Taraxacum bicorne

Primary tabs

Taraxacum bicorne

no image available

Common names

Chinese (China): 双角蒲公英 shuang jiao pu gong yingA

Description

"Plants small, usually 7–10 (–15) cm tall. Root not conspicuously thickened, with thin threads of rubber when broken. Petiole narrowly winged, usually ± green above with pale green to purple mid-vein, or suffused lividoid. Leaves vivid greyish green, usually with lividoid hue, linear oblanceolate in outline, usually 4.5–8 × 0.5–1.3 cm, occasionally12 cm long, rarely undivided, usually pinnatilobed, with 2–4 pairs of ± patent triangular-deltoid, broadly triangular to linear-triangular lateral lobes, entire or with a few minute teeth on distal margin; terminal lobe usually larger, often elongated, sometiomes acute with concave sides. Scapes pale green or suffused purple, arachnoid, usually overtopping leaves. Capitulum usually 2–2.5 cm wide, lighter yellow. Involucre light green, ca 6–8 mm wide and ± rounded at base. Outer phyllaries appressed, loosely appressed or erect, usually 10–13, light yellowish green, with distinct, anastomozing venation, narrowly lanceolate to ovate, relatively short, usually (4–) 5–6.5 × 1.5–2.3 mm, with 0.2–0.4 mm wide whitish border, upper part of phyllaries usually suffused pink or dirty pink to purplish, with a thick obtuse grey-pink horn below apex, the apex itself bent perpendicularly and having an appearance of another horn (“bicorne”), margin entire, not ciliate, occasionally denticulate at apex; inner phyllaries ca 9–11, pale green, pinkish above, initially 11–12 mm long, later conspicuously elongating to reach at least 16–17 mm. Outer ligules flat, lighter yellow inside, striped dirty pinkish below and grey-pink above, outer ligule teeth greyish-pinkish, inner ones ± yellow or pinkish yellow. Stigmas yellow. Anthers polliniferous, pollen grains of regular, ± equal size. Achenes light stramineous-brown to light greyish so, (3.2–) 3.5–3.8 × 0.8–0.9 mm, body with numerous conspicuous ridges, upper half of achene body, particularly on ridges, covered with erect-patent to upwards sickle-shaped coarse spinules, body subgradually narrowing into ± subconical cone 0.7–1.0 mm long, with a few basal spinules; beak thin, usually 8–9.5 mm long, pappus ± pure white, 8–9 mm long. Sexual."

from Zeisek & al (2019: 1353-1354) and Kirschner & al. (2020: 237)B,C

Distribution

Asia-Temperate: Amur reported in errorA,D; China North-Central (Gansu nativeA); Kazakhstan nativeA; Khabarovsk reported in errorA,D; Kirgizistan nativeA,E; Magadan reported in errorA,D; Mongolia reported in errorA,F; Primorye reported in errorA,D; Qinghai nativeA; Uzbekistan nativeG; Xinjiang nativeA,B Asia-Tropical: Pakistan nativeB; West Himalaya (Jammu-Kashmir nativeB)

Uses

Taraxacum bicorne, closely related to T. koksaghyz, could
be a potential rubber source (although its rubber content is only half of that of T. koksaghyz). Alternatively it may be interesting as a genetic resource to improve rubber yield of T. koksaghyz , because T. bicorne has considerable genetic variation, a wider geographical range and grows in different environments (Zeisek & al. 2019).C

Bibliography

A. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
B. Kirschner J., Štěpánek J., Klimeš L. & al., The Taraxacum flora of Ladakh, with notes on the adjacent regions of the West Himalaya in Phytotaxa 457: 1-409. 2020
C. Zeisek V., Kirschner J., Dijk P. J. van & al., Analysis of wild Taraxacum bicorne Dahlst. (Compositae–Crepidinae) as a potential alternative natural rubber crop in Genet. Resources Crop Evol. 66: 1341–1361. 2019
D. Charkevič S. S., Sosudistye rastenija sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 6. 1992
E. Lazkov G. A. & Sultanova B. A., Kadastr flory Kyrgyzstana: sosudistye rasteniya / Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan. – Norrlinia 24. 2011
F. Gubanov I. A., Konspekt flory vnešnej Mongolii (sosudistye rastenija). 1996
G. Kovalevsk. - in Vvedensky, Fl. Uzbekistan. 6. 1962