Chondrilla juncea

Primary tabs

Chondrilla juncea

https://pictures.bgbm.org/digilib/Scaler/IIIF/Cichorieae!Chondrilla_juncea_Bb_01.jpg/full/full/0/default.jpg

Common names

Albanian (Albania): Zegun si zhukëA,1; Arabic (Lebanon): خُنْدَريلى أَسَـلِيَّةB,1; Arabic (Syria): خُنْدَريلى أَسَـلِيَّةC,1; Armenian (Armenia): Խիժաճարճատուկ լայնատերD,1, Խիժաճարճատուկ կնյունանմանE,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Обикновен кривецF,1; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): Enciam salvatgeG; Czech (Czech Republic): Radyk prutnatýH,1; English (Australia): DandelionI, Skeleton WeedJ,K, Skeleton weedL,M,N,O, gum succoryJ,N, naked weedJ,N; English (New Zealand): Skeleton weedP; English (Northern America): Rush skeletonweedQ; French (Belgium): Chondrille effiléeR,1, Chondrille à larges feuillesS,1; French (Corse): ChondrilleT,1; French (France): Chondrille effiléeU,1, Chondrille jonciformeU,2, Chondrille à feuilles d'AcantheV,1, Chondrille à tiges de JoncU,1, Salade-à-bûchesU,2; French (Northern America): Chondrille effiléeQ; French (Switzerland): Chondrille à tiges de joncW,1; German (Germany): Großer KnorpellattichX,1; German (Switzerland): Ruten-KnorpelsalatW,1; Hebrew (Israel): כּוֹנְדְּרִילָה סַמְרָנִיתY,1, כונדרילה סמרניתY,1; Italian (Italy): Lattugaccio comuneZ,1; Italian (Switzerland): Lattugaccio comuneW,1; Polish (Poland): Chondrilla sztywnaAA,1; Portuguese (Portugal): ChondríG; Russian (Armenia): Хондрилла ситниковиднаяE,1, Хондрилла широколистнаяD,1; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): AjonjeraG, Escoba aujeraG, GayumboG; Turkish (Turkey): KarakavukAB
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Systematics

Analyses of morphological variation and of ribotypes and plastid DNA haplotype networks of the genus in SE Russia by Kashin & al. (2019) produced evidence that the members of an evolutionary lineage, which have frequently been recognized as the species Chondrilla acantholepis, C. canescens, C. graminea, C. juncea and C. latifolia, cannot be separated from each other. Following these authors, we here adopt a treatment of this lineage as a single facultatively apomictic species C. juncea. AC

Description

Rosette herb, perennial or biennial, up to 100 cm high, glaucous. Flowering stems erect, ribbed, subterete or angular, scabridulous, hispid or toward the apex glabrous, strongly branched; branches ascending. Rosette leaves narrowly oblong, elliptic or obovate, 4.0-10.0-(13.5) cm long, 1.0-3.5-(4.5) cm wide, lyrate-pinnatifid, subentire at lateral lobes or denticulate, usually acute, attenuate. Cauline leaves few, linear, 2.0-8.0 cm long, 0.2-0.5 cm wide, sometimes denticulate at lower leaves or entire. Peduncle very short or absent. Heads with (5)-8-12 flowers. Involucre at flowering cylindrical, c. 8.0 mm long, at flowering 2.0-3.0 mm in diameter; involucral bracts finely tomentose or glabrous; outer involucral bracts ovate, 1.5-2.0 mm long, c. 1.0 mm wide; inner involucral bracts linear, 8.0 mm long, 1.0 mm wide, midrib conspicuously pale, margin narrowly scarious. Corolla ligulate, yellow, minutely brownish-papillose; tube c. 6.0 mm long; ligule c. 8.0 mm long, 1.5 mm wide. Anthertube yellow, c. 5.0 mm long; apical appendages subacute. Style c. 12.0-14.0 mm long, c. 2.0 mm long, yellow. Achenes narrowly cylindrical in outline, slightly curved, c. 3.5 mm long, 1.0 mm wide, in lower two-thirds smooth, in upper third muricate with an apical corona of small scales, pale brown, with a filiform beak; beak c. 5.0 mm long. Pappus white, uniseriate, copious, 6.0-8.0-(9.0) mm long, remotely scabridulous.

Based on: Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR 29, Compositae , Tribe Cichorieae . – Enfield; Matthew, V. A. 1975: 128. Chondrilla L. – Pp. 812-814 in: Davis, P.H. et al (ed.), Flora of Turkey 5. – Edinburgh; Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. – Kew; Sell, P. D. 1976: 174. Chondrilla L., 175. Calycocorsus F. W. Schmidt, 176. Heteracia Fischer & C. A. Meyer, 177. Lapsana L., 178. Crepis L., 179. Hispidella Barnades ex Lam. & 180. Andryala L. – Pp. 343-358 in: Tutin, G. & al. (ed.), Flora Europaea 4. – Cambridge.

Distribution

Africa: Algeria nativeAD; Libya nativeAE; Morocco nativeAF,AG,AH; Tunisia nativeAI Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan nativenativenativeAJ,AK,AL,AM,AN; Altay nativenativeAO; Cyprus nativeAP,AQ,AR; East Aegean Is. nativenativeAS,AT,AU; Iran nativenativeAM,AN,AV,AW; Iraq nativenativeAM,AN,AV; Kazakhstan nativenativeAX; Kirgizistan nativeAY; Lebanon-Syria (Lebanon nativeAZ,BA,BB, Syria nativeAZ,BA,BB,BC); North Caucasus nativenativenativenativeAZ,BD,BE,BF (Dagestan nativenativeBG,BH, Krasnodar nativenativenativenativeBG,BH,BI,BJ, Stavropol nativenativeBI,BJ); Palestine (Israel nativeBB,BC, Jordan nativeBK,BL); Saudi Arabia nativeAV; Tadzhikistan nativeBM; Transcaucasus (Abkhaziya nativenativenative, Adzhariya nativenativenativeBF,BG,BN,BO,BP, Armenia nativenativenativeBE,BG,BH,BQ,E, Azerbaijan nativenativenativeBE,BF,BG,BR,BS,BT, Georgia nativenativenativeBE,BF,BG,BN,BU,BV,BW,BX, Nakhichevan nativenativenativeBE,BG,BS,BY); Turkey nativenativenativeAB,AS,AZ,BB,BQ,BZ,CA,CB; Turkmenistan nativenativeAM,CC; Uzbekistan nativeCD; Xinjiang nativeCE Asia-Tropical: Pakistan reported in errorCF,CG; West Himalaya (Jammu-Kashmir reported in errorCH) Australasia: New South Wales (Australian Capital Territory introducedCI,I,L,M,N, New South Wales introducedCI,I,J,L,M,N); New Zealand North introducedP; Northern Territory introducedJ; Queensland (Queensland introducedCI,I,J,K,L,M,N); South Australia introducedCI,I,J,L,M,N; Tasmania introducedI,J,L,N; Victoria introducedCI,I,J,L,M,N; Western Australia (Western Australia introducedCI,I,J,M,N,O) Europe: Albania nativeCJ,CK,CL,CM; Austria nativeCK (Austria nativeCN); Baleares nativeCK,CO,CP,CQ,CR,G; Baltic States (Kaliningrad nativeCS, Latvia introducedintroducedCT,CU); Belarus nativenativeCV; Belgium (Belgium nativeCW, Luxembourg nativeCX); Bulgaria nativenativeCK,CY,CZ,DA,DB,F; Central European Russia nativenativenativeCV; Corse nativeCK,DC,DD,DE,DF,DG; CzechoslovakiaCK (Czech Republic nativeDH,DI,DJ,DK, Slovakia nativeDH,DI,DL); East European Russia nativenativenativeCV; France nativeCK,CO,DC,DE,DM; Germany nativeCK,DN,DO,DP; Greece nativenativeAT,BZ,DQ,DR,DS,DT,DU,DV,DW,DX,DY; Hungary nativeCK,DZ,EA; Italy nativeCK,EB,EC,ED,EE,EF,Z; Kriti nativeAT,DR,DV,DW,DX,DY,EG; Krym nativenativenativeAZ,BF,BQ,CK,CV,EH,EI,EJ; Netherlands native: formerly nativeEK; Poland nativeAA,CK,EL; Portugal nativeCK,EM,EN,EO,G; Romania nativeCK,CZ,EP,EQ; Sardegna nativeCK,EB,EC,EE,Z; Sicily nativeCK (Sicily nativeEB,EC,EE,Z); South European Russia nativenativenativeCV; Spain nativeCK,ER (Andorra nativeCO,ES,G, Gibraltar nativeET,G, Spain nativeCO,EU,EV,EW,G); Switzerland nativeCK,EX,EY; Turkey-in-Europe nativeAS,AU,CK,EZ; Ukraine (Moldova nativenativenativeCV,FA, Ukraine nativenativenativeCV,EI); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina nativeCZ,FB,FC, Croatia nativeCZ,EC,ED,FD, Macedonia native: presence questionableCZ, Montenegro nativeCZ,FE, Serbia nativeCZ,FF, Slovenia nativeFG,FH) Northern America: British Columbia introducedFI,Q; California introducedFI; Delaware introducedFI; District of Columbia introducedFI; Georgia, U.S.A. introducedFI; Idaho introducedFI; Illinois introducedFI; Maryland introducedFI; Michigan introducedFI; Montana introducedFI; New Jersey introducedFI; Ontario introducedFI,Q; Oregon introducedFI; Pennsylvania introducedFI; Virginia introducedFI; Washington introducedFI; West Virginia introducedFI Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Buenos Aires introducedFJ)

Uses

In the Iberian Peninsula traditionally a liniment is prepared from the roots boiled in olive oil and applied to wounds and fractures of animals, attributing it antiseptic properties. An extract from the aerial parts of the plant is applied as an insecticide to combat the plague of the false flour weevil that affects stoied products.
The basal leaves are eaten raw in salads, or stewed, and stand out among wild vegetables for having a low oxalic acid content.G

Credits

Sukhorukov A. 2010: Images (1 added)
Christodoulou C. S. 2010: Images (2 added)
Willing E. 2017: Images (3 added)

Bibliography

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