LINN, and two illustrations of Boccone and Dillenius. Linnaeus's original material of H. pumilum and H. pyrenaicum var. helveticum could not be found. A specimen in S-LINN that best conforms with the diagnosis for H. pumilum is selected as the neotype for that name. The application of the name H. pyrenaicum var. helveticum appears uncertain, and therefore it is treated as nomen ambiguum. Finally, epitypes are designated for H. porrifolium and H. tomentosum due to ambiguity in the interpretation of the lectotypes."

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19 November 2021

Štěpánek J. & Kirschner J. 2021: Taraxacum sect. Austropaludosa, a new section allied to T. sect. Palustria (Compositae, Crepidinae). – Feddes Repert. 132: 279–286.

Abstract
The broadly understood Taraxacum sect. Palustria was examined and found heterogeneous on the basis of a new ample material from the Balkan Peninsula. A group of eighteen species was recognized, characterized by achenes usually densely spinulose and abruptly to subabruptly narrowing in the cone, appressed or loosely appressed outer phyllaries numerous, often imbricate or subimbricate, with an evenly deep to dark olivaceous-green abaxial surface and a conspicuous, very narrow whitish border, polliniferous anthers and triploidy. The relatively clear-cut group is described as a new section, Taraxacum sect. Austropaludosa. Members of the new section are distributed in central and eastern Balkan Peninsula, Turkey, southernmost Ukraine, one species reaches Iran and Iraq; only a single species occupies a Central European geographical range. Two new species are described, T. (Austropaludosa) favorabile from Bulgaria and North Macedonia, characterized by a broadly winged petiole, outer phyllaries appressed to loosely appressed ovate-lanceolate, dark olivaceous-green, with a distinct but very narrow whitish border, and T. (Palustria) siticulosum from Bulgaria, a species allied to T. scaturiginosum and T. lilianae, distinct in having very numerous outer phyllaries, often distally erect-arcuate, almost entire leaf lobes, and short achenes with a ± cylindrical cone only 0.5–0.8 mm long."

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11 November 2021

Jang Y.-J & Choi B.-H. 2021: Taxonomic identity of Crepidiastrum ×nakaii recorded on Hongdo Island. – Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 51: 198-204.

Abstract
The plant known as “Hong-do-go-deul-ppae-gi” on Hongdo Island, belonging to the genus Crepidiastrum, has been recorded as C. ×nakaii, a hybrid between C. denticulatum and C. platyphyllum. During a survey of the flora of Hongdo Island, we reexamined the taxonomic identity of “Hong-do-go-deul-ppae-gi”. The morphological traits, geographical distribution, and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences of “Hong-do-go-deul-ppae-gi” were compared to related species within the genus. A morphological examination revealed that the plant was similar to C. lanceolatum in that it has subshrub stems with caudex stout, 8 inner involucrals bracts, and 10 to 12 florets. In contrast, similarities to C. denticulatum were observed in terms of radical leaves deciduous in the flowering period, cauline leaves membranous with acute serrations, and beaked achenes. Furthermore, C. denticulatum and C. lanceolatum grew on Hongdo Island and nearby areas, but C. platyphyllum was not distributed in these areas. The results of morphological and distributional investigations revealed that the Hongdo Island plant should be regarded as C. ×muratagenii, a hybrid between C. denticulatum and C. lanceolatum, not C. ×nakaii, which is a hybrid between C. denticulatum and C. platyphyllum. However, the resolution of the ITS sequences was insufficient such that we could not separate the examined species."

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11 November 2021

French K. 2021: Invasion by hawkweeds. – Biol. Invasions 23: 3641–3652.

Abstract
Hawkweeds, from the Pilosella and Hieracium genera, are significant invaders of cool climate grasslands and herbfields, reducing productivity and impacting on ecosystem processes and species richness. With significant research on the ecology and biology of hawkweeds, this review identifies a number of key characteristics that influence invasion into native habitats. The ability of hawkweeds from the Pilosella genus to spread vegetatively, through rapidly-growing stolons that produce daughter rosettes, and to produce apomictic seeds makes species in this group significant invaders, particularly P. officinarum. Rapid colonisation of disturbed sites has been observed in many continents where agriculture or other anthropogenic disturbances are present. Rapid increases in colonisation appear more obvious over the last 50 years perhaps associated with time of arrival and/or increased grazing and pasture improvement of native grasslands enhancing colonisation. The production of apomictic seeds in all species provides a rapid pathway of invasion at early stages of establishment. Hybridisation amongst species may hamper the development of biological control agents in the future."

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1 October 2021

Kirschner J., Doostmohammadi M.,  Štěpánek J. & Zeisek V. 2021: Taraxacum assemanii represents a new section: A revision of the misinterpreted Taraxacum primigenium, and the elucidation of the enigmatic Taraxacum section Primigenia (Compositae, Crepidinae). – Phytotaxa 520: 117–136.

Abstract
On the basis of new gatherings at the type locality, Taraxacum primigenium was evaluated taxonomically. Its achenes differ substantially from the protologue description that is based on achenes of T. assemanii. Taraxacum primigenium, also on the basis of an nrDNA analysis, is close to T. sect. Piesis, and represents a narrow endemic confined to the Lalezar Mts., SE Iran. Taraxacum assemanii, newly typified, is known from mountains of SE Anatolia and Lebanon, and from the Zagros in SW Iran. It is characterized by large, almost or totally smooth achenes with indistinct cone and a very gradual achene body/beak transition, a thick short beak and a short, slightly brownish pappus. It represents a single member of a newly described section, T. sect. Pristina. The name of T. sect. Primigenia, although with a diagnosis corresponding to the characters of T. assemanii, is to be interpreted according to its type, T. primigenium, and is understood as a synonym of T. sect. Piesis. Another taxon evaluated, T. cylleneum, endemic to several mountain ranges in of Peloponnesos, Greece, is similar to T. primigenium, and very close to the core taxa of T. sect. Piesis. All the species dealt with reproduce sexually."

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20 September 2021

Richards A. J. 2021: Taraxacum dooguei and T. dudmanianum (Asteraceae) - two new species from Britain and Ireland. – Brit. Irish Bot. 3: 324-333.

Abstract
Two new species are Taraxacum are described: T. dooguei A.J. Richards, a section Celtica  species from Ireland related to T. pietii-oosterveldii, and T. dudmanianum A.J. Richards, a section Taraxacum species from Britain and Ireland previously incorrectly recorded as T. aberrans. Notes are given on their ecology and distributions."

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20 September 2021

Rich T. C. G. 2021: Conservation of Britain’s biodiversity: distribution and status of the Welsh endemic Hieracium apheles, Hepste hawkweed (Asteraceae).– Brit. Irish Bot. 3: 289-296.

Abstract
The conservation status of Hieracium apheles P. D. Sell (Asteraceae), Hepste hawkweed  has been assessed. A lectotype for the basionym H. septentrionale Arv.-Touv. var. simplex Ley has been designated. It is a rare endemic restricted to the Hepste Glen in the Brecon Beacons (v.c. 42), Wales. Only one population of five plants is known it is assessed as ‘Critically Endangered’ under IUCN (2001) threat criteria."

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16 September 2021

Liu Q., Huang G.-Y., Zhang D.-G., Zhang J.-W., Deng T. & Li Z.-M. 2021: Youngia hangii (Asteraceae, Crepidinae), a new species from Hubei, China. – PhytoKeys 182: 27-38.

Abstract
Youngia hangii T.Deng, D.G.Zhang, Qun Liu & Z.M.Li, sp. nov., a new species of Asteraceae, is described and illustrated. It was collected in Wufeng County, Hubei Province, Eastern Central China. Youngia hangii is morphologically most similar to Y. rubida, but can be easily distinguished from the latter by capitula with 8–10 florets and the hairy leaf surface. Phylogenetic analyses, based on the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and one chloroplast marker (rps16), showed that Y. hangii and Y. rubida were sister species with good support. The results of both phylogenetic analysis and the morphological data support the specific rank of Y. hangii."

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15 September 2021

Vijverberg K., Welten M., Kraaij M., Heuven B. J. van, Smets E., Gravendeel B. 2021: Sepal identity of the pappus and floral organ development in the Common Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale; Asteraceae). – Plants 10(8, 1682): 1-26.

Abstract
The dry one-seeded fruits (cypselae) of the Asteraceae are often crowned with a pappus, an appendage of hairs or scales that assists in dispersal. It is generally assumed, but little investigated, that the pappus represents the outer floral whorl where the sepals are usually located. We analysed pappus–sepal homology in dandelions using micromorphological and floral gene expression analyses. We show that the pappus initiates from a ring primordium at the base of the corolla, heterochronic to the petals. Pappus parts form from this ring, with those in the alternipetalaous position usually being ahead in growth, referring to sepal identity. Tof-APETALLA1 expression increased during floret development and was highest in mature pappus. Tof-PISTILLATA expression was high and confined to the floral tissues containing the petals and stamens, consistent with expectations for sepals. Apart from the pappus, the dispersal structure of dandelion consists of the upper part of the fruit, the beak, which originates from the inner floral whorl. Thus, our results support the homology of the pappus with the sepals, but show that it is highly derived. Together with our floral stage definitions and verified qPCR reference genes, they provide a basis for evolution and development studies in dandelions and possibly other Asteraceae."

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15 September 2021

Narita A. & al. 2021: Conservation genetics of critically endangered Crepidiastrum grandicollum (Asteraceae) and two closely related woody species of the Bonin Islands, Japan. – Conservation Genet. 22: 717-727.

Abstract
Crepidiastrum grandicollum is a critically endangered insular endemic herb found only on two oceanic islands of the Bonin Islands in Japan, namely Chichijima Island and Anijima Island. It is explicitly threatened by herbivory pressure from introduced animals. In 2009, a conservation program for C. grandicollum was begun to ensure its future persistence. To provide further information for conservation planning, we investigated the genetic diversity of C. grandicollum using 13 novel microsatellite markers in 55 individuals from four wild populations and an ex situ living collection. Two closely related woody species were also included for interspecific comparison: seven individuals of Crepidiastrum ameristophyllum and 13 of Crepidiastrum linguifolium. The 13 markers were applicable to all three species and identified 129 alleles in total. We found a clear genetic differentiation between C. grandicollum from Anijima Island and Chichijima Island. Crepidiastrum grandicollum also had low expected heterozygosity and allelic richness in populations compared to the two closely related species. Reconstructed divergence history suggested that differentiation between the islands had occurred several thousand generations ago. We suggest separate conservation units for C. grandicollum on Anijima Island and Chichijima Island given the clear (and putatively historical) genetic differentiation, which may result in speciation in the future."

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15 September 2021

Mráz P. & Mrázová V. 2021: Greater reproductive assurance of asexual plant compared with sexual relative in a low-density sympatric population: Experimental evidence for pollen limitation. – J. Evol. Biol. 34: 1503-1509.

Abstract
High reproductive assurance is regarded as a key advantage of uniparentally reproducing organisms for establishing a new population. This demographic benefit should especially be relevant for plants with autonomous apomixis, that is those which produce seeds completely independently from mates and pollinators. Indeed, many autonomous apomicts occupy larger distributional ranges when compared to their sexual relatives, showing geographical parthenogenesis patterns. However, uniparental reproduction advantage has only rarely been quantified in natural populations and results provided a mixed support, partly because allopatric sexual and asexual populations were exposed to different environmental and pollination conditions causing considerable between-population variation in the level of reproductive assurance. Here, we compared the level and stability of reproductive assurance between sexual self-incompatible and asexual autonomously apomictic plants of Hieracium alpinum (Asteraceae) cultivated in a sympatric low-density population with two levels of spatial clumping of sexual plants. Overall, we found that the realized seed set (i.e. proportion of well-developed seeds per capitulum) of asexuals was ca. 3 times greater than that of sexuals (83% vs. 27%), whereas the variance of this trait expressed as coefficient of variation was ca. 4 times smaller in asexuals compared with sexuals (19% vs. 83%). Solitary sexual plants had more than 2 times lower realized seed set when compared to clumps composed of two spatially close (20–30 cm) sexual plants (13% vs. 34%). Our study provides experimental evidence for benefit of uniparental reproduction of asexuals in a sympatric situation when the availability of mates is limited. This, together with unpredictability of pollinator environment could provide autonomous apomicts with an ultimate demographic superiority during colonization reflected in geographical parthenogenesis observed in this species."

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23 August 2021

Yin Z.-J., Wang Z.-H., Kilian N., Liu Y., Peng H. & Zhao M.X. 2021: Mojiangia oreophila (Crepidinae, Cichorieae, Asteraceae), a new species and genus from Mojiang County, SW Yunnan, China, and putative successor of the maternal Faberia ancestor. – Pl. Diversity https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pld.2021.06.007

Abstract
A single small population of chasmophytic plants is described as Mojiangia oreophila, a monotypic genus in the subtribe Crepidinae, characterised by a unique combination of morphological features, in particular densely long-papillose homomorphic achenes with five main ribs each accompanied by two secondary ribs, coarse brownish pappus bristles, moderately many-flowered capitula, a small involucre with numerous outer phyllaries, perennial rosette herb growth and brown-woolly caudex and leaf axils. Molecular phylogenetic analysis detected that in the nrITS phylogeny M. oreophila forms a clade of its own in the Crepidinae; in the plastid DNA phylogeny it is nested in the clade formed by the hybridogenous genus Faberia, the maternal ancestor of which comes from the Crepidinae and the paternal ancestor from the Lactucinae, where Faberia is placed in nrITS phylogenies. M. oreophila shares several morphological features with Faberia and also shares the expected chromosome number of 2n = 16 with its hitherto unknown maternal ancestor. M. oreophila may therefore be a successor of the maternal ancestor of Faberia. Alternatively, cytonuclear discordance is to be assumed in Mojiangia, caused by chloroplast capture as a result of hybridisation and introgression with Faberia."

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4 August 2021

Björk C. R. 2021: Five new species of North American Taraxacum (Asteraceae). – Brittonia 73: 116-126.

Abstract
Five new species of native North American Taraxacum are described: T. argilliticola, T. cordilleranum, T. lautellum, T. pugioniferum, and T. simplex, all of them from high elevation habitats or high latitudes in western Canada, mostly from British Columbia."

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4 August 2021

Gültepe M., Coşkunçelebi K., Makbul s. & Güzel M. E. 2021: Contribution to the taxonomy of little known Tragopogon species endemic to Turkey. – Nordic J. Bot. 2021(e03242): 1-17.

Abstract
In the present paper, two little-known species (T. olympicus Boiss. and T. pichleri Boiss.) endemic to Turkey are evaluated in terms of morphology based on numerous authentic and/or new collections. Additionally, the phylogenetic positions of these little-known species are evaluated based on newly generated sequences of nrDNA ITS, trnL and trnL-F. As a result of the morphological examination, lectotypes are designated and documented for both species together with amended diagnosis. The phylogenetic analysis of the ITS data indicates that T. olympicus and T. latifolius Boiss. var. angustifolius are sister taxa, while T. dubius Scop. and T. pichleri are nested together in a different subclade of Tragopogon sect. Majores (Artemcz.) Kuthath s.l. However, neither species is resolved in the cpDNA tree due to low nucleotide diversity. The present results support treating T. olympicus and T. pichleri as members of Tragopogon sect. Sosnovskya Boriss. and Tragopogon sect. Majores, respectively."

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4 August 2021

Ateş M. A., Fırat M. & Kaya Z. 2021: Updated-extended molecular time and molecular phylogeny of Gundelia species native to Turkey. – Pl. Syst. Evol. 307(47): 1-9.

Abstract
Generally, Gundelia tournefortii is considered as the sole representative of the genus and the other species of Gundelia as synonyms. Recent studies suggest that the genus is rich with 22 species. Off these, thirteen are endemic to Turkey. To date, no comprehensive molecular study dealing with speciation exists in the genus. To address the speciation at the molecular level, fresh leaves from 57 samples representing 15 species from their natural ranges in Turkey were obtained by sampling over several years and studied with respect to nrDNA (ITS) and the cpDNA (ndhF) gene regions. Molecular data from cpDNA and nrDNA revealed that there were two major clades. One of these clades consists of G. anatolica, G. glabra and G. asperrima when the ndhF data were used (or just G. anatolica based on ITS data) while the other major clade included the remaining species with subclades. Divergence time and geographical phylogenetic reconstruction analysis indicated that there may be 3 major ancestral associations existing in the studied Gundelia species. Based on ndhF data, the oldest ancestral group included G. anatolica, G. glabra and G. asperrima with the divergence time about 21.27 MYA, while G. tournefortii var. tenuisecta and G. dersim were the most recently diverged group (about 4.66 MYA)Ancestral history of diversity analysis suggested that the dispersal and vicariance events involved in the speciation in the genus Gundelia with complex events of natural hybridization, introgression, geographical isolations or some other weak isolation mechanisms."

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4 August 2021

Fırat M. 2021: A new taxonomic arrangement of the Asian genus Gundelia (Asteraceae), including two subgenera and two sections. – Acta Biol Turc. 34: 92-99.

Abstract
The genus Gundelia L. (Asteraceae) the main morpholigical and molecular data suggest two subgenera; Gundelia L. subg. Gundelia (Type species: G. tournefortii) and Gundelia L. subg. Anatolica Fırat subg. nov. (Type species: G. anatolica), and based on morphology two sections; Gundelia L. subg. Gundelia sect. Mesopotamica Fırat sect. nov. (Type species: G. mesopotamica) and Gundelia L. subg. Gundelia sect. Komagenenses Fırat sect. nov. (Type species: G. komagenensis) are is described. Morphological affinities and divergences to all members of the genus Gundelia’s subgenus and section are discussed."

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4 August 2021

Fırat M. 2021: Gundelia cappadocica (Asteraceae); a new lactiferous species from Cappadocia (Kapadokya) Turkey, belonging to G. subg. Gundelia sect. Komagenenses. – Acta Biol Turc. 34: 128-139.

Abstract
Gundelia cappadocica, a new species is described and illustrated from Cappadocia (Kapadokya) region of Turkey. From the morphological point of view, Gundelia appears to be similar to G. komagenensis and G. vitekii, but from which it differs in several morphological features including general habit, plant indumentum, colour of corolla externally and internally, size of fruit complex (disseminule). A comprehensive description of this species are provided, including detailed photographs, geographical distribution, habitat and ecology, vernacular name, ethnobotanical usage, including section and IUCN conservation status."

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4 August 2021

Lee S. J. & Rich T. C. G. 2021: Conservation of Britain’s biodiversity: Distribution and status of the British endemic Hieracium subbritannicum, Limestone Hawkweed (Asteraceae). – Brit. Ir. Bot. 3: 216-226.

Abstract
Hieracium subbritannicum, Limestone Hawkweed, is a British endemic plant. Field surveys indicate at least 745 plants in six semi-upland sites in Wales, and it has gone from seven sites on Old Red Sandstone and in the Wye Valley in England. The IUCN threat status is ‘Vulnerable’."

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4 August 2021

Rich T. C. G. 2021: The rare Scottish endemic Hieracium fulvocaesium orange-flowered hawkweed (Asteraceae) is on the verge of extinction. – Brit. Ir. Bot. 3: 183-187.

Abstract
The rare Scottish endemic Hieracium fulvocaesium Pugsley, orange-flowered hawkweed, is on the verge of extinction. Historic records indicate it was only known from the east banks of the River Naver, Bettyhill, Sutherland. Three plants were rediscovered in 2017. It is IUCN threat status ‘Critically Endangered’ and it requires urgent conservation work to conserve it in the wild."

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4 August 2021

Rich T. C. G. 2021: Conservation of Britain’s biodiversity: Hieracium angustatiforme, Small-leaved Hawkweed (Asteraceae). – Brit. Ir. Bot. 3: 168-177.

Abstract
The conservation status of Hieracium angustatiforme P.D. Sell & C. West (Asteraceae), Small-leaved Hawkweed, has been assessed. It is a rare endemic restricted to the Brecon Beacons, Wales. Only one population of c.330-430 plants is known in Craig Cerrig-gleisiad National Nature Reserve, and it has not been refound at three other sites. Hieracium angustatiforme is assessed as ‘Critically Endangered’ under IUCN (2001) threat criteria."

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4 August 2021

Lee S. J. & Rich T. C. G. 2021: Conservation of Britain’s biodiversity: Distribution and status of the Welsh endemic Hieracium breconicola, Beacons Hawkweed (Asteraceae). – Brit. Ir. Bot. 3: 52-57.

Abstract
Hieracium breconicola P.D. Sell, Beacons Hawkweed, is a Welsh endemic plant confined to the Brecon Beacons. Field surveys 2009-2020 indicate only one plant survives in one of its three sites. The IUCN threat status is ‘Critically Endangered’; unless conservation action is undertaken soon, this species will soon be extinct in the wild."

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4 August 2021

Lee S. J., McCarthy W. & Rich T. C. G. 2021: Conservation of Britain’s biodiversity: Distribution and status of the Welsh endemic Hieracium britannicoides, Confused Hawkweed (Asteraceae). – Brit. Ir. Bot. 3: 65-73.

Abstract
Hieracium britannicoides, Confused Hawkweed, is a Welsh endemic plant confined to Caernarvonshire (v.c.49) and Denbighshire (v.c.50). Field surveys 2009-2019 indicate at least 390 plants in eight sites. The IUCN threat status is ‘Vulnerable’. The main threats are spread of alien woody species (especially Cotoneaster), which without continued management will become a serious problem in the future, and over-grazing or spread of scrub from under-grazing."

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17 June 2021

Bergmeier E. & Meyer S. 2021: Lactuca aculeata (Asteraceae), a crop wild relative new to Europe. – Fl. Medit. 31: 53–58.

Abstract
“The wild lettuce, Lactuca aculeata, a close relative of the widespread L. serriola and the cultivated lettuce L. sativa, has been found on the islands of Limnos and Lesbos (North Aegean region, Greece). The new records are the westernmost of this East Mediterranean taxon and represent the first ones for the Aegean and Europe. Along with locality data, we provide information on habitat preferences and co-occurring species.
"

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17 June 2021

Dunkel F. G. & Gottschlich G. 2021: Notes on some taxa of Hieracium and Pilosella (Asteraceae), new for the Greek flora, II and a nomenclatural comment on Hieracium “chalasinense”. – Phytol. Balcan. 27: 71–83.

Abstract
“Floristic investigation of the flora of North and Central Greece was continued, with emphasis on the genera Hieracium and Pilosella. As a result, five species and one subspecies of the genus Hieracium and two species of the genus Pilosella were detected for the first time in Greece and reported here. According to the original description and classification, Hieracium juranomorphum and Pilosella neosyllecta are suggested to be treated in the species rank. One new combination has been offered (Pilosella neosyllecta). The wrong spelling of Hieracium chalasinense has been corrected to H. chalasmenoense.
"

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17 June 2021

Tupitsyna N. N. & Pospelov I. N. 2021: Ястребинки плато Путорана [Hawksweeds of the Putorana Plateau]. – Turczaninowia 24: 58–62.

Abstract
An overview of all hawkweeds (Hieracium L.) recorded on the Putorana Mountains is given. The list of floristic findings of the territory of the Plateau includes 3 new species (Hieracium czamyjashense Tupitz., Hpseudarctophilum Schljakov., H. pseudofariniramum Tupitz.). New localities are also given for the endemic species H. putoranicum Tupitz. and the rare species H. subfariniramum (Ganesch et. Zahn) Ȕksip ex Tupitz.. The coordinates of collection sites, dates of collection, habitats nature, area type and an ecological-cenotic confinedness are given for each species. The nomenclature is reviewed. Field studies were carried out in 2018 in the western part of the Putorana Mountains, on the western coast of Lake Sobachye (Yt-Kyuyol) near the mouth of the Nakhta River; in 2019 in the western part of the Putorana Mountains, in the vicinity of Talnakh Town, at the Red Rocks Natural Sanctuary of regional significance; in 2020 in the south-west of the Putorana Mountains, in the vicinity of the middle part of Lake Kutaramakan (mouth of the Irkingda River) on the territory of the Putoransky Nature Reserve and its protective zone. Moreover, the herbarium specimen of H. umbellatum L. from the vicinity of Snezhnogorsk Town is published."

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17 June 2021

Gottschlich G. & Orsenigo S. 2021: New taxa of Hieracium (Asteraceae) from Mount Lesima and adjacent regions (Northern Apennine, Italy). – Phytotaxa 505: 39–55.

Abstract
“Four species of Hieracium (H. lesimanum, H. scopolii, H. scopolioides and H. umbrophilum) and two subspecies of this genus (H. lachenalii subsp. zerbanum, H. prenanthoides subsp. penicense) from the Ligurian Apennines are described and illustrated."

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17 June 2021

Janas A. B., Szeląg Z. & Musiał K. 2021: In search of female sterility causes in the tetraploid and pentaploid cytotype of Pilosella brzovecensis (Asteraceae). –  J. Pl. Res. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10265-021-01290-8

Abstract
“Within the agamic Pilosella complex, apomixis (asexual reproduction through seed) involves apospory, parthenogenesis, and autonomous endosperm development. Observations of reproductive biology in P. brzovecensis throughout four growing seasons in the garden have shown that both tetraploid and pentaploid plants of this species do not produce viable seeds and reproduce exclusively vegetatively by underground stolons. The reasons for the seed development failure were unknown, therefore our research focused on the analysis of reproductive events in the ovules of this taxon. We found that apospory was initiated in the ovules of both cytotypes. Multiple aposporous initial (AI) cells differentiated in close proximity to the megaspore mother cell (MMC) and suppressed megasporogenesis at the stage of early prophase I. However, none of the AI cells was able to further develop into a multi-nucleate aposporous embryo sac (AES) due to the inhibition of mitotic divisions. It was unusual that callose was accumulated in the walls of AI cells and its synthesis was most likely associated with a response to the dysfunction of these cells. Callose is regarded as the isolating factor and its surprising deposition in the ovules of P. brzovecensis may signal disruption of reproductive processes that cause premature termination of the aposporous development pathway and ultimately lead to ovule sterility. The results of our embryological analysis may be the basis for undertaking advanced molecular studies aimed at fully understanding of the causes of female sterility in P. brzovecensis."

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7 June 2021

Fırat M. & Selvi S. 2021: Palynological observations on the genus Gundelia L. (Asteraceae) growing in Turkey. – Phytotaxa 502: 51–66.

Abstract
“The pollen morphology of 17 taxa of Gundelia, of which 13 taxa are endemic to Turkey, was investigated by light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). In this study, the pollen morphology of 16 taxa except G. tournefortii was investigated for the first time. The quantitative data were analyzed by descriptive statistics and multivariate statistics. The pollen grains are oblate spheroidal and prolate spheroidal in shape with the polar diameter of 37.01–61.2 μm and the equatorial diameter of 31.2–63.4 μm. The smallest pollen grains were observed in G. anatolica, G. rosea and G. tournefortii, while the largest pollen grains were observed in G. vitekii, G. komagenensis and G. colemerikensis. Pollen ornamentation is echinate in LM and echinate-microperforate in SEM. Statistically, the relationships between pollen characters of the examined taxa were identified using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Clustering Analyzis. In addition, a dendrogram was constructed by applying UPGMA based on the determined 15 pollen morphological characters, and the degree of their relationship was discussed. Polar axis, equatorial diameter and colpus length were the major explanations of the pollen morphological characters’ total variation in PCA. Pair group method was used to divide the main pollen taxa into three groups based on the pollen morphology by using arithmetic averages analysis (PCA scatterplot and cluster analysis). As a result, the pollen shape, polar axis, equatorial diameter and spine length were important characters distingushing the taxa from each other. We found some matches and mismatches between pollen and morphological characters, whose significance requires further study."

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3 June 2021

Azizi H., Sheidai M., Mozaffarian V. & Noormohammadi Z. 2021: Pollen morphology of the genus Tragopogon (Asteraceae). – Acta Bot. Hung. 63: 31-43.

Abstract
Tragopogon L. (Cichorioideae, Lactuceae, Scorzonerinae) is an Old World genus with 150 species. Pollen morphology has proved useful in the systematics of some genera and species of Asteraceae as well as in that of some of its genera and species. The pollen morphology of 24 taxa of the genus Tragopogon was investigated in detail by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The pollen grain type ranged from suboblate, oblate-spheroidal to prolate-spheroidal in equatorial view and hexagonal, obtuse-hexagonal to hexagonal-angular in polar view. In this study separation of the species of the sections Majores, Profundisulcati, Sosnovsky, Chromopappus, Rubriflori according to Flora Iranica is presented from the other species of Tragopogon. T. jezdianus, T. porphyrocephalus, T. rezaiyensis are suggested to belong to Rubriflori section. The results indicate that the palynological characters of the genus Tragopogon are valuable for taxonomic applications and are useful for classification."

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20 May 2021

Baldesi G. & Kilian N. 2021: A new gypsicolous species of Launaea (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) from north Somalia. – Phytotaxa 501: 195-200.

Abstract
Launaea calmadowensis from Saanag Region in north Somalia is described as a species new to science and illustrated, based on a single gathering known from a hitherto unidentified part of a collection made by R. Bavazzano & J. J. Lavranos in 1970/71 and preserved at FT Herbarium. It is inferred from the comparison of diagnostic morphological characters that this species from gypsaceous hills belongs to the L. angustifolia group of L. sect. Zollikoferia and is most closely related to the North African L. quercifolia."

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20 May 2021

Lendzion K., Gornowicz A., Bielawski K. & Bielawska A. 2021: Phytochemical composition and biological activities of Scorzonera species. – Int. J. Molec. Sci. 22(5128): 1-48.

Abstract
“The genus Scorzonera comprises nearly 200 species, naturally occurring in Europe, Asia, and northern parts of Africa. Plants belonging to the Scorzonera genus have been a significant part of folk medicine in Asia, especially China, Mongolia, and Turkey for centuries. Therefore, they have become the subject of research regarding their phytochemical composition and biological activity. The aim of this review is to present and assess the phytochemical composition, and bioactive potential of species within the genus Scorzonera. Studies have shown the presence of many bioactive compounds like triterpenoids, sesquiterpenoids, flavonoids, or caffeic acid and quinic acid derivatives in extracts obtained from aerial and subaerial parts of the plants. The antioxidant and cytotoxic properties have been evaluated, together with the mechanism of anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and hepatoprotective activity. Scorzonera species have also been investigated for their activity against several bacteria and fungi strains. Despite mild cytotoxicity against cancer cell lines in vitro, the bioactive properties in wound healing therapy and the treatment of microbial infections might, in perspective, be the starting point for the research on Scorzonera species as active agents in medical products designed for miscellaneous skin conditions."

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20 May 2021

Michalska K., Malarz J. & Stojakowska A. 2021: Chemical constituents from Lactuca plumieri (L.) Gren. & Godr. (Asteraceae). – Nat. Product Res. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2021.1920583

Abstract
“This is the first report concerning the natural products of the hitherto unstudied Lactuca plumieri (L.) Gren. & Godr., a member of the tribe Cichorieae (Asteraceae). From aerial parts and roots of this plant, five sesquiterpene lactones and one coumarin were isolated. The compounds were identified as sonchuside A, 11β,13-dihydrolactucin-8-O-acetate, 11β,13-dihydrolactucin, cichorioside B, 11β,13-dihydrolactucin-8-O-acetate-15-O-β-glucopyranoside and coumarin – cichoriin. Their structures were established by 1H NMR. Moreover, HPLC/PAD analysis of a hydroalcoholic extract from the aerial parts of the plant revealed the presence of caffeic acid derivatives, coumarins and flavonoids commonly found in lettuces."

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19 May 2021

Erbar C. & Leins P. 2021: Style diversity in Asteraceae; morphology, anatomy, phylogeny, and function. – Bibl. Bot. 163: 1-260.

Synopsis
This study is the most comprehensive and up-to-date overview of style morphology and anatomy of the plant family Asteraceae (or Compositae; asters, daisies, sunflowers), using the most current generalized phylogenetic tree based on molecular data as reference.

The Asteraceae are the largest plant family (one out of about every 10 species of the flowering plants belongs to this family); they include about 25,000 currently accepted species in 14 subfamilies and 44 tribes. The authors distinguish 49 style types in the Asteraceae. The style characters are compared with other features that indicate a systematic relationship.

The style of an individual flower of the Asteraceae is one of the most important floral organs in two respects: Firstly, the characteristics of the style contribute to the systematics of the family, secondly, the different forms of styles are of utmost importance to secondary pollen presentation. The latter allows for optimizing pollination by pollen portioning, a widespread phenomenon in angiosperms.

Combining both morphology and function, the style types represent eight possibilities of secondary pollen presentation, which can be subsumed into four main functional categories. Style characteristics and mechanisms of secondary pollen presentation are plotted in up-to-date phylogenetic trees to illustrate and discuss possible evolutionary trends in the Asteraceae.

Evaluating style characters and the position of the style tip within the anther tube shortly before anthesis now allows – in most cases – to easily predict the mechanism of secondary pollen presentation.

The different style types are exquisitely illustrated by high quality greyscale and colour images and numerous line drawings. The study is complemented by extensive bibliography, a table of the specimens studied (species, collection, etc.) and an index.

This style atlas is useful not only to botanists (especially synantherologists) and entomologists, but addresses a wider audience interested more generally in the systematics of flowering plants and the evolution of floral characters and function." From https://www.schweizerbart.de/publications/detail/isbn/9783510480340

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10 May 2021

Fehrer J., Slavíková R., Paštová L., Josefiová J., Mráz P., Chrtek J. & Bertrand Y. J. K. 2021: Molecular evolution and organization of ribosomal DNA in the hawkweed tribe Hieraciinae (Cichorieae, Asteraceae). – Frontiers Pl. Sci. 12(647375): 1-23.

Abstract
“Molecular evolution of ribosomal DNA can be highly dynamic. Hundreds to thousands of copies in the genome are subject to concerted evolution, which homogenizes sequence variants to different degrees. If well homogenized, sequences are suitable for phylogeny reconstruction; if not, sequence polymorphism has to be handled appropriately. Here we investigate non-coding rDNA sequences (ITS/ETS, 5S-NTS) along with the chromosomal organization of their respective loci (45S and 5S rDNA) in diploids of the Hieraciinae. The subtribe consists of genera Hieracium, Pilosella, Andryala, and Hispidella and has a complex evolutionary history characterized by ancient intergeneric hybridization, allele sharing among species, and incomplete lineage sorting. Direct or cloned Sanger sequences and phased alleles derived from Illumina genome sequencing were subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Patterns of homogenization and tree topologies based on the three regions were compared. In contrast to most other plant groups, 5S-NTS sequences were generally better homogenized than ITS and ETS sequences. A novel case of ancient intergeneric hybridization between Hispidella and Hieracium was inferred, and some further incongruences between the trees were found, suggesting independent evolution of these regions. In some species, homogenization of ITS/ETS and 5S-NTS sequences proceeded in different directions although the 5S rDNA locus always occurred on the same chromosome with one 45S rDNA locus. The ancestral rDNA organization in the Hieraciinae comprised 4 loci of 45S rDNA in terminal positions and 2 loci of 5S rDNA in interstitial positions per diploid genome. In Hieracium, some deviations from this general pattern were found (3, 6, or 7 loci of 45S rDNA; three loci of 5S rDNA). Some of these deviations concerned intraspecific variation, and most of them occurred at the tips of the tree or independently in different lineages. This indicates that the organization of rDNA loci is more dynamic than the evolution of sequences contained in them and that locus number is therefore largely unsuitable to inform about species relationships in Hieracium. No consistent differences in the degree of sequence homogenization and the number of 45S rDNA loci were found, suggesting interlocus concerted evolution."

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10 May 2021

Güzel M. E. 2021: Kültür Marulu (Lactuca sativa L.) ile yabani akrabalarının yaprak mikromorfolojileri [Leaf micromorphogy of cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its wild relatives]. – Bağbahçe Bilim Dergisi 8: 16-31.

Abstract
“Cultivated lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is an economically important weedy plant for human consumption at worldwide. The primary gene pool of L. sativa consists of wild L. serriola L., L. aculeata Boiss. & Kotschy, L. azerbaijanica Rech. f., L. georgica Grossh. and L. scarioloides Boiss. while L. saligna L. is in its secondary gene pool. L. sativa has been subjected to various studies due to its economic importance. This study aims to reveal leaf micromorphology of the taxa in the primary and secondary gene pool of L. sativa and determinate these relationships based on leaf micromophological characters through phenetic analysis. In order to achieve these aims, character states of leaves belonging to the taxa were determined through multiple sampling and these data were subjected to analysis. According to the micromorphological data, L. saligna is the closest species to L. sativa and undulate anticlinal wall of epidermis cells is shared common character state for both taxa. The most variation was observed in density of epicuticular wax and wax type among the studied micromorphological characters. On the other hand the states of anticlinal and periclinal walls of epidermis cells are stable within the taxa. Indumentum on abaxial leaf surface is also stable within the taxa except L. saligna. In the light of these findings, anticlinal-periclinal walls of epidermis cells and indumentum can be used as distinctive characters to determine the boundaries between taxa in systematic studies in Lactuca."

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12 March 2021

Kirschner J., Gürdal B., Štěpánek J. & Zeisek V. 2021: Taraxacum mirabile, an enigmatic sexual halophilous endemic dandelion, represents a new section. – Phytotaxa 489: 49-64.

Abstract
Taraxacum mirabile Wagenitz (Asteraceae, Cichorieae, Crepidinae), a remarkable but taxonomically unexplored endemic species of Central Anatolia, is examined in detail. It is shown to be a sexually reproducing diploid (2n=16) species. It used to be included in Taraxacum sect. Orientalia in the literature. However, the nrDNA analysis revealed that T. mirabile is remote from that section. Moreover, it exhibits a number of unique features, such as fleshy leaves with a white, cartilaginous apex, long, dense, bright white tomentum at the plant base, multiple root heads, achenes with an extremely short conical cone and with very few minute spinules, a very narrow involucre with imbricate outer phyllaries, and white, not numerous florets. The most specific feature of T. mirabile is the fine, microscopic sculpture of achene surface, consisting of hair-like protuberances, not known in other Taraxacum species. These attributes, together with the convincing result of the nrDNA analysis, qualify T. mirabile to be recognized as a member of a separate section, T. sect. Echinulata, sect. nov. The habitat and distribution of T. mirabile are described, and the character of its endemism is discussed."

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12 March 2021

Pedro M. de, Riba M., González‐Martínez S. C., Seoane P., Bautista R., Claros M. G. & Mayol M. 2021: Demography, genetic diversity and expansion load in the colonizing species Leontodon longirostris (Asteraceae) throughout its native range. – Molec. Ecol. 30: 1190-1205.

Abstract
“Unravelling the evolutionary processes underlying range expansions is fundamental to understand the distribution of organisms, as well as to predict their future responses to environmental change. Predictions for range expansions include a loss of genetic diversity and an accumulation of deleterious alleles along the expansion axis, which can decrease fitness at the range‐front (expansion load). In plants, empirical studies supporting expansion load are scarce, and its effects remain to be tested outside a few model species. Leontodon longirostris is a colonizing Asteraceae with a widespread distribution in the Western Mediterranean, providing a particularly interesting system to gain insight into the factors that can enhance or mitigate expansion load. In this study, we produced a first genome draft for the species, covering 418 Mbp (~53% of the genome). Although incomplete, this draft was suitable to design a targeted sequencing of ~1.5 Mbp in 238 L. longirostris plants from 21 populations distributed along putative colonization routes in the Iberian Peninsula. Inferred demographic history supports a range expansion from southern Iberia around 40,000 years ago, reaching northern Iberia around 25,000 years ago. The expansion was accompanied by a loss of genetic diversity and a significant increase in the proportion of putatively deleterious mutations. However, levels of expansion load in L. longirostris were smaller than those found in other plant species, which can be explained, at least partially, by its high dispersal ability, the self‐incompatible mating system, and the fact that the expansion occurred along a strong environmental cline."

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14 January 2021

Güzel M. E., Coşkunçelebi K., Kilian N., Makbul S. & Gültepe M. 2021: Phylogeny and systematics of the Lactucinae (Asteraceae) focusing on their SW Asian centre of diversity. – Pl. Syst. Evol. 307, 7: 1-14.

Abstract
“This study provides the first comprehensive molecular phylogenetic reconstruction of the lettuce alliance (Cichorieae subtribe Lactucinae of the sunflower family) in its SW Asia centre of diversity and assumed area of origin. The sampling contains multiple samples of all SW Asian Lactucinae except four unavailable rare taxa. One nuclear ribosomal and five plastid DNA markers were used for the reconstruction with maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference. A total of 716 individual sequences belonging to 56 taxa were newly generated. The nrDNA and plastid DNA gene trees show several hard topological incongruences at various levels of the trees, which make it very likely that the evolution of the subtribe was shaped by events of ancient and more recent reticulation, chloroplast capture and incomplete lineage sorting. The taxonomic conclusions from the phylogenetic analysis are drawn, and a revised inventory of the subtribe in SW Asia including new combinations and synonymies are provided."

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14 January 2021

Chen Y.-S., Xu l.-S., Ke R., Harris A. & Li H.-M. 2021: Lihengia: A new genus of Asteraceae distinct from Dubyaea. – Taxon, https://doi.org/10.1002/tax.12428

Abstract
“A new genus, Lihengia, is established for two species presently treated within Dubyaea, which is proved to be paraphyletic in the present study, even after exclusion of Lihengia. Dubyaea is a genus of about 15 species endemic to the Sino‐Himalayan region that are treated within subtribe Crepidinae of tribe Cichorieae within Asteraceae. Stebbins suggested that Dubyaea may contain species representing direct ancestors of several widerspread genera in tribe Cichorieae, thus making phylogenetic reconstruction challenging. We tested the monophyly of Dubyaea using a molecular phylogeny reconstructed from ITS and five plastid fragment sequences (petD, psbA‐trnH, 5′trnL(UAA)trnF, rpl32‐trnL(UAG), trnQ(UUG)‐5′rps16) and sampling comprising Dubyaea and related species within the tribe Cichorieae. We resolved Dubyaea species within at least two separate clades of tribe Cichorieae. Most species of Dubyaea occurred in subtribe Crepidinae, while Dubyaea sect. Amoena was placed in subtribe Lactucinae. Based on our findings, we erect Lihengia as a new genus to accommodate the species of D. sect. Amoena, and, consequently, we propose two new combinations. We discuss the morphological and cytological support for the new genus."

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13 January 2021

Gottschlich G. & Brandstätter G. 2021: On the identity of Hieracium garibaldianum (Asteraceae). – Phytotaxa 479: 250–256.

Abstract
“The rediscovery of Hieracium garibaldianum in the Napoli region (Italy) where its type was originally collected, allowed us to compare it with a drawing of the holotype which was made by Fries. As a result, H. garibaldianum is placed in the synonymy of H. racemosum subsp. crinitum."

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