Scorzoneroides

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Distribution

Africa: Algeria (Algerianative); Canary Is. (Canary Is.native: doubtfully native); Egypt (Egyptnative); Libya (Libyanative); Morocconative; Tunisia (Tunisianative) Asia-Temperate: Altay (Altaynative); Buryatiya (Buryatiyanative); Iran (Irannative); Iraq (Iraqnative); Irkutsk (Irkutsknative); Kamchatka (Kamchatkaintroduced); Kazakhstan (Kazakhstannative); Khabarovsk (Khabarovskintroduced); Krasnoyarsk (Krasnoyarsknative); Kuril Is. (Kuril Is.introduced); Kuwait (Kuwaitnative); Lebanon-Syria (Syrianative); North Caucasusnative (Kabardino-Balkariyanative, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiyanative, Krasnodarnative, Stavropolnative); Palestine (Israelnative, Jordannative); Primorye (Primoryeintroduced); Sakhalin (Sakhalinintroduced); Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabianative); Sinai (Sinainative); Turkey (Turkeynative) Australasia: New Zealand North (New Zealand Northintroduced); New Zealand South (New Zealand Southintroduced) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Austrianative (Austrianative, Liechtensteinnative); Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarus (Belarusnative); Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European Russianative); Corse (Corsenative); Czechoslovakia (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmark (Denmarknative); East European Russia (East European Russianative); Finland (Finlandnative); Francenative; Føroyar (Føroyarnative); Germany (Germanynative); Great Britain (Great Britainnative); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (Hungarynative); Iceland (Icelandintroduced); Irelandnative (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative; Kriti (Kritinative: reported in error); Krym (Krymnative); Netherlands (Netherlandsnative); North European Russia (North European Russianative); Northwest European Russia (Northwest European Russianative); Norway (Norwaynative); Poland (Polandnative); Portugal (Portugalnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative); Sicilynative (Sicilynative); South European Russia (South European Russianative); Spainnative (Andorranative, Spainnative); Sweden (Swedennative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative); Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative: presence questionable, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: Alaska (Alaskaintroduced); British Columbia (British Columbiaintroduced); Connecticut (Connecticutintroduced); Greenland (Greenlandintroduced); Idaho (Idahointroduced); Iowa (Iowaintroduced); Labrador (Labradorintroduced); Maine (Maineintroduced); Massachusetts (Massachusettsintroduced); Michigan (Michiganintroduced); New Brunswick (New Brunswickintroduced); New Hampshire (New Hampshireintroduced); New Jersey (New Jerseyintroduced); New York (New Yorkintroduced); Newfoundland (Newfoundlandintroduced, St.Pierre-Miquelonintroduced: adventitious (casual)); Northwest Territories (Northwest Territoriesintroduced); Nova Scotia (Nova Scotiaintroduced); Ohio (Ohiointroduced); Ontario (Ontariointroduced); Oregon (Oregonintroduced); Pennsylvania (Pennsylvaniaintroduced); Prince Edward I. (Prince Edward I.introduced); Québec (Québecintroduced); Rhode I. (Rhode I.introduced); Vermont (Vermontintroduced); Washington (Washingtonintroduced); West Virginia (West Virginiaintroduced) Southern America: Argentina South (Santa Cruzintroduced); Chile Central (Valparaísointroduced); Chile South (Magellanesintroduced)

Systematics

Phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers (Samuel & al. 2006) revealed that the traditional genus Leontodon s.l. is diphyletic. While Leontodon subg. Leontodon is sister to Picris and Helminthotheca and the three cluster in a clade with Hypochaeris, L. subg. Oporinia forms a clade of its own basal to the clade of the four taxa. These molecular results are supported by chromosome and phytochemical data and by the indumentum types. The occurrence of 2- to several-fid or stellate hairs on leaves and phyllaries (Widder 1931; Pittoni 1974), of hypocretenolids (Zidorn & Stuppner 2001a+b; Zidorn 2006) and of varied basic chromosomes numbers (mostly x = 4, 7, 11; references in Samuel & al. 2006) are characteristic of L. subg. Leontodon, whereas L. subg. Oporinia is characterised by strictly simple hairs, the occurrrence of guaianolides and rather homogenous basic chromosome numbers of rarely x = 5 and usually x = 6 (see below). Consequently, the two subgenera of Leontodon s.l., L. subg. Oporinia and L. subg. Leontodon, have to be treated as two separate genera. For L. subg. Oporinia the generic name Scorzoneroides is available.

Scorzoneroides comprises about 26 species and its distribution is centred in the Mediterranean area. A conspectus of the names of the species in Scorzoneroides was given by Greuter & al. (2006). Cruz-Mazo & al. (2009) corroborated the monophyly of Scorzoneroides based on nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers and revealed the existence of two lineages, which do not, however, coincide with the morphology-based subdivision of the genus into two sections Oporinia and Kalbfussia (Widder 1975). The most recent common ancestor of Scorzoneroides was presumably perennial and homocarpic and probably occurred in high mountainous ecosystems, while heterocarpy and an annual habit have evolved at least once in the genus, probably in adaptation to more arid habitats with less predictable precipitation (Cruz-Mazo & al. 2009).

References


Cruz-Mazo G., Buide M. L., Samuel R. & Narbona E. 2009: Molecular phylogeny of Scorzoneroides (Asteraceae): Evolution of heterocarpy and annual habit in unpredictable environments. – Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 53: 835–847.

Greuter W., Gutermann W. & Talavera S. 2006: A preliminary conspectus of Scorzoneroides (Compositae, Cichorieae) with validation of the required new names. – Willdenowia 36: 689-692.

Pittoni H. 1974: Behaarung und Chromosomenzahlen sternhaariger Leontodon-Sippen. – Phyton (Austria) 16: 165-188.

Samuel R., Gutermann W., Stuessy T. F., Ruas C.F., Lack H.-W., Tremetsberger K., Talavera S., Hermanowski B. & Ehrendorfer F. 2006: Molecular phylogenetics reveals Leontodon (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) to be diphyletic. – Amer. J. Bot. 93: 1193-1205.

Widder F. J. 1931: Beiträge zur Kenntnis der Gattung Leontodon II. Die "nickenden Knospen" einiger Leontodon-Arten in ihrer Bedeutung für das System der Gattung. – Österr. Bot. Z. 80: 136-148.

Widder F. J. 1975: Die Gliederung der Gattung Leontodon. – Phyton 17: 23–29.

Zidorn C. 2006: Sesquiterpenoids as chemosystematic markers in the subtribe Hypochaeridinae (Lactuceae, Asteraceae). – Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 34: 144-159.

Zidorn C. & Stuppner H. 2001a: Evaluation of chemosystematic characters in the genus Leontodon (Asteraceae). – Taxon 50: 115-133.

Zidorn C. & Stuppner H. 2001b: Chemosystematics of taxa from the Leontodon section Oporinia. – Biochem. Syst. Ecol. 29: 827-837.

Common names

Turkish (Turkey): YalankanikA

Chromosome numbers

Diploids and tetraploids, x = 7?, 6, 5.B

Bibliography

A. Güner A. (ed.), Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). 2012
B. Watanabe K., Index to chromosome numbers in Asteraceae.