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Asia-Temperate: Turkey (Turkeyreported in error) Europe: Greece (Greecenative); Kriti (Kritinative)


"Herbs perennial, rosette-forming. Stems solitary to few, branched, with glandular and longer, eglandular hairs. Leaves pinnatifid-pinnatisect with dense, appressed, rigid, glandular and longer, eglandular hairs. Cauline leaves resembling rosette leaves or bractlike. Capitula 1 to c. 20 per individual. Involucral bracts in several imbricate rows, greenish in middle with scarious margin. Receptacle paleate, pitted, with awned scales peripherally. Receptacular paleae membranous. Ligules bright yellow or orange-yellow, 5-dentate. Achenes obconic, 5-angled, appressed pilose. Pappus of up to 15 linear-lanceolate, awned scales."A

Chromosome numbers

Diploids, x = 10.A,B


Hymenonema is a genus of two species restricted to Greece with a scaly-aristate pappus and a paleate-ciliate receptacle. It has been associated with two other Mediterranean genera, Catananche and Rothmaleria, both with scaly pappus and paleate receptacle, first by Schultz Bipontinus (1841) and followed by subsequent authors including the more recent systematic treatments of the Cichorieae by Stebbins (1953), Jeffrey (1966), Bremer (1994) and Lack (2006).

Stebbins (1953) placed Hymenonema together with Catananche and Rothmaleria along with Cichorium, Arnoseris, Tolpis and other genera, in a very widely defined subtribe Cichoriinae. Jeffrey (1966) classified the three genera as Catananche subgroup of his Tolpis group. Blackmore (1981) associated Catananche, Hymenonema and Rothmaleria with Scolymus for palynological reasons. Most recently, the molecular phylogenetic analyses of the Cichorieae by Gemeinholzer & al. (in Kilian & al. 2009) supported the relationship of Hymenonema and Catananche with Scolymus. Both genera have therefore been placed by Kilian & al. (2009) in subtribe Scolyminae. Rothmaleria, in contrast, turned out to be unrelated with the other two genera and clustered instead with Cichorium and Tolpis in a clade representing subtribe Cichoriinae.


Blackmore S. 1981: Palynology and intergeneric relationships in subtribe Hyoseridinae (Compositae: Lactuceae). – Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 82: 1-13.

Bremer K. 1994: Asteraceae: cladistics & Classification. – Portland: Timber.

Jeffrey C. 1966: Notes in Compositae I. The Cichorieae in East Tropical Africa. – Kew Bull. 18: 427-486.

Kilian N., Gemeinholzer B. & Lack H. W. 2009: Tribe Cichorieae. – In: Funk V. A., Susanna A., Stuessy T. & Bayer R. (ed.), Systematics, evolution, and biogeography of the Compositae. – Vienna: IAPT.

Lack H. W. 2006 ["2007"]: Cichorieae. Pp. 180-199 in: Kadereit J.W. & Jeffrey C. (ed.), The families and genera of vascular plants 8. – Berlin: Springer.

Liveri E., Bareka P. & Kamari G. 2014: Reports 1824. Hymenonema graecum, 1825. Hymenonema laconium. – In: Kamari G., Blanché C. & Siljak-Yakovlev (ed.), Mediterranean chromosome number reports 24. – Fl. Medit. 24: 274–276. // ➪ //

Schultz-Bipontinus C. H. 1841: Sceleton systematis articulati Cichoriacearum. – Jahrb. Pract. Pharm. Verwandte Fächer 4: 153-156.

Stebbins G. L. 1953: A new classification of the tribe Cichorieae, family Compositae. – Madroño 12: 65-81.


A. Liveri E. & al., Taxonomic study on the Greek endemic genus Hymenonema (Asteraceae: Cichorieae), using morphological and karyological traits in Willdenowia 48: 5-21. 2018
B. Liveri E. & al. in Fl. Medit. 24. 2014