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Africa: Canary Is. (Canary Is.native); KwaZulu-Natal (KwaZulu-Natalnative) Asia-Tropical: Nepal (Nepalnative) Australasia: Chatham Is. (Chatham Is.native); New Zealand North (New Zealand Northnative); New Zealand South (New Zealand Southnative) Europe: Germany (Germanynative) Northern America: Mexico Centralnative Southern America: Juan Fernández Is.native


Annual to perennial, acaulescent, scapose or caulescent herbs, more rarely subshrubs, shrubs, rosette shrubs and rosette treelets, sometimes spinescent, exceptionally scandent vines, leaves alternate (except in Shinnersoseris the lower leaves), very rarely spiny (Scolymus, Gundelia), frequently forming a rosette, with latex. Heads solitary or loosely to densely aggregated, sometimes in secondary heads, ligulate (except for Gundelia and Warionia), homogamous, with 1- (exceptionally in Gundelia, in primary heads) or 3-5 to over 600, mostly with a few dozens flowers; receptacle areolate or alveolate, naked, rarely with scales or bristles; involucre cylindric, mostly differentiated into a few imbricate outer series of bracts and a longer inner series, more rarely uniseriate, bracts with or without hyaline margin; corollae with 5-toothed ligule, perfect, predominantly of some shade of yellow, ranging from pale yellow to deep orange-yellow, or of some shade of blue, including whitish so or purple, sometimes also pure white through absence of either the yellowish or bluish colour; anthers basally calcarate and caudate, apical appendage elongate, smooth, filaments smooth; style slender, usually with long, slender branches, sweeping hairs on the shaft and branches; pollen echinolophate or echinate. Achenes cylindrical, or fusiform to slenderly obconoidal, mostly ribbed, sometimes compressed or flattened, apically truncate, attenuate or beaked, often somehow sculptured, mostly glabrous, sometimes papillose or hairy, rarely villose, frequently heteromorphic; pappus of scales or scabrid to barbellate or plumose bristles, sometimes absent.

Common names

Chinese (China): 菊苣族 ju ju zuA; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Tông rau diếpB


A. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
B. Lê Kim Biên, Thục-vât-chí-Viêt-Nam / Flora of Vietnam 7. Họ cúc / Asteraceae. 2007 (as Lactuceae Cass.)