Faberia

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Faberia

Common names

Chinese (China): 花佩菊属 hua pei ju shuA

Systematics

Faberia, a genus of rare species endemic to SW China, was little known for a long time. Beauverd (1910) provided a first synopsis of the three species recognised by him as its members. Bremer (1994) and Lack (2006) merged the genus with Prenanthes and treated it as a member of subtribe Lactucinae. Kilian & al. (2009) reinstated it as an independent genus and placed it in subtribe Crepidinae. Later Shih & Kilian (in Shih & al. 2011), relying on a comparative morphological study and an initial phylogenetic analysis of nrITS sequences, included seven species in Faberia, reuniting the genus with its former monotypic segregate Faberiopsis (Shih & Chen 1996), and considered it as a member of subtribe Lactucinae. Further additions to the genus by Sennikov (2008), which were based on wider concept of the genus, were not supported by Shih & Kilian (in Shih & al. 2011).

Karyological studies of Faberia, revealing a basic chromosome number of x = 17 (see Chromosome numbers, below), indicated an alloploid origin of the genus from parents with x= 8 and x= 9. Three almost simultaneously published molecular phylogenetic analyses, by Liu & al. (2013), Wang & al. (2013) and Wang & al. (2014), all comparing nuclear as well as chloroplast markers, confirmed the concept of Faberia of Shih & Kilian (in Shih & al. 2011) as well as the reticulate evolution of the genus with a maternal ancestor from subtribe Crepidinae and a paternal ancestor from the Lactucinae. Liu & al. (2013) showed that the maternal ancestors were most likely closely related to the present day genus Dubyaea of the Crepidinae. Liu & al. (2013), moreover, provided karyological and molecular evidence that Dubyaea glaucescens is actually also a member of Faberia, raising the number of its species to eight. Youngia racemifera, included in Faberia by Sennikov (2008), was shown Liu & al. (2013) to be no member of the genus but to be nested in Dubyaea.

Liu & al. (2013) and Wang & al. (2014) showed that the investigated species of Faberia form three well supported clades: one including F. cavaleriei and F. nanchuanensis, the second F. faberi and F. sinensis and the third F. glaucescens and F. thibetica.

Wang & al. (2013) discussed whether the nuclear or chloroplast phylogeny provide the better phylogenetic estimate for the genus and state that morphology is little decisive in this case. The assumed sudden and rapid diversification of tribe Cichorieae might explain the frequently missing clear morphological synapomorphies for the major lineages recognised as subtribes. This applies especially to subtribes Lactucinae and Crepidinae, and certainly is the major reason for their late recognition as separate lineages. Bremer (1994) identified for the Crepidinae an involucre distinctly differentiated between inner and outer phyllary series (typically so in e.g. Youngia and Ixeris) as a possible synapomorphy. Although in the Lactucinae often the outer phyllary series grade into the inner ones (e.g. often so in Lactuca and Melanoseris), in other cases, e.g. in Notoseris and Paraprenanthes, inner and outer phyllary series are distinctly separated as is the case in Faberia. Wang & al. (2013) conclude that morphological reasons for both placements of Faberia can be found but follow the nuclear DNA phylogeny and hence treat Faberia as a member of subtribe Lactucinae.

References


Beauverd G. 1910: Les espèces du genre Faberia. – Bull. Soc. Bot. Genève, ser. 2, 2: 49–51. // ➪ //

Bremer K. 1994: Asteraceae. Cladistics and classification. – Portland: Timber.

Kilian N., Gemeinholzer B. & Lack H. W. 2009: Tribe Cichorieae. – In: Funk V. A., Susanna A., Stuessy T. & Bayer R. (ed.), Systematics, evolution, and biogeography of the Compositae .– Vienna: IAPT. // ➪ //

Lack H. W. 2006: Tribe Cichorieae Lam. & DC. – Pp. 180–199 in: Kadereit J. W. & Jeffrey C. (ed.), The families and genera of vascular plants 8. – Berlin: Springer.

Liu Y., Chen Y.-S. & Yang Q.-E. 2013: Generic status, circumscription, and allopolyploid origin of Faberia (Asteraceae: Cichorieae) as revealed by ITS and chloroplast DNA sequence data. – Taxon 62: 1235–1247. // ➪ //

Liu Y., Tao D. & Yang Q.-E. 2012: Karyology of the genus Faberia (Cichorieae – Asteraceae) and its systematic implications. – Nordic J. Bot. 29: 365–371. // ➪ //

Sennikov A. N. & Illarionova I. D. 2008 ["2007"]: Generic delimitation of the subtribe Ixeridinae newly segregated from Crepidiinae (Asteraceae-Lactuceae). – Komarovia 5: 57–115.

Shih C. & Chen Y. L. 1996: Faberiopsis C. Shih & Y.L. Chen, genus novum familiae compositarum sinensium. – Acta Phytotax. Sin. 34: 438–439.

Shih C., Ge X. J.; Kilian N., Kirschner J., Štěpánek J., Sukhorukov A. P., Mavrodiev E. V. & Gottschlich G. 2011: Cichorieae. – Pp. 195–353 in: Wu Z. Y., Raven P. H. & Hong D. Y. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21. Asteraceae. – Beijing: Science Press & St Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden. // ➪ //

Wang G.-Y., Meng Y., Deng T. & Yang Y.-P. 2014: Molecular phylogeny of Faberia ( Asteraceae: Cichorieae) based on nuclear and chloroplast sequences. – Phytotaxa 167: 223–234. // ➪ //

Wang Z.-H., Peng H., Kilian N. 2013: Molecular phylogeny of the Lactuca alliance (Cichorieae subtribe Lactucinae, Asteraceae) with focus on their Chinese centre of diversity detects potential events of reticulation and chloroplast capture. – PLoS ONE 8(12): e82692. // ➪ //

Description

Herbs, perennial, often rosulate, with rhizomes. Stem leafy or ± leafless. Leaves lyrately pinnate or undivided, leathery. Capitula with 5–30 florets. Involucre ± narrowly cylindric to ± narrowly campanulate. Phyllaries mostly glabrous; outer phyllaries in several series, gradually longer centripetally, often conspicuously imbricate, longest ca. 1/2 as long as inner ones; inner phyllaries 5–14, ± equal in length, ± linear-lanceolate to linear. Receptacle naked. Florets reddish to bluish purple. Achene brown to reddish brown, subcylindric to narrowly ellipsoid, rather weakly compressed, with 5 main ribs and 1 or 2 narrower ribs in between, apex truncate. Pappus brownish, single, of strong scabrid bristles.

from: Shih C. & Kilian N. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 211–212. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Chromosome numbers

Six of the eight species of Faberia have been investigated karyologically (Liu & al. 2012; Liu & Ren 2013; Liu & al. 2013), F. cavaleriei, F. faberi, F. glaucescence, F. nanchuanensis, F. sinensis and F. thibetica, and in all the unusual chromosome number of 2n = 34 was counted. The basic chromosome number of the genus is thus apparently x = 17. This number so far is only known from Warionia (subtribe Warionieae) and the species of the Lactuca canadensis clade (subtribe Lactucinae) in North America. The most probable explanation of this number is through hybridisation between diploid ancestors with x = 8 and x = 9 and subsequent genome duplication. The karyotypes of all Faberia species studies are quite uniform, consisting of mostly median centromeric and, depending on the species, of 4–7 pairs of submedian centromeric chromosomes. The chromsomes are all medium-sized, being (4.5–)6.1–1.61 µm long, and show within a karyotype a steady length gradation with no evidence of bimodality.

References


Liu Y. & Ren C. 2013: Cytotaxonomy of Prenanthes faberi (Compositae – Cichorieae). – Nordic J. Bot. 31: 115–118. // ➪ //

Liu Y., Chen Y.-S. & Yang Q.-E. 2013: Generic status, circumscription, and allopolyploid origin of Faberia (Asteraceae: Cichorieae) as revealed by ITS and chloroplast DNA sequence data. – Taxon 62: 1235–1247. // ➪ //

Liu Y., Tao D. & Yang Q.-E. 2012: Karyology of the genus Faberia (Cichorieae – Asteraceae) and its systematic implications. – Nordic J. Bot. 29: 365–371. // ➪ //

Distribution

Asia-Temperate: China South-Central (Chongqingnative, Guizhounative, Sichuannative, Yunnannative); China Southeast (Guangxinative, Hunannative); Tibetnative

Bibliography

A. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011