Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma

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Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma

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Common names

Arabic (Lebanon): طَرَخْشَقون أَمْلَسA,1; Arabic (Syria): طَرَخْشَقون أَمْلَسA,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Червеносеменно глухарчеB,1; Chinese (China): 红种子蒲公英组 hong zhong zi pu gong ying zuC; German (Germany): Schwielen-KuhblumeD,1; Italian (Italy): Tarassaco alpinoE,1, Tarassaco cerosoF,1
1. recommended

Description

Plants usually small, base with a tunic. Petiole unwinged; leaf blade pinnatisect; lateral lobes numerous, usually narrow, often dentate or lobulate. Capitulum small, mostly 2–3 cm wide. Outer phyllaries usually 10–18, often imbricate, linear-lanceolate to ovate, short, loosely appressed to arcuate-recurved, indistinctly bordered or pale bordered, apex usually corniculate. Ligules yellow; floret tube glabrous. Achene red, red-brown, brown, grayish pink, or straw-colored brown, 3.2–4.2 mm; body usually densely spinulose above, subabruptly to gradually narrowing into a distinct cylindric 0.7–1.2 mm cone; beak usually 4–9 mm. Pappus ± white.

from: Ge X., Kirschner J. & Štepánek J. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 323. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Distribution

Africa: Algeria nativeG; Azores native: doubtfully native; Canary Is. introduced; Cape Provinces (Eastern Cape Province introduced); Egypt introduced: naturalized; KwaZulu-Natal introduced; Lesotho introduced; Libya introduced: adventitious (casual); Morocco nativenativeH Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan native; Altay native; Cyprus native; East Aegean Is. doubtfully present; Iran nativenative; Iraq native; Kazakhstan native; Kirgizistan native; Korea introduced; Lebanon-Syria native (Lebanon nativenativeI,J,K,L, Syria nativenativeI,J); Manchuria (Liaoning introduced); North Caucasus nativenativeM,N (Kabardino-Balkariya native, Krasnodar native, Severo-Osetiya native, Stavropol native); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziya native, Adzhariya native, Armenia nativenativeO, Azerbaijan native, Georgia native, Nakhichevan native); Turkey nativenativeJ,P,Q,R; Uzbekistan native Asia-Tropical: West Himalaya (Jammu-Kashmir nativeS) Australasia: New South Wales (New South Wales introducedintroducedT); Northern Territory introduced; Queensland (Queensland introduced); South Australia introducedintroducedT; Tasmania introducedintroducedT; Victoria introducedintroducedT Europe: Albania nativenativeU,V,W; Austria nativenativeV,X,Y (Austria native, Liechtenstein native); Baleares nativenativeAA,AB,Z; Baltic States (Estonia native, Latvia nativenativeAC, Lithuania native); Belarus native; Belgium nativenativeV,X,Y (Belgium native, Luxembourg native); Bulgaria nativenativeAD,AE,AF,AG,V; Central European Russia native; Corse nativenativeAH,AI,AJ,AK,AL,AM,AN,AO,V,W,X,Y; CzechoslovakiaV,X,Y (Czech Republic native, Slovakia native); Denmark nativenativeV,X,Y; East European Russia native; Finland nativenativeV,X,Y; France native (Channel Is. native, France nativenativeAJ,AK,AL,AP,AQ,AR,V,W,X,Y); Germany nativenativeAS,AT,V,X,Y; Great Britain nativenativeV,X,Y; Greece nativenativeAF,AU,AV,AW,AX,R,V,W; Hungary nativenativeAY,AZ,BA,V; Iceland nativenativeV,X; Ireland nativenativeV,X,Y (Ireland native, Northern Ireland native); Italy nativenativeAI,AM,AN,AO,BB,BC,BD,V,W,X,Y (Italy native); Kriti native: reported in errorAU,BE; Krym nativenativeBF,BG; Netherlands nativenativeBH,V,X,Y; North European Russia native; Northwest European Russia native; Norway nativenativeV,X,Y; Poland nativenativeBI,BJ,V; Portugal nativenativeBK,BL,V; Romania nativenativeBM,BN,BO,BP,BQ,BR,V; Sardegna nativenativeAM,AN,BB,V; Sicily nativeV,W (Sicily nativenativeAM,BB); South European Russia native; Spain nativenativeV,W,X (Andorra nativenativeBS, Spain nativenativeAA,BT,BU,BV,BW,BX,BY,Z); Sweden nativenativeV,X,Y; Switzerland nativenativeBZ,CA,V,W,X,Y; Turkey-in-Europe nativenativeCB,V,W; Ukraine (Moldova nativenativeCC, Ukraine nativenativeBG,CD,CE); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina nativenativeAF,AW,CF,CG, Croatia nativenativeAF,AW,BC, Macedonia nativenativeAF,AW,CH,CI,CJ, Montenegro nativenativeAF,CK,CL, Serbia nativenativeAF,AW,CM,CN, Slovenia nativenativeCO,CP,CQ,CR) Northern America: Alberta introduced; British Columbia introduced; Manitoba introduced; New Brunswick introduced; Northwest Territories introduced; Nova Scotia introduced; Ontario introduced; Québec introduced; Saskatchewan introduced; Yukon introduced Southern America: Argentina South (Santa Cruz introduced); Chile Central (Santiago introducedintroducedCS); Haiti (Haiti introduced)
3. {an (Willd.) DC., Cat. Pl. Hort. Monsp.: 149. 1813 = Leontodon laevigatus Willd., Sp. Pl. 3: 1546. 1803?}

Bibliography

A. Nehmé, M., Etymological Dictionary of Syrian Flora. 2008 (as Taraxacum laevigatum2)
B. Andreev, N., Ančev, M., Kožuharov, S. I., Markova, M., Peev, D. & Petrova, A., Opredelitel na visšite rastenija v Bălgarija. 1992 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum)
C. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
D. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4: Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 10. 2005
E. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Taraxacum alpinum Hegetschw.)
F. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Taraxacum laevigatum aggr.)
G. Quézel, P. & Santa, S., Nouvelle flore de l'Algérie et des régions désertiques méridionales 2. 1963 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
H. Jahandiez, E. & Maire, R., Catalogue des plantes du Maroc 3. 1934 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
I. Mouterde, P., Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie 3, Texte. 1978–1984 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
J. Post, G. E., Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai 2. 1933 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
K. Post, G. E., Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai 2. 1933 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
L. Tohmé G. & Tohmé H., Illustrated flora of Lebanon. 2007 (as Taraxacum laevigatum3)
M. Galuško, A. I., Flora severnogo Kavkaza 3. 1980 (as Taraxacum ghalghanum)
N. Zernov, A. S., Rastenija severo-zapadnogo Zakavkaz’ja. 2000 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
O. Avetisian, V. E., Addenda to 1-10 volumes of „Flora of Armenia“ in Fl. Rastitel’nost’ Rastitel’nye Resursy Armen. 16: 79-91. 2007 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum)
P. Davis P. H., Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 5. 1975 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
Q. Davis P. H., Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 5. 1975 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
R. Rechinger K. H., Flora aegaea. Flora der Inseln und Halbinseln des Ägäischen Meeres in Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 105(1). 1944 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
S. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995 (as Taraxacum laevigatum3)
T. Scarlett N. H. - 17. Taraxacum in Walsh N. G. & Entwisle T. J., Flora of Victoria 4. 1999
U. Demiri M., Flora ekskursioniste e shqipërisë. 1983 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum)
V. Tutin T. G, Heywood V. H., Burges N. A. & al., Flora europaea 4. 1976 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum aggr.)
W. Tutin T. G, Heywood V. H., Burges N. A. & al., Flora europaea 4. 1976 (as Taraxacum gasparrinii aggr.)
X. Tutin T. G, Heywood V. H., Burges N. A. & al., Flora europaea 4. 1976 (as Taraxacum fulvum aggr.)
Y. Tutin T. G, Heywood V. H., Burges N. A. & al., Flora europaea 4. 1976 (as Taraxacum simile aggr.)
Z. Bolòs, O. de & Vigo, J., Flora dels països catalans 3. 1995 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
AA. Bolòs, O. de, Vigo, J., Masalles, R. M. & Ninot, J. M., Flora manual dels països catalans. 1990 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
AB. Knoche, H., Flora balearica 2. 1922 (as Taraxacum officinale f. corniculatum)
AC. Tabaka L., Gabrilova G. & Fatare I., Flora sosudistyh rastenij Latvijskoj SSR. 1988 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
AD. Andreev, N., Ančev, M., Kožuharov, S. I., Markova, M., Peev, D. & Petrova, A., Opredelitel na visšite rastenija v Bălgarija. 1992 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum)
AE. As’ov, B., Petrova, A., Dimitrov, D. & Vasilev, R., Konspekt na visšata flora na Bălgarija, ed. 2. 2002 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum)
AF. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928–1931 (as Taraxacum laevigatum subsp. glaucescens)
AG. Stojanov, N. & Stefanov, B., Flora na Bălgarija, 4 [Stojanov, N., Stefanov, B. & Kitanov, B.], 2. 1967 (as Taraxacum laevigatum var. laevigatum)
AH. Bouchard, J., Flore pratique de la Corse, ed. 3. 1978 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum aggr.)
AI. Fiori, A., Nuova flora analitica d’Italia 2. 1925–1929 (as Taraxacum officinale var. laevigatum)
AJ. Kerguélen, M., Index synonymique de la flore de France. 1993 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum aggr.)
AK. Kerguélen, M., Index synonymique de la flore de France. 1993 (as Taraxacum gasparrinii aggr.)
AL. Kerguélen, M., Index synonymique de la flore de France. 1993 (as Taraxacum simile aggr.)
AM. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Taraxacum laevigatum aggr.)
AN. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1 (Testo). 1976 (as Taraxacum fulvum)
AO. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1 (Testo). 1976 (as Taraxacum proximum)
AP. Coste, H., Flore descriptive et illustrée de la France 2. 1902–1903 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum)
AQ. Coste, H., Flore descriptive et illustrée de la France 2. 1902–1903 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
AR. Fournier, P., Les quatre flores de la France, Corse comprise. 1934–1940 (as Taraxacum laevigatum subsp. laevigatum)
AS. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 3. Gefäßpflanzen: Atlasband, ed. 10. 2000 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
AT. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4. Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 8. 1994 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
AU. Halácsy, E. de, Conspectus florae graecae 2. 1902 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
AV. Halácsy, E. de, Supplementum conspectus florae graecae. 1908 (as Taraxacum laevigatum var. obliquum)
AW. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928–1931 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
AX. Rechinger K. H., Flora aegaea. Flora der Inseln und Halbinseln des Ägäischen Meeres in Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 105(1). 1944 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
AY. Horváth, F., Dobolyi, Z. K., Morschhauser, T, Lőkös, L., Karas, L. & Szerdahelyi, T., Flóra adatbázis 1.2. Taxon-lista és attribútum allomány. 1995 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
AZ. Horváth, F., Dobolyi, Z. K., Morschhauser, T, Lőkös, L., Karas, L. & Szerdahelyi, T., Flóra adatbázis 1.2. Taxon-lista és attribútum allomány. 1995 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
BA. Simon, T., A magyarországi edényes flóra határozója. Harasztok - virágos növények. 1992 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
BB. Conti, F., Abbate, G., Alessandrini, A., Blasi, C., An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora. 2005 (as Taraxacum fulvum aggr.)
BC. Starmühler, W., Vorarbeiten zu einer “Flora von Istrien” Teil VIII in Carinthia 195: 515-654. 2005 (as Taraxacum taraxacoides)
BD. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1 (Testo). 1976 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum)
BE. Jahn, R. & Schönfelder, P., Exkursionsflora für Kreta. 1995
BF. Mosyakin, S. L. & Fedoronchuk, M. M., Vascular plants of Ukraine. A nomenclatural checklist. 1999 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
BG. Prokudin, J. N. (ed.), Opredelitel’ vysših rastenij Ukrainy. 1987 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum)
BH. Meijden, R. van der, Heukels' Flora van Nederland, ed. 21. 1990 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
BI. Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkova, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M., Flowering plants and pteridophytes of Poland. A Checklist. in Biodivers. Poland 1. 2002 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
BJ. Mirek, Z., Vascular plants of Poland. A Checklist. in Polish Bot. Stud., Guideb. Ser. 15. 1995 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
BK. Coutinho, A. X. P., A flora de Portugal, ed. 2. 1939 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. laevigatum)
BL. Sampaio, G., Flora portuguesa, ed. 2. 1947 (as Taraxacum vulgare var. laevigatum)
BM. Ciocârlan, V., Flora ilustrata a României 2. 1990 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
BN. Popescu, A. & Sanda, V., Conspectul florei cormofitelor spontane din România in Acta Bot. Horti Bucurest. [suppl.]. 1998 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum)
BO. Popescu, A. & Sanda, V., Conspectul florei cormofitelor spontane din România in Acta Bot. Horti Bucurest. [suppl.]. 1998 (as Taraxacum fulvum)
BP. Popescu, A. & Sanda, V., Conspectul florei cormofitelor spontane din România in Acta Bot. Horti Bucurest. [suppl.]. 1998 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
BQ. Săvulescu, T., Flora Republicii Populare Romîne 10. 1965 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
BR. Săvulescu, T., Flora Republicii Populare Romîne 10. 1965 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
BS. Losa, M. & Montserrat, P., Aportación al conocimiento de la flora de Andorra. 1951 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
BT. Aizpuru, I., Aseginolaza, C., Uribe-Echebarría, P. M., Urrutia, P. & Zorrakin, I., Clave ilustrada de la flora del País Vasco y territorios limitrofes. 1999 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum aggr.)
BU. Cadevall i Diars, J. & Sallent, A., Flora de Catalunya 3(3-6). 1923 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
BV. Valdés, B., Talavera, S. & Fernández-Galiano, E., Flora vascular de Andalucía occidental 3. 1987 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum)
BW. Villar, L., Sesé, J. A. & Ferrández, J. V., Atlas de la flora del Pirineo Aragonés 2. 2001 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
BX. Willkomm, M. & Lange, J., Prodromus florae hispanicae 2. 1865–1870 (as Taraxacum taraxacoides var. laevigatum)
BY. Willkomm, M., Supplementum prodromi florae hispanicae 2. 1893 (as Taraxacum taraxacoides var. laevigatum)
BZ. Hess, H. E., Bestimmungsschlüssel zur Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete, ed. 4. 1998 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
CA. Schinz, H. & Keller, R., Flora der Schweiz, ed. 3, 2. 1914 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. laevigatum)
CB. Webb D. A., The flora of European Turkey in Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., B 65/B/1: 1-100. 1966 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
CC. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
CD. Prokudin, J. N. (ed.), Opredelitel’ vysših rastenij Ukrainy. 1987 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
CE. Vul’f, E. V., Flora Kryma 3(3) [Rubcov, N. I. & Privalova, L. A.]. 1969 (as Taraxacum erythrospermum)
CF. Beck von Mannagetta, G., Flora Bosnae et Hercegovinae [Flora Bosne, Hercegovine i novipazarskog sandžaka] 4(4) [Slišković, T.]. 1983 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
CG. Beck von Mannagetta, G., Flora Bosnae et Hercegovinae [Flora Bosne, Hercegovine i novipazarskog sandžaka] 4(4) [Slišković, T.]. 1983 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
CH. Bornmüller J. F. N., Beiträge zur Flora Mazedoniens. Sammlungen in den Kriegsjahren 1916-1918. II in Bot. Jahrb. Syst., Beibl. 136. 1926 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
CI. Rudski, I., Prilog za poznavanje flore okoline Strumice in Posebna Izd. Srpska Kralj. Akad., Prir. Mat. Spisi 35: 205-238. 1943 (as Taraxacum laevigatum subsp. glaucescens)
CJ. Stojanov, N., Thracische und macedonische Herbarmaterialen des verstorbenen Prof. Dr. Theodor Nikoloff in Spis. Bulg. Akad. Nauk. 37: 49-209. 1928 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
CK. Rohlena, J., Conspectus florae montenegrinae in Preslia 20-21: 1-506. 1942 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
CL. Rohlena, J., Conspectus florae montenegrinae in Preslia 20-21: 1-506. 1942 (as Taraxacum laevigatum subsp. glaucescens)
CM. Josifović, M., Flora SR Srbije 7. 1975 (as Taraxacum laevigatum var. laevigatum)
CN. Josifović, M., Flora SR Srbije 7. 1975 (as Taraxacum laevigatum var. obliquum)
CO. Martinčič, A. & Sušnik, F., Mala flora Slovenije. 1969 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
CP. Martinčič, A. & Sušnik, F., Mala flora Slovenije. 1969 (as Taraxacum obliquum)
CQ. Martinčič, A., Mala flora Slovenije, ed. 3. 1999 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
CR. Trpin D. & Vreš B., Register flore Slovenije. Praprotnice in cvetnice. 1995 (as Taraxacum laevigatum)
CS. Baeza C. M., Stuessy T. F., Tremetsberger K. & Urtubey E. - Lactucaceae in Zuloaga F. O., Morrone O. & Belgrano M. J. (eds.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentinia, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) 2. 2008 (as Taraxacum laevigatum3)