Scolymus hispanicus

Primary tabs

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Description

Herb, biennial or perennial, (10)-30-80-(100) cm high, with taproot. Flowering stems narrowly winged with very unequal, sharply spinose lobes, arachnoid to pilose, branched. Lower cauline leaves narrowly oblong, 12.0-20.0 cm long, 2.5-4.0 cm wide, pinnatifid, spinose to denticulate, glabrescent or pilose; lateral lobes broadly deltoid. Middle and upper cauline leaves spinose, amplexicaul. Synflorescence spiciform. Peduncle absent, the heads sessile in the axils of the uppermost leaves. Involucre at flowering cylindrical, 10.0-20.0 mm long, at flowering 10.0 mm in diameter; outer involucral bracts 15.0-40.0 mm long, 5.0-10.0 mm wide, margin spinose; inner involucral bracts narrowly ovate, 8.0-20.0 mm long, 3.0-7.0 mm wide, acuminate, margin minutely ciliate, margin scarious. Receptacle with scales almost totally enveloping the achenes and forming membranous-margined lateral wings. Corolla ligulate, yellow, pubescent below; tube 8.0-10.0 mm long; ligule 14.0-15.0 mm long, 2.5 mm wide. Anthertube c. 6.0 mm long; apical appendages rounded. Style 18.0-20.0 mm long; branches c. 1.5 mm long. Achenes obovoid or broadly ovoid in outline, dorsally compressed, 8.0-9.0 mm long, 7.0-8.0 mm wide. Pappus up to 6.0 mm long, paleaceous and barbellate with a few (2-4) bristles.

Based on: Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. – Kew; Sell, P. and Murell, G. 2006: Flora of Great Britain and Ireland 4. – Cambridge; Strother, J. L. 2006: 34. Scolymus Linnaeus und 35. Cichorium Linnaeus. – Pp. 220-222 in: Flora of North America Editorial Com. (ed.), Flora of North America 19. – New York / Oxford.

Distribution

Africa: Algeria (Algerianative); Azores (AçôresintroducedA,B,C); Canary Is. (Canary Is.native); Egypt (Egyptnative); Libya (Libyanative); Morocconative; Tunisia (Tunisianative) Asia-Temperate: Cyprus (Cyprusnative); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.native); Iran (Iranreported in errorD,E,F); Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); North CaucasusnativeG,H,I (KrasnodarnativeJ); Palestine (Israelnative, Jordannative); Transcaucasus (AbkhaziyanativeH,K,L, Adzhariyanative, AzerbaijannativeI, GeorgianativeK); Turkey (Turkeynative) Australasia: New South Wales (New South WalesintroducedM,N,O,P); South Australia (South AustraliaintroducedM); Victoria (VictoriaintroducedM,N,O,P) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Baleares (Balearesnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Corse (Corsenative); Francenative; Greece (Greecenative); Italynative; Kriti (Kritinative); Krym (Krymnative); Poland (Polandintroduced: adventitious (casual)Q,R); Portugal (Portugalnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative); Sicilynative (Maltanative, Sicilynative); Spain (GibraltarnativeS, Spainnative); Switzerland (Switzerlandintroduced); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative); Ukraine (Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative: presence questionableT, MontenegronativeT,U, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: Alabama (AlabamaintroducedV); California (CaliforniaintroducedV); New York (New YorkintroducedV); Pennsylvania (PennsylvaniaintroducedV) Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Buenos AiresintroducedW, Entre RíosintroducedW)

Credits

Liveri E. 2018: Images (1 added)
Willing E. 2017: Images (1 added)

Common names

Albanian (Albania): RrëkuallX,1; Arabic (Lebanon): سْكوليمُس إسْبانيY,1, شَوْكَة صَفْراءY,1, صُنّارِيَّةY,1; Arabic (Syria): سْكوليمُس إسْبانيZ,1, شَوْكَة صَفْراءZ,1, صُنّارِيَّةZ,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Испански сколимусAA,1; English (Australia): Golden ThistleM,N,O, Spanisg SalsifyM; English (Cyprus): Spanish Oyster-plantAB; French (Corse): Scolyme d'EspagneAC,1; French (France): Chardon d'EspagneAD,1, Scolyme d'EspagneAD,1, Épine jauneAD,1; French (Switzerland): Scolyme d'EspagneAE,1; German (Switzerland): Spanische GoldwurzelAE,1; Hebrew (Israel): חוֹחַ סְפָרַדִּיAF,1, חוח ספרדיAF,1; Italian (Italy): Cardogna comuneAG,1; Italian (Switzerland): Cardogna comuneAE,1; Swedish (Sweden): Spansk taggfibblaAH,1; Turkish (Cyprus): İspanya AltındikenAB; Ukrainian (Ukraine & Crimea): Сколiмус iспанськийAI,1
1. recommended

Uses

The species was formerly cultivated in southern Europe for the roots and young shoots used asparagus-like as a vegetable.AJ,AK

Bibliography

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AH. Karlsson, T., Checklista över Nordens kärlväxter . 2004
AI. Opredelitel’ vysših rastenij Ukrainy. 1999
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AK. Jeffrey C. - Compositae (Asteraceae) in Hanelt P. (ed.), Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (except ornamentals) 4. 2001: 2052