Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma

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Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma

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Description

Plants usually small, base with a tunic. Petiole unwinged; leaf blade pinnatisect; lateral lobes numerous, usually narrow, often dentate or lobulate. Capitulum small, mostly 2–3 cm wide. Outer phyllaries usually 10–18, often imbricate, linear-lanceolate to ovate, short, loosely appressed to arcuate-recurved, indistinctly bordered or pale bordered, apex usually corniculate. Ligules yellow; floret tube glabrous. Achene red, red-brown, brown, grayish pink, or straw-colored brown, 3.2–4.2 mm; body usually densely spinulose above, subabruptly to gradually narrowing into a distinct cylindric 0.7–1.2 mm cone; beak usually 4–9 mm. Pappus ± white.

from: Ge X., Kirschner J. & Štepánek J. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 323. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Distribution

Africa: AlgerianativeA; Azoresnative: doubtfully native; Canary Is.introduced; Cape Provinces (Eastern Cape Provinceintroduced); Egyptintroduced: naturalized; KwaZulu-Natalintroduced; Lesothointroduced; Libyaintroduced: adventitious (casual); Morocconative Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative; Altaynative; Cyprusnative; East Aegean Is.doubtfully present; Irannative; Iraqnative; Kazakhstannative; Kirgizistannative; Koreaintroduced; Lebanon-Syrianative (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); Manchuria (Liaoningintroduced); North Caucasusnative (Kabardino-Balkariyanative, Krasnodarnative, Severo-Osetiyanative, Stavropolnative); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkeynative; Uzbekistannative Asia-Tropical: West Himalaya (Jammu-KashmirnativeB) Australasia: New South Wales (New South Walesintroduced); Northern Territoryintroduced; Queensland (Queenslandintroduced); South Australiaintroduced; Tasmaniaintroduced; Victoriaintroduced Europe: Albanianative; Austrianative (Austrianative, Liechtensteinnative); Balearesnative; Baltic States (Estonianative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarusnative; Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgarianative; Central European Russianative; Corsenative; CzechoslovakiaC,D,E (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmarknative; East European Russianative; Finlandnative; Francenative (Channel Is.native, Francenative); Germanynative; Great Britainnative; Greecenative; Hungarynative; Icelandnative; Irelandnative (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative (Italynative); Kritinative: reported in errorF,G; Krymnative; Netherlandsnative; North European Russianative; Northwest European Russianative; Norwaynative; Polandnative; Portugalnative; Romanianative; Sardegnanative; SicilynativeC,H (Sicilynative); South European Russianative; Spainnative (Andorranative, Spainnative); Swedennative; Switzerlandnative; Turkey-in-Europenative; Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: Albertaintroduced; British Columbiaintroduced; Manitobaintroduced; New Brunswickintroduced; Northwest Territoriesintroduced; Nova Scotiaintroduced; Ontariointroduced; Québecintroduced; Saskatchewanintroduced; Yukonintroduced Southern America: Argentina South (Santa Cruzintroduced); Chile Central (Santiagointroduced); Haiti (Haitiintroduced)

Common names

Arabic (Lebanon): طَرَخْشَقون أَمْلَسI,1; Arabic (Syria): طَرَخْشَقون أَمْلَسI,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Червеносеменно глухарчеJ,1; Chinese (China): 红种子蒲公英组 hong zhong zi pu gong ying zuK; German (Germany): Schwielen-KuhblumeL,1; Italian (Italy): Tarassaco alpinoM,1, Tarassaco cerosoN,1
1. recommended

Bibliography

A. Quézel, P. & Santa, S., Nouvelle flore de l'Algérie et des régions désertiques méridionales 2. 1963 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
B. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
C. Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A., Flora europaea 4 [Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A.]. 1976 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum aggr.)
D. Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A., Flora europaea 4 [Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A.]. 1976 (as Taraxacum fulvum aggr.)
E. Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A., Flora europaea 4 [Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A.]. 1976 (as Taraxacum simile aggr.)
F. Halácsy, E. de, Conspectus florae graecae 2. 1902 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
G. Jahn, R. & Schönfelder, P., Exkursionsflora für Kreta. 1995
H. Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A., Flora europaea 4 [Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A.]. 1976 (as Taraxacum gasparrinii aggr.)
I. Nehmé, M., Etymological Dictionary of Syrian Flora. 2008 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
J. Andreev, N., Ančev, M., Kožuharov, S. I., Markova, M., Peev, D. & Petrova, A., Opredelitel na visšite rastenija v Bălgarija. 1992 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum)
K. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
L. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4: Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 10. 2005
M. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Taraxacum alpinum Hegetschw.)
N. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Taraxacum laevigatum aggr.)