Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma

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Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma

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Common names

Arabic (Lebanon): طَرَخْشَقون أَمْلَسA,1; Arabic (Syria): طَرَخْشَقون أَمْلَسA,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Червеносеменно глухарчеB,1; Chinese (China): 红种子蒲公英组 hong zhong zi pu gong ying zuC; German (Germany): Schwielen-KuhblumeD,1; Italian (Italy): Tarassaco alpinoE,1, Tarassaco cerosoF,1
1. recommended

Description

Plants usually small, base with a tunic. Petiole unwinged; leaf blade pinnatisect; lateral lobes numerous, usually narrow, often dentate or lobulate. Capitulum small, mostly 2–3 cm wide. Outer phyllaries usually 10–18, often imbricate, linear-lanceolate to ovate, short, loosely appressed to arcuate-recurved, indistinctly bordered or pale bordered, apex usually corniculate. Ligules yellow; floret tube glabrous. Achene red, red-brown, brown, grayish pink, or straw-colored brown, 3.2–4.2 mm; body usually densely spinulose above, subabruptly to gradually narrowing into a distinct cylindric 0.7–1.2 mm cone; beak usually 4–9 mm. Pappus ± white.

from: Ge X., Kirschner J. & Štepánek J. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 323. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Distribution

Africa: Algeria (AlgerianativeG); Azores (Açôresnative: doubtfully native); Cape Provinces (Eastern Cape Provinceintroduced); Egypt (Egyptintroduced: naturalized); KwaZulu-Natal (KwaZulu-Natalintroduced); Lesotho (Lesothointroduced); Libya (Libyaintroduced: adventitious (casual)); Morocconative Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative; Cyprus (Cyprusnative); Irannative (Irannative); Iraqnative; Kazakhstan (Kazakhstannative); Kirgizistan (Kirgizistannative); Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); Manchuria (Liaoningintroduced); North Caucasusnative (Kabardino-Balkariyanative, Krasnodarnative, Severo-Osetiyanative, Stavropolnative); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkey (Turkeynative) Asia-Tropical: West Himalaya (Jammu-KashmirnativeH) Australasia: New South Wales (New South WalesintroducedI); South Australia (South AustraliaintroducedI); Tasmania (TasmaniaintroducedI); Victoria (VictoriaintroducedI) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Austrianative (Austrianative, Liechtensteinnative); Baleares (Balearesnative); Baltic States (Estonianative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarus (Belarusnative); Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European Russianative); Corse (Corsenative); CzechoslovakiaJ,K,L (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmark (Denmarknative); East European Russia (East European Russianative); Finland (Finlandnative); France (Channel Is.native, Francenative); Germany (Germanynative); Great Britain (Great Britainnative); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (Hungarynative); Iceland (Icelandnative); Irelandnative (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative; Kriti (KritiM,N,O); Krym (Krymnative); Netherlands (Netherlandsnative); North European Russia (North European Russianative); Northwest European Russia (Northwest European Russianative); Norway (Norwaynative); Poland (Polandnative); Portugal (Portugalnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative); Sicilynative (Sicilynative); South European Russia (South European Russianative); Spainnative (AndorranativeP, Spainnative); Sweden (Swedennative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative); Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative, Montenegronative, Serbianative, SlovenianativeQ,R,S,T) Northern America: Alberta (Albertaintroduced); British Columbia (British Columbiaintroduced); Manitoba (Manitobaintroduced); New Brunswick (New Brunswickintroduced); Northwest Territories (Northwest Territoriesintroduced); Nova Scotia (Nova Scotiaintroduced); Ontario (Ontariointroduced); Québec (Québecintroduced); Saskatchewan (Saskatchewanintroduced); Yukon (Yukonintroduced) Southern America: Chile Central (Santiagointroduced); Haiti (Haitiintroduced)

Bibliography

A. Nehmé, M., Etymological Dictionary of Syrian Flora. 2008 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
B. Andreev, N., Ančev, M., Kožuharov, S. I., Markova, M., Peev, D. & Petrova, A., Opredelitel na visšite rastenija v Bălgarija. 1992 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum)
C. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
D. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4: Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 10. 2005
E. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Taraxacum alpinum Hegetschw.)
F. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Taraxacum laevigatum aggr.)
G. Quézel, P. & Santa, S., Nouvelle flore de l'Algérie et des régions désertiques méridionales 2. 1963 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
H. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
I. Scarlett N. H. - 17. Taraxacum in Walsh N. G. & Entwisle T. J., Flora of Victoria 4. 1999
J. Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A., Flora europaea 4 [Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A.]. 1976 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum aggr.)
K. Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A., Flora europaea 4 [Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A.]. 1976 (as Taraxacum fulvum aggr.)
L. Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A., Flora europaea 4 [Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A.]. 1976 (as Taraxacum simile aggr.)
M. Halácsy, E. de, Conspectus florae graecae 2. 1902 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
N. Jahn, R. & Schönfelder, P., Exkursionsflora für Kreta. 1995
O. Rechinger, K. H., Flora aegaea. Flora der Inseln und Halbinseln des Ägäischen Meeres in Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 105(1) (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
P. Losa, M. & Montserrat, P., Aportación al conocimiento de la flora de Andorra. 1951 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
Q. Martinčič, A. & Sušnik, F., Mala flora Slovenije. 1969 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
R. Martinčič, A. & Sušnik, F., Mala flora Slovenije. 1969 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
S. Martinčič, A., Mala flora Slovenije, ed. 3. 1999 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
T. Trpin, D. & Vreš, B., Register flore Slovenije. Praprotnice in cvetnice. 1995 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)