Cichorium endivia

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Cichorium endivia

https://pictures.bgbm.org/digilib/Scaler/IIIF/Cichorieae!Cichorium_endivia_A_01.JPG/full/full/0/default.jpg

Common names

Albanian (Albania): KoreA,1, ÇikoreA,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Гладкоплодна синя жлъчкаB,1; Czech (Czech Republic): Čekanka štěrbákC,1; English (Australia): EndiveD; English (Myanmar): EndiveE; English (Northern America): EndiveF; French (Belgium): Chicorée endiveG,1, Chicorée friséeG,1; French (Corse): ChiconH,1, EndiveH,1, ScaroleH,1; French (France): Chicorée à rameauxI,2, EndiveI,1; French (Northern America): Chicorée endiveF; French (Switzerland): ChicoréeJ,1, EndiveJ,1; German (Germany): EndivieJ,1; Hebrew (Israel): עֹלֶשׁ מָצוּיK,1, עולש מצויK,1; Italian (Italy): EndiviaL,1; Italian (Switzerland): EndiviaJ,1; Korean (Korea): Kkot-sang-chiM; Polish (Poland): Cykoria endywiaN,1, EndywiaN,2, Szczerbak wielkiN,2; Romanian (Moldova): Чикоарэ эндивиеO,1; Swedish (Sweden): SydcikoriaP,1; Turkish (Turkey): Bostan hindibasıQ; Ukrainian (Ukraine & Crimea): ЕндивійR,2, Цикорій справжнійR,1; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Diếp xoănS
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Systematics

The origin of the species is yet not fully clear. The common assumption is that it has evolved from L. pumilum to which it is most similar. However, in the molecular phylogenetic analyses by Kiers (2000), it has been resolved equally distant to L. pumilum and the third species of the group of annuals, C. calvum. T

Description

Annual herb with taproot. Stem 100–170 cm, with many lateral branches, often branched from the base. Basal leaves obovate, 30–45 x 10–18 cm, rounded to acute, entire to runcinate, glabrous to slightly pubemlous. Cauline leaves like basal leaves, but smaller towards apex. Capitula solitary or clustered in groups of 4–6, sessile or on up to 9–20 cm long, apically thickened peduncles, which are 3-4 mm in cross section. Involucrum 3.5–5 mm wide. Outer phyllaries about as long as inner phyllaries, upper part reflexed, ovate to ovate-lanceolate, or elliptic to lanceolate, 7–10(–15) x 2–5(–10) mm, more or less entire, the lower 3.2–4.5 mm part fleshy, the upper part acute to acuminate; glabrous or set with up to 2.0 mm long, glandular or non-glandular hairs. Inner phyllaries 8, slightly reflexed after opening of the flowers, 8–12 x 1–3 mm; hairs absent or up to 2 mm long, glandular or not. Florets 15–20, when fully flowering half-patent, together forming a wide cup; tube 2–3.2 mm long; plate 10–19 x 2–4.5 mm, with 0.3–1.3 mm long, acute lobes. Style 6.5–10.5 mm long, upper part with spreading hairs over 2–3.5 mm, blue; stigmatic lobes 1.5–3 mm long, blue. Pappus consisting of 1 to 3 rows of irregularly shaped, erect to erecto-patent, (0.5–)0.7–1.0 mm long, rounded to acute scales, in the outer florets narrower at centripetal side, pappus of inner florets larger and often ending in 0.5–1.5 mm long tips. Achenes 2.0–2.8 x 1–1.5 mm, obovoid to cylindrical, weakly ribbed.

from: Kiers A. M. (2000: 64).T

Distribution

The species is only known in cultivation (Kiers 2000); occasional escapes seem nowhere to establish spontaneous populations.T
Africa: Canary Is.cultivatedU; Congocultivated; LibyacultivatedV,W; MadeiracultivatedU; MoroccocultivatedX Asia-Temperate: KoreacultivatedAA,Y,Z; Lebanon-Syria (LebanoncultivatedAB, SyriacultivatedAB); Palestine (IsraelcultivatedAB, JordancultivatedAC); TurkeycultivatedAD,AE Asia-Tropical: India (KeralacultivatedAF, RajasthancultivatedAG); MyanmarcultivatedE; PakistancultivatedAH; VietnamcultivatedAI,S Europe: AlbaniacultivatedAJ,AK,AL; BalearescultivatedAM; Baltic States (EstoniacultivatedAN, LatviacultivatedAN, LithuaniacultivatedAN); BelaruscultivatedAN; BulgariacultivatedAJ,AO,AP; Central European RussiacultivatedAN; CorsecultivatedAJ,AQ,AR,AS; Czechoslovakia (Czech RepubliccultivatedAT,AU, SlovakiacultivatedAV); East European RussiacultivatedAN; FrancecultivatedAJ,AW; GermanycultivatedAX; GreececultivatedAJ; HungarycultivatedAY; ItalycultivatedAJ,AZ,BA,BB,L; KriticultivatedAJ; KrymcultivatedAN,BC,BD; NetherlandscultivatedBE; Northwest European RussiacultivatedAN; NorwaycultivatedBF; PolandcultivatedBG; PortugalcultivatedAJ,BH,BI; RomaniacultivatedBJ; SardegnacultivatedL; SicilycultivatedAJ (MaltacultivatedBK, SicilycultivatedL); South European RussiacultivatedAN; SpaincultivatedAJ (SpaincultivatedBL,BM,BN,BO,BP); Turkey-in-EuropecultivatedAD,AJ; Ukraine (MoldovacultivatedAN,O, UkrainecultivatedAN); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-HerzegovinacultivatedBQ, CroatiacultivatedBR,BS, MontenegrocultivatedBR,BT)

Uses

The species, which is not known outside cultivation, has been cultivated already in the ancient Mediterranean. The Batavian group cultivars are grown for the leaves as salad or vegetable in many regions around the globe, and the Curled-leaved group cultivars as salad especially in Europe (Jeffrey 2001; Kiers 2000).BU,T

Credits

Christodoulou C. S. 2009: Images (2 added).

Bibliography

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