Chondrillinae

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Distribution

Africa: Algeria (Algerianative); Libya (Libyanative); Morocconative; Tunisia (Tunisianative) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan (Afghanistannative); Altay (Altaynative); Cyprus (Cyprusnative); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.native); Iran (Irannative); Iraq (Iraqnative); Kazakhstan (Kazakhstannative); Kirgizistan (Kirgizistannative); Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); Mongolia (Mongolianative); North Caucasusnative (Dagestannative, Krasnodarnative, Stavropolnative); Palestine (Israelnative, Jordannative); Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabianative); Tadzhikistan (Tadzhikistannative); Tibet (Tibetnative); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkey (Turkeynative); Turkmenistan (Turkmenistannative); Uzbekistannative (Uzbekistannative); West Siberia (West Siberianative); Xinjiang (Xinjiangnative) Asia-Tropical: Pakistan (Pakistannative); West Himalaya (Jammu-Kashmirnative) Australasia: New South Wales (Australian Capital Territoryintroduced: naturalized, New South Walesintroduced: naturalized); New Zealand North (New Zealand Northintroduced); Northern Territory (Northern Territoryintroduced: naturalized); Queensland (Queenslandintroduced: naturalized); South Australia (South Australiaintroduced: naturalized); Tasmania (Tasmaniaintroduced: naturalized); Victoria (Victoriaintroduced: naturalized); Western Australia (Western Australiaintroduced) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Austrianative (Austrianative, Liechtensteinnative); Baleares (Balearesnative); Baltic States (Kaliningradnative, Latviaintroduced: adventitious (casual), Lithuaniaintroduced: adventitious (casual)); Belarus (Belarusnative); Belgium (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European Russianative); Corse (Corsenative); Czechoslovakia (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); East European Russia (East European Russianative); Francenative; Germany (Germanynative); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (Hungarynative); Italynative; Kriti (Kritinative); Krym (Krymnative); Netherlands (Netherlandsnative: formerly native); Poland (Polandnative); Portugal (Portugalnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative); Sicilynative (Sicilynative); South European Russia (South European Russianative); Spainnative (Andorranative, Gibraltarnative, Spainnative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative); Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: British Columbia (British Columbiaintroduced); California (Californiaintroduced); Delaware (Delawareintroduced); District of Columbia (District of Columbiaintroduced); Georgia, U.S.A. (Georgia, U.S.A.introduced); Idaho (Idahointroduced); Illinois (Illinoisintroduced); Maryland (Marylandintroduced); Michigan (Michiganintroduced); Montana (Montanaintroduced); New Jersey (New Jerseyintroduced); Ontario (Ontariointroduced); Oregon (Oregonintroduced); Pennsylvania (Pennsylvaniaintroduced); Virginia (Virginiaintroduced); Washington (Washingtonintroduced); West Virginia (West Virginiaintroduced) Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Buenos Airesintroduced)

Systematics

The molecular analyses by Gemeinholzer & al. (in Kilian & al. 2009) revealed a clade comprising the genera Chondrilla, Phitosia and Willemetia, which has been recognised as a separate subtribe Chondrillinae by Kilian & al. (2009). Whereas the sister-group relationship of Chondrilla and Willemetia received strong statistical support, there was no statistical support for the clade also including Phitosia, a monospecific genus recently established for a species removed from Crepis for cytological and carpological reasons (Kamari & Greuter 2000).

Chondrilla and Willemetia have been hitherto treated as members of subtribe Crepidinae (Bremer 1994; Lack 2006). Also in the ITS phylogeny by Gemeinholzer & al. (in Kilian & al. 2009) the Chondrillinae and Crepidinae clades together formed a monophyletic group with full bootstrap and posterior probability support. However, since the sister-group relationsship of Crepidinae and Chondrillinae has been proven less stable when different molecular datasets (matK and nrITS) were combined (Gemeinholzer & al. unpubl.), Kilian & al. (2009) refrained from treating the Chondrilla alliance as a part of the subtribe Crepidinae.

References

Bremer K. 1994: Asteraceae. Cladistics and classification. – Portland: Timber.

Kilian N., Gemeinholzer B. & Lack H. W. 2009: Tribe Cichorieae. – In: Funk V. A., Susanna A., Stuessy T. & Bayer R. (ed.), Systematics, evolution, and biogeography of the Compositae. – Vienna: IAPT.

Kamari G. & Greuter W. 2000: Phitosia, a new genus for Crepis crocifolia (Compositae, Cichorieae), a local endemic of Mount Taigetos (Greece). – Bot. Chron. (Patras) 13: 11-36.

Lack H. W. 2006: Tribe Cichorieae Lam. & DC. – Pp. 180-199 in: Kadereit J. W. & Jeffrey C. (ed.), The families and genera of vascular plants 8. – Berlin: Springer.