Warioniinae

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Systematics

The monospecific relic genus Warionia (Katinas & al. 2008) has been resolved as sister group to the Cichorieae in their traditional sense in all analyses available so far: Funk & al. (2004), based on trnL-F, ndhF and ITS data, forming a clade together with Gundelia; Goertzen & al. 2003: fig. 3, based on ITS data; Gemeinholzer & al. (in Kilian & al. 2009), based on ITS data; Fu & al. 2016, based on plastid DNA markers. Warionia is closer to the Cichorieae than to any other tribe of the Compositae according to molecular and morphological analyses (see also Cichorieae: Systematics) but it is so distinct from all other genera within the tribe that it has been placed in a subtribe of its own, the Warioniinae, by Gemeinholzer & Kilian (in Kilian & al. 2009).

Warionia is endemic to SE Morocco and NW Algeria, and characterised by a frutescent habit, latex, essential oils, the presence of both oil ducts and latex canals in the roots (Augier & Mérac 1951; Carlquist 1976: 481; Ramaut & al. 1985), homogamous capitula with often slightly zygomorphic 5-dentate, tubular, yellow flowers with 10 corolla bundles (Kilian & al. 2009), a pollen resembling the Serratula-type pollen present in the Cardueae (Katinas & al. 2008), densely pilose achenes with a pappus of coarse, scabrid bristles, and a strongly asymmetrical karyotype with a basic chromosome number of x = 17 (Oberprieler & Vogt 1993, Katinas & al. 2008).A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I

Distribution

Africa: Algeria (Algerianative); Morocconative

Bibliography

A. Augier J. & Mérac M.-L. du, La phylogénie des Composées in Rev. Sci. France 89: 167-182. 1951
B. Carlquist S., Tribal interrelationships and phylogeny of the Asteraceae. in Aliso 8: 465-492. 1976
C. Fu Z.-X. & al., A comprehensive generic-level phylogeny of the sunflower family: Implications for the systematics of Chinese Asteraceae in J. Syst. Evol. 54: 416-437. 2016
D. Funk V. A., Chan R. & Keeley S. C., Insights into the evolution of the tribe Arctoteae (Compositae: subfamily Cichorioideae s.s.) using trnL-F, ndhF and ITS in Taxon 53: 637-655. 2004
E. Goertzen L. R., Cannone J. J., Gutell R. R. & al., ITS secondary structure derived from comparative analysis: implications for sequence alignment and phylogeny of the Asteraceae in Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 29: 216-234. 2003
F. Katinas & al., Warionia (Asteraceae): a relict genus of Cichorieae? in Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 65: 367-381. 2008
G. Kilian N., Gemeinholzer B. & Lack H. W. - Tribe Cichorieae in Funk V. A., Susanna A., Stuessy T. & al., Systematics, evolution and biogeography of Compositae. 2009
H. Oberprieler C. & Vogt R., Chromosome numbers of north African phanerogams II in Willdenowia 23: 211-238. 2018
I. Ramaut J. L. & al., Main constituents of the essential oil of Warionia saharae Benth. and Coss in Chromatographia 20: 193-194. 1985