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Asia-Temperate: Amur native; China North-Central (Shandong native: presence questionable); China Southeast (Jiangsu native, Zhejiang native); Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol native); Japan (Honshu native, Kyushu native); Khabarovsk native; Korea (North Korea native, South Korea native); Manchuria (Heilongjiang native, Jilin native, Liaoning native: presence questionable); Primorye native

Chromosome numbers

Diploids, x = 8.A


Herbs, perennial, ± glabrous, with rhizomes. Stems well developed, erect, leafy. Basal and stem leaves linear-lanceolate, grasslike. Synflorescence laxly paniculiform to corymbiform, with few to many capitula. Capitula erect; peduncle wiry, few to some cm. Involucre cylindric. Phyllaries glabrous; outer phyllaries in several series, gradually longer centripetally, longest ca. 1/2 as long as inner ones; inner phyllaries ± linear-lanceolate, ± equal in length. Receptacle naked. Florets yellow. Achene blackish brown and straw-colored mottled, subcylindric to weakly angular, with 5 weak main ribs, secondary ribs indistinct, base attenuate, apex truncate. Pappus straw-colored, of scabrid brittle bristles.

from: Shih C. & Kilian N. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 340. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Common names

Chinese (China): 全光菊属 quan guang ju shuB


Originally treated as members of Hieracium, the three species of Hololeion with linear-lanceolate leaves, a brownish pappus and and E Asian distribution were first recognised as a separate genus by Kitamura (1941). Sennikov & Illarionova (2001) later supported the exclusion from Hieracium and the Hieraciinae, where they were still placed by Bremer (1994), by fruit anatomical studies, which showed that the achenes of Hololeion have a ribbing pattern (with 5 main ribs and no secondary ribs developed) different from Hieracium (with 10 equal ribs). The basic chromosome number of x = 8 also supports the exclusion from Hieracium and the Hieraciinae.

The conclusion of Sennikov & Illarionova (2001) to transfer the members of Hololeion to Crepis, was not, however, supported by later molecular phylogenetic analyses. The phylogenetic analyses by Kilian & al. (2009) and Zhang & al. (2011) resolved Hololeion in the Crepidinae but being nested in the E Asian-North American clade with Dubyaea, Nabalus, Soroseris and Syncalathium.C,D,E,F,G


A. Watanabe K., Index to chromosome numbers in Asteraceae.
B. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
C. Bremer K., Asteraceae. Cladistics and classification. 1994
D. Kilian N., Gemeinholzer B. & Lack H. W. - Tribe Cichorieae in Funk V. A., Susanna A., Stuessy T. & al., Systematics, evolution and biogeography of Compositae. 2009
E. Kitamura S., Hololeion, a new genus of the Compositae in Acta Phytotax. Geobot. 10: 298-305. 1941
F. Sennikov A. N. & Illarionova I. D., морфологическое и анатомическое строение семянок выдув рода Hieracium (Asteraceae) и близких родов [Morphological and anatomical structure of the achenes of the genus Hieracium (Asteraceae) and related genera] in Bot. Zhurn. 86(3): 37-59. 2001
G. Zhang J.-W. & al., Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of three closely related genera, Soroseris, Stebbinsia, and Syncalathium (Asteraceae, Cichorieae), endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, SW China in Taxon 60: 15-26. 2011