Lactuca viminea

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Lactuca viminea

http://media.bgbm.org/erez/erez?src=EditWP6/photos/Lactuca_viminea_Bb_01.JPG

Common names

Albanian (Albania): Marule thuproreA,1; Arabic (Lebanon): سْكَرْيولَة سَوْحَرِيَّةB,1; Arabic (Syria): سْكَرْيولَة سَوْحَرِيَّةC,1; Armenian (Armenia): Սկարիոլա ճիպոտանմանD,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Гъвкава салатаE,1; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): Enciam bordF; Czech (Czech Republic): Locika prutnatáG,1; French (France): Laitue OsierH,1, Laitue des vignesH,1, Laitue effiléeH,1; French (Switzerland): Laitue effiléeI,1; German (Germany): Ruten-LattichJ,1; German (Switzerland): Ruten-LattichI,1; Hebrew (Israel): חַסַּת הַשְּׁבָטִיםK,1, חסת השבטיםK,1; Italian (Italy): Lattuga alataL,1; Italian (Switzerland): Lattuga alataI,1; Russian (Armenia): Скариола прутовиднаяD,1; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): Cardo lecheroF, Lechuga de asnoF, Lechuga de caballoF, RepóntigoF, Ripia blancaF; Turkish (Turkey): ÇukurçıtlığıM
1. recommended

Description

Herb, biennial, 35-150 cm high. Taproot tough. Flowering stems erect, ivory-coloured, glabrous, slender, strongly branched; branches simple, spreading-erect. Cauline leaves hispidulous-pilose or nearly glabrous. Lower cauline leaves oblong, 6.0-15.0 cm long, 1.0-6.0 cm wide, runcinate, dentate at lateral lobes; terminal lobe deltoid or oblong, acute; lateral lobes at least 8, oblong or linear. Middle and upper cauline leaves auriculate with long-decurrent auricles adnate to the stem, apically increasingly smaller or reduced to scales. Synflorescence paniculiform. Peduncle very short or absent. Heads with c. 5 flowers. Involucre at flowering narrowly cylindrical, (8.5)-10.0-12.0-(21.0) mm long, 2.0-2.5 mm in diameter; outer involucral bracts ovate, 3.0-4.0 mm long, 1.0-1.5 mm wide, apically tinged purple, margin minutely ciliate; inner involucral bracts linear, up to 12.0 mm long, 1.5 mm wide. Flowers opening at midday. Corolla ligulate, yellow and tinged red externally, glabrous; tube c. 7.0 mm long; ligule 9.0-10.0 mm long, 2.5-3.0 mm wide. Anthertube yellow, 4.0-4.5 mm long; apical appendages obtuse. Style c. 15.0 mm long; branches c. 1.5 mm long. Achenes strongly compressed, 9.5-15.0 mm long, 1.3 mm wide, scabridulous, blackish, with 14 ribs, attenuate into an ill-defined beak, ending in a distinct apical disk; beak 4.5-6.0 mm long, about as long as the corpus, of the same colour as the corpus. Pappus white, 4.5-10.5 mm long, fragile, minutely scabrid.

Based on: Jeffrey, C. 1975: Flora auf Turkey 5. - Edinburgh (as Scariola viminea); Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. - Kew (as Scariola viminea).

Distribution

Africa: Algeria (AlgerianativeN); Canary Is. (Canary Is.native: doubtfully nativeO); Libya (LibyaintroducedP); Morocconative; Tunisia (TunisianativeQ) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan (AfghanistannativeR); Cyprus (CyprusnativeS,T,U); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.native); Iran (IrannativeV,W,X); Iraq (IraqnativeAA,R,V,W,Y,Z); Lebanon-Syria (LebanonnativeAB,AC,AD, SyrianativeAC,AE); North CaucasusnativeAF,AG,AH (DagestannativeAI, KrasnodarnativeAI, StavropolnativeAI); Palestine (IsraelnativeAD,AE,AJ, JordannativeAJ,AK); Saudi Arabia (Saudi ArabianativeAL); Transcaucasus (AbkhaziyanativeAG,AH,AI,AM,AN, AdzhariyanativeAI, ArmenianativeAG,AI,AO, AzerbaijannativeAG,AH,AI,AP, GeorgianativeAI,AQ, NakhichevannativeAG,AI,AP); Turkey (TurkeynativeAB,AD,AG,AR,M) Asia-Tropical: Pakistan (PakistannativeAS,R); West Himalaya (Himachal PradeshnativeR) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); AustrianativeAT (AustrianativeAU); BalearesnativeF (BalearesnativeAT,AV,AW,AX,AY); Bulgaria (BulgarianativeAT,AZ,BA,BB,BC,E); Corse (Corsenative); CzechoslovakianativeAT (Czech RepublicnativeBD,BE,BF,BG, SlovakianativeBD,BE); Francenative; Germany (GermanynativeAT,BH,BI); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (HungarynativeAT,BJ,BK); Italynative; Kriti (KritinativeAB,AT,BA,BL,BM,BN); Krym (KrymnativeAB,AH,AT,BO,BP); PortugalnativeF (Portugalnative); Romania (RomanianativeAT,BA,BQ,BR); Sardegna (SardegnanativeAT,BS,BT,BU,BV); SicilynativeAT (SicilynativeBS,BT,BU,BW); Spainnative (Andorranative, Spainnative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative: presence questionable); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-EuropenativeAB,AR,AT,BN,BX,BY); Ukraine (MoldovanativeBO,BZ, UkrainenativeBO,CA); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-HerzegovinanativeBA,CB, Croatianative, MacedonianativeBA, MontenegronativeBA,CC, Serbianative: presence questionable, SlovenianativeCD,CE)

Credits

Christodoulou C. S. 2009: Images (1 added).

Bibliography

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AP. Karjagin, I. I., Flora azerbajdžana 8. 1961
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BO. Fedorov, A. A., Flora evropejskoj časti SSSR 8 [Cvelev, N. N.]. 1989 (as Scariola viminea)
BP. Vul’f, E. V., Flora Kryma/Flora Taurica 3(2). 1966 (as Scariola viminea)
BQ. Ciocârlan, V., Flora ilustrata a României 2. 1990
BR. Popescu, A. & Sanda, V., Conspectul florei cormofitelor spontane din România in Acta Bot. Horti Bucurest. [suppl.]. 1998
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BT. Fiori, A., Nuova flora analitica d’Italia 2. 1925-1929 (as Lactuca viminea var. viminea)
BU. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Lactuca viminea subsp. viminea)
BV. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1. 1976 (as Lactuca viminea var. viminea)
BW. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1. 1976 (as Lactuca viminea subsp. viminea)
BX. Tutin, T. G. & al., Flora Europaea. 1964-1993
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BZ. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986 (as Scariola viminea)
CA. Mosyakin, S. L. & Fedoronchuk, M. M. , Vascular plants of Ukraine. A nomenclatural checklist. 1999 (as Scariola viminea)
CB. Beck von Mannagetta, G., Flora Bosnae et Hercegovinae [Flora Bosne, Hercegovine i novipazarskog sandžaka] 4(4) [Slišković, T.]. 1983
CC. Rohlena, J., Conspectus florae montenegrinae in Preslia 20-21. 1942
CD. Martinčič, A., Mala flora Slovenije, ed. 3. 1999
CE. Trpin, D. & Vreš, B., Register flore Slovenije. Praprotnice in cvetnice. 1995