Sonchus asper

Primary tabs


Africa: Algeria (Algerianative); Angola (AngolaintroducedA); Azores (Açôresnative); Burkina (BurkinaintroducedB); Canary Is. (Canary Is.native); Egypt (Egyptnative); Ethiopia (Ethiopiaintroduced); Libya (Libyanative); Madeira (Madeiranative); Morocconative; Selvagens (Selvagensnative); Sudan (SudanintroducedC); Tunisia (Tunisianative) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan (Afghanistannative); Altay (AltaynativeD); Amur (AmurnativeE); Buryatiya (BuryatiyanativeD); China North-Central (ShandongintroducedF,G); China South-Central (HubeiintroducedF,G, SichuanintroducedF,G); China Southeast (GuangxiintroducedG, JiangsuintroducedF,G, ZhejiangintroducedF,G); Cyprus (Cyprusnative); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.native); Gulf States (QatarintroducedH); Iran (Irannative); Iraq (Iraqnative); Irkutsk (IrkutsknativeD); Kazakhstan (KazakhstanintroducedG,I); Khabarovsk (KhabarovsknativeE); Kirgizistan (KirgizistanintroducedG,J,K); Korea (North KoreaintroducedG,L,M, South KoreaintroducedG,L,M); Krasnoyarsk (KrasnoyarsknativeD); Kuril Is. (Kuril Is.nativeE); Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); North Caucasusnative (DagestannativeN, Kabardino-BalkariyanativeN, Karacheyevo-CherkessiyanativeN, KrasnodarnativeN, StavropolnativeN); Palestine (Israelnative, Jordannative); Primorye (PrimoryenativeE); Sakhalin (SakhalinnativeE); Saudi Arabia (Saudi ArabiaintroducedO); Sinai (Sinainative); Tadzhikistan (TadzhikistanintroducedG,P); Taiwan (TaiwanintroducedG); Tibet (TibetintroducedF,G); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkey (Turkeynative); Turkmenistan (Turkmenistannative); Uzbekistan (UzbekistanintroducedG,Q); West Siberia (West SiberianativeD); Xinjiang (XinjiangintroducedF,G); Yakutskiya (YakutskiyanativeD) Asia-Tropical: Bangladesh (BangladeshintroducedR); East Himalaya (BhutanintroducedG); IndiaintroducedS; Jawa (JawaintroducedT); Nepal (NepalintroducedG,U); New Guinea (Irian JayaintroducedV, Papua New GuineaintroducedV,W,X,Y,Z); Pakistan (Pakistannative); Thailand (ThailandintroducedG); Vietnam (VietnamintroducedAA,G); West Himalaya (Jammu-KashmirintroducedAB) Australasia: Antipodean Is. (Antipodean Is.introducedAC); Chatham Is. (Chatham Is.introducedAC); New South Wales (Australian Capital Territoryintroduced, New South Walesintroduced); New Zealand North (New Zealand NorthintroducedAC,W); New Zealand South (New Zealand SouthintroducedAC,W); Northern Territory (Northern Territoryintroduced); Queensland (Queenslandintroduced); South Australia (South Australiaintroduced); Tasmania (Tasmaniaintroduced); Victoria (Victoriaintroduced); Western Australia (Western Australiaintroduced) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Austrianative (AustrianativeAD,AE, LiechtensteinnativeAF); Baleares (Balearesnative); Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarus (Belarusnative); Belgium (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European Russianative); Corse (Corsenative); Czechoslovakia (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmark (DenmarknativeAE,AG,AH); East European Russia (East European Russianative); Finland (Finlandnative); Francenative (FrancenativeAE); Germany (Germanynative); Great Britain (Great Britainnative); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (HungarynativeAE,AI,AJ); Iceland (IcelandintroducedAK); Ireland (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative; Kriti (Kritinative); Krym (Krymnative); Netherlands (NetherlandsnativeAE,AL); North European Russia (North European Russianative); Northwest European Russia (Northwest European Russianative); Norway (NorwaynativeAE,AH); Poland (PolandnativeAE,AM,AN); Portugal (Portugalnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative); SicilynativeAE (MaltanativeAO, Sicilynative); South European Russia (South European Russianative); Spainnative (AndorranativeAP,AQ, Gibraltarnative, Spainnative); Sweden (Swedennative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative); Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative: presence questionable, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: Alabama (AlabamaintroducedAR); Alaska (AlaskaintroducedAR); Alberta (AlbertaintroducedAR,AS); Arizona (ArizonaintroducedAR,AT); Arkansas (ArkansasintroducedAR); British Columbia (British ColumbiaintroducedAR,AS); California (CaliforniaintroducedAR,AT); Colorado (ColoradointroducedAR); Connecticut (ConnecticutintroducedAR); Delaware (DelawareintroducedAR); District of Columbia (District of ColumbiaintroducedAR); Florida (FloridaintroducedAR); Georgia, U.S.A. (Georgia, U.S.A.introducedAU); Greenland (GreenlandintroducedAS); Idaho (IdahointroducedAR); Illinois (IllinoisintroducedAR); Indiana (IndianaintroducedAR); Iowa (IowaintroducedAR); Kansas (KansasintroducedAR); Kentucky (KentuckyintroducedAR); Labrador (LabradorintroducedAR,AS); Louisiana (LouisianaintroducedAR); Maine (MaineintroducedAR); Manitoba (ManitobaintroducedAR,AS); Maryland (MarylandintroducedAR); Massachusetts (MassachusettsintroducedAR); Mexico Central (Mexico Distrito FederalintroducedAV,AW, MorelosintroducedAV, México StateintroducedAV,AW, PueblaintroducedAV); Mexico Northeast (ChihuahuaintroducedAV,AX, CoahuilaintroducedAV, DurangointroducedAV, GuanajuatointroducedAV, QuerétarointroducedAV, San Luis PotosíintroducedAV); Mexico Northwest (Baja CaliforniaintroducedAV,AY, SinaloaintroducedAV, SonoraintroducedAT); Mexico Southeast (ChiapasintroducedAV); Mexico Southwest (GuerrerointroducedAW, JaliscointroducedAV, MichoacánintroducedAV); Michigan (MichiganintroducedAR); Minnesota (MinnesotaintroducedAR); Mississippi (MississippiintroducedAR); Missouri (MissouriintroducedAR); Montana (MontanaintroducedAR); Nebraska (NebraskaintroducedAR); Nevada (NevadaintroducedAR); New Brunswick (New BrunswickintroducedAR,AS); New Hampshire (New HampshireintroducedAR); New Jersey (New JerseyintroducedAR); New Mexico (New MexicointroducedAR); New York (New YorkintroducedAR); Newfoundland (NewfoundlandintroducedAR,AS, St.Pierre-MiquelonintroducedAR,AS); North Dakota (North DakotaintroducedAR); Nova Scotia (Nova ScotiaintroducedAR,AS); Ohio (OhiointroducedAR); Oklahoma (OklahomaintroducedAR); Ontario (OntariointroducedAR,AS); Oregon (OregonintroducedAR); Pennsylvania (PennsylvaniaintroducedAR); Prince Edward I. (Prince Edward I.introducedAR,AS); Québec (QuébecintroducedAR,AS); Rhode I. (Rhode I.introducedAR); Saskatchewan (SaskatchewanintroducedAR,AS); South Carolina (South CarolinaintroducedAR); South Dakota (South DakotaintroducedAR); Tennessee (TennesseeintroducedAR); Texas (TexasintroducedAR); Utah (UtahintroducedAR); Vermont (VermontintroducedAR); Virginia (VirginiaintroducedAR); Washington (WashingtonintroducedAR); West Virginia (West VirginiaintroducedAR); Wisconsin (WisconsinintroducedAR); Wyoming (WyomingintroducedAR); Yukon (YukonintroducedAR,AS) Pacific: Hawaii (Hawaiian Is.introduced) Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Buenos AiresintroducedAZ, ChacointroducedAZ,BA, CórdobaintroducedAZ, Entre RíosintroducedAZ,BA, La PampaintroducedAZ,BA, MisionesintroducedAZ,BA); Argentina Northwest (CatamarcaintroducedAZ,BA, JujuyintroducedAZ,BA, La RiojaintroducedAZ,BA, MendozaintroducedAZ,BA, SaltaintroducedAZ,BA, San JuanintroducedBA,BB, San LuisintroducedBA); Argentina South (ChubutintroducedAZ,BA, NeuquénintroducedAZ,BA, Rio NegrointroducedBA, Santa CruzintroducedAZ,BA, Santa FéintroducedAZ,BA, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)introducedAZ,BA); Bahamas (BahamasintroducedBC,BD); Bolivia (Boliviaintroduced); Brazil South (Santa CatarinaintroducedBA); Chile Central (BiobíointroducedBA, CoquimbointroducedBA, La AraucaniaintroducedBA, MauleintroducedBA, O'HigginsintroducedBA, SantiagointroducedBA, ValparaísointroducedBA); Chile North (AntofagastaintroducedBA, AtacamaintroducedBA, TarapacaintroducedBA); Chile South (AisénintroducedBA, Los LagosintroducedBA, MagellanesintroducedBA); Colombia (ColombiaintroducedBE); Desventurados Is. (Desventurados Is.introducedBA); Dominican Republic (Dominican RepublicintroducedBC,BF); Haiti (HaitiintroducedBC,BF); Jamaica (JamaicaintroducedBC); Juan Fernández Is. (Juan Fernández Is.introducedBA); Leeward Is. (Antigua-BarbudaintroducedBC,BG, GuadeloupeintroducedBC,BG); Paraguay (ParaguayintroducedBA); Puerto Rico (Puerto RicointroducedBC,BH); Uruguay (UruguayintroducedBA); Venezuela (VenezuelaintroducedBI,BJ); Windward Is. (BarbadosintroducedBC,BG, MartiniqueintroducedBC,BG)


Herb, annual or biennial, 10-120-(220) cm high. Flowering stems erect, sulcate and sometimes angular, hollow, glaucous, glabrous or glandular in the upper part, unbranched or branched. Lower cauline leaves ovate to oblong, 6.0-21.0-(40.0) cm long, 1.5-8.0 cm wide, entire, pinnatifid or pinnatisect, spinose or dentate, obtuse or acute, petiole-like attenuate with a winged petiole, glabrous, green or glaucous on both surfaces. Middle and upper cauline leaves spinose, auriculate and amplexicaul. Synflorescence corymbiform, with 4-10-(20) heads. Peduncle 1.0-2.0 cm long, glabrous or glandular. Heads with more than 100 flowers. Involucre at flowering campanulate, c. 10.0 mm long, at flowering (6.0)-8.0-10.0-(25.0) mm in diameter; outer involucral bracts narrowly ovate, 3.0-4.0 mm long, 0.8-1.5 mm wide, glandular or glabrous; inner involucral bracts linear, up to 10.0 mm long, c. 1.5 mm wide, acuminate. Corolla ligulate, yellow; tube c. 6.0 mm long, thinly woolly towards apex; ligule c. 6.0 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, tinged purple externally. Anthertube black at apex, c. 1.5 mm long; apical appendages acute. Style c. 8.0 mm long; branches c. 0.8 mm long. Achenes obovoid or fusiform in outline, strongly compressed, c. 3.0 mm long, 0.8-1.0-(1.8) mm wide, mostly smooth, remotely ciliate at the ribs and wings, sometimes wrinkled, brown, with 3 longitudinal ribs on each face. Pappus white, 6.0-10.0 mm long, flexible, remotely scabridulous.

Based on: Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae , Tribe Cichorieae . – Enfield; Grierson, A. J. C. 1980: 59. Sonchus – Pp. 272-275 in: Dassayanake, M. D., Fosberg, F. R. Flora of Ceylon I – Washington, D.C.; Jeffrey, C. & Beentje, H. J. 2000: Cichorieae . – Pp. 63-108 in: Beentje, H. J. & Smith, S. A. L. (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae (Part 1). – Kew; Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. – Kew; Pope, G. V. 1992: Flora Zambesiaca 6, part 1. – London; Yatskievych, G. 2006: 46. Pyrrhoppapus DC. (flase dandelion), 47. Sonchus L. (sow thistle). – Pp. 382-387 in: Yatskievych, G. (ed.), Flora of Missouri 2, revised Edition. – St. Louis.

Common names

(India): MhatraBK, Pila DhutiBL; (Mexico): CardoAV, cerrajaAV, chicalotilloAV, epazotilloAV, lechuguillaAV; Albanian (Albania): Rrëshyell i ashpërBM,1; Arabic (East Africa): umm al labanBN; Arabic (Lebanon): تِفاف جاسئBO,1, خُرُّم مُرّBO,1, سُمَيْرَةBO,1; Arabic (Saudi Arabia): KhuwwayshBP; Arabic (Syria): تِفاف جاسئBQ,1, خُرُّم مُرّBQ,1, سُمَيْرَةBQ,1; Armenian (Armenia): Կաթնբեկ խորդուբորդBR,1; Basque (Spain): Asta-uzarraAQ, GardaberaAQ; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Влакнест кострецBS,1; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): LlensóAQ, Lletsó bordAQ, Lliscó de burroAQ; Chinese (China): 花叶滇苦菜 hua ye dian ku caiG; Corsican (Corse): LattaroneBT,1; Danish (Denmark): Ru SvinemælkBU,1; English (Australia): Native Sow-ThistleBV, Native SowthistleBW, Native sow-thistleBX, Prickly SowthistleBY,BZ,CA, Rough Milk ThistleBY, Rough Sow-thistleCB, Rough SowthistleBY,BZ,CA,CC, Spiny SowthistleBY; English (Bahamas): Prickly sow thistleBC; English (Cyprus): Sow ThistleCD; English (Great Britain): Prickly Sow-thistleCE,1; English (Indian Subcontinent): rough sow thistleS; English (New Zealand): Prickly sow thistleAC,CF; English (Northern America): Pprickly sow-thistleAS; Estonian (Estonia): Kare piimohakasCG,1; Finnish (Finland): OtavalvattiBU,1; French (Belgium): Laiteron épineuxCH,1; French (Corse): Laiteron rudeBT,1; French (France): Laiteron piquantCI,1, Laiteron rudeCI,1, Laiteron épineuxCI,1; French (Mascarene Islands): LastronCJ, Lastron piquantCJ; French (Mauritius): LastronCK; French (Northern America): Laiteron rudeAS; French (Réunion): Lastron piquantCL; French (Switzerland): Laiteron rudeCM,1; Fur (East Africa): kornariBN; Galician (Spain): Cardio melardoAQ, LeitarugasAQ; German (Germany): Raue GänsedistelCN,1; German (Switzerland): Rauhe GänsedistelCM,1; Hebrew (Israel): מָרוֹר מַכְחִילCO,1, מרור מכחילCO,1; Hindi (India): Dodak; Hindi (Indian Subcontinent): DidhiS; Icelandic (Iceland): GaltarfífillAK; Italian (Italy): Grespino spinosoCP,1; Italian (Switzerland): Grespino spinosoCM,1; Kinyarwanda (Rwanda): KikembekembeCQ, ruriraCQ; Korean (Korea): Keung-bang-ga-ji-tongM; Latvian (Latvia): Dzeloņainā mīkstpieneCG,1; Maori (New Zealand): RaurōroaCF; Marathi (Indian Subcontinent): MahatraS; Norwegian (Norway): StivdylleBU,1; Polish (Poland): Mlecz kolczastyAM,1; Portuguese (Açôres): Serralha-espinhosaCR, Serralha-ásperaCR; Romanian (Moldova): Сусай аспруCS,1; Ronga (Mozambique): muchovoCT; Russian (Armenia): Осот шероховатыйBR,1; Spanish; Castilian (Dominican Republic): Yerba espinosaBC; Spanish; Castilian (Puerto Rico): LechuguillaBC; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): AcerrajasAQ, Achicoria leichariegaAQ, AzapuercosAQ, CardinchaAQ, Cardo lecheroAQ, CardonchaAQ, CerrajaAQ, LecheriegaAQ, LechuguillaAQ, LincherinaAQ, SerrañaAQ, XarrayonesAQ; Swedish (Sweden): SvinmjölktistelBU,2, SvinmolkeCU,1, SvintistelBU,2; Tauya (Central and East Africa): fosi-moskojeh; Tauya (Ethiopia): fosi-moskojewCV; Tsonga (Mozambique): hlaviCT; Turkish (Cyprus): SütleğenCD; Turkish (Turkey): EşekgevreğıCW; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Cúc nhọnCX, Nhũ cúcAA,CX, Rổng cúc nhọnCX, Tục đoạn cúcCX
1. recommended, 2. synonym


Sonchus asper is used as salad or vegetable, the young leaves and shoots of wild-growing plants being eaten raw, cooked or slightly steamed.CY


Gemeinholzer B. 2009: Images (1 added).
Willing E. 2012: Images (3 added)


Sonchus asper seems to represents a taxon complex rather than a species but its taxonomy is not yet fully understood and the delimitation of taxa in the literature often not really convincing. A recent multivariate analysis of the morphological variation of the complex in the W Mediterranean region by Mejías & al. (2012) seems, however, pathbreaking. These authors have shown that two taxa can reliably be distinguished. One is represented by small-flowered, predominantly selfing plants, the other by large-flowered predominantly outcrossing plants. It seems that both can be distinguished also by their karyotype and distribution. The large-flowered taxon apparently corresponds to subsp. glaucenscens (or S. nymanni), the small-flowered one to subsp. asper (or S. asper in the narrow sense). Reliable diagnostic features are the length of the ligule of the marginal flowers and the length of the anther tube of the inner flowers (see Key to the subspecies).


Mejías J. A., García del Rei M. & Silva J. L. 2012: Variability in prickly sow-thistle (Sonchus asper) from western Mediterranean region. – Bocconea 24: 285–293.


A. Figueiredo E. & Smith G. F., Plants of Angola in Strelitzia 22. 2008
B. Thiombiano A. & al., Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso. 2012
C. Darbyshire I. & al., The plants of Sudan and South Sudan. An annotated checklist. 2015
D. Komarov, Fl. URSS 29. 1964
E. Charkevič S. S., Sosudistye rastenija sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 6. 1992
F. C. Shih, Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 80(1). 1997
G. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
H. Abdel Bary E. M. M., The flora of Qatar. 2012
I. Pavlov N. V., Flora Kazachstana 9. 1966
J. Akademija Nauk Kirgizskoj SSR, Institut Botaniki, Laboratorija Sistematiki Vysšich Rastenij, Flora Kirgizskoj SSR : opredelitel' rastenij Kirgizskoj SSR. 1965
K. Lazkov G. A. & Sultanova B. A., Kadastr flory Kyrgyzstana: sosudistye rasteniya / Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan. – Norrlinia 24. 2011
L. Chang C.-S. & al., Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea Peninsula Flora. 2014 (as Sonchus asper)
M. Park C.-W., The Genera of Vascular Plants of Korea. 2007
N. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Konspekt flory Kavkaza / Conspectus Florae Caucasi 3(1), 2008
O. Chaudhary S. A. (ed.), Flora of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia 2(3). 2000
P. Akademija Nauk Tadžikskoj SSR, Botaničeskij Institut, Flora Tadžikskoj SSR 10. 1991
Q. Kovalevsk. - in Vvedensky, Fl. Uzbekistan. 6. 1962
R. Zia Uddin Ahmed (Chief Editor), Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 6. 2008
S. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995
T. Backer C. A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink R. C., Flora of Java (Spermatophytes only). 1965
U. Press J. R. & al., Annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Nepal; updated online version
V. Jesso J. P. & Toelken H. R., Flora of South Australia, ed. 4, 3. 1986 (as Sonchus hydrophilus Boulos)
W. Boulos L., Révision Systématique du genre Sonchus L. s.l. - IV. Sous-genre 1. Sonchus in Bot. Not. 126: 155-196. 1973 (as Sonchus hydrophilus Boulos)
X. Jeanes J. A. - 18. Chondrilla - 32. Tragopogon in Walsh N. G. & Entwisle T. J., Flora of Victoria 4. 1999 (as Sonchus hydrophilus Boulos)
Y. Koster J. T., The Compositae of New Guinea V in Blumea 23(1). 1976
Z. Van Royen P., The Alpine Flora of New Guinea. Taxonomic Part. 1983 (as Sonchus hydrophilus Boulos)
AA. Lê Kim Biên, Thục-vât-chí-Viêt-Nam / Flora of Vietnam 7. Họ cúc / Asteraceae. 2007
AB. Ghafoor A. & al., Flora of Pakistan 222. Asteraceae (IV) Cichorieae. 2017
AC. Garnock-Jones P. J. - Cichorioideae in Webb C. J., Sykes W. R. & Garnock-Jones P. J., Flora of New Zealand 4. 1988
AD. Adler, W. , Oswald, K. & Fischer, R., Exkursionsflora von Österreich. 1994
AE. Tutin, T. G. & al., Flora Europaea. 1964-1993
AF. Seitter, H., Die Flora des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. 1977
AG. Hansen, K., Dansk feltflora. 1993
AH. Lid, J. & Lid, D. T., Norsk Flora, ed. 6. 1994
AI. Horváth, F. , Dobolyi, Z. K. , Morschhauser, T, Lőkös, L. , Karas, L. & Szerdahelyi, T., Flóra adatbázis 1.2. Taxon-lista és attribútum allomány. 1995
AJ. Simon, T., A magyarországi edényes flóra határozója. Harasztok - virágos növények.. 1992
AK. Wasowicz P. & al. in Flora 208. 2013
AL. Meijden, R. van der, Heukels' Flora van Nederland, ed. 21. 1990
AM. Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkova, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M., in Biodivers. Poland 1. 2002
AN. Mirek, Z., Vascular plants of Poland. A Checklist. in Polish Bot. Stud., Guideb. Ser. 15. 1995
AO. Haslam, S. M., Sell, P. D. & Wolsely, P. A., A Flora of the Maltese Islands. 1977
AP. Losa, M. & Montserrat, P., Aportación al conocimiento de la flora de Andorra. 1951
AQ. Talavera S. & al. (ed.), Flora iberica 16(2). Compositae (partim). 2017
AR. Strother J. L. - 51. Hieracium in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.), Flora of North America. North of Mexico 19. 2006
AS. Brouillet L., Coursol F., Favreau M. & Anions M., VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada
AT. Shreve F. & Wiggins I. L., Vegetation and Flora of the Sonoran Desert 2. 1964
AU. Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.), Flora of North America. North of Mexico 19. 2006
AV. Caldéron de Rzedowski G., Familia Compositae. Tribu Lactucae in Flora del Bajio y des Regiones Adyacentes 54. 1997
AW. Rzedowski J. & Caldéron de Rzedowski G. - Lactuca L. - Taraxacum Weber in Rzedowski J. & Caldéron de Rzedowski G. (Eds.), Flora Fanerogámica del Valle de México, ed. 1, 2. 1985
AX. Wilson R. K. - Asteraceae (Compositae) in Martin P. S., Yetman D., Fishbein M., Jenkins P., van Devender T. R. & Wilson R. K. (ed.), Gentry's Rio Mayo Plants. The tropical deciduous forest and environs of Northwest Mexico. 1998
AY. Wiggins I. L., Flora of Baja California. 1980
AZ. Zuloaga F. O. & Morrone O. (ed.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de la República Argentina II in Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74. 1999
BA. Baeza C. M., Stuessy T. F., Tremetsberger K. & Urtubey E. - Lactucaceae in Zuloaga F. O., Morrone O. & Belgrano M. J. (eds.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentinia, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) 2. 2008
BB. Urtubey E. - Lactuceae in Kiesling R. (ed.), Flora de San Juan, Republica Argentina 3b. 2013
BC. Acevedo-Rodríguez P. & Strong M. T., Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. – Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 98. 2012
BD. Correll D. S. & Correll H. B., Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (Including the Turks and Caicos Islands). 1982
BE. Avila F. & al. - Asteraceae in Bernal R. & al., Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. 2016
BF. Liogier A. H., La Flora de la Española VIII in Serie Científica ser. 29, 72. 1996
BG. Howard R. A., Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Lewards and Windward Islands) 6 (3). 1989
BH. Liogier H. A., Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and adjancent islands 5. 1997
BI. Aristeguieta L., Compositae in Flora de Venezuela 10(2). 1964
BJ. Hokche O., Berry P. E. & Huber O. (eds.), Nuevo catálogo de la flora vascular de Venezuela. 2008
BK. Shirodkar D. L. & Lakshminarasimhan P. - Asteraceae (Compositae) in Singh N. P., Lakshminarasimhan P., Karthikeyan S. & Prasanna P. V., Flora of Maharashtra State 2. 2001
BL. Kumar S., Flora of Haryana (Materials). 2001
BM. Vangjeli, J., Flora e Shqipërisë 4. 1999
BN. Wickens G. E., The Flora of Jebel Marra (Sudan Republic) and its geographical affinities in Kew. Bull., Addit Ser. V. 1976
BO. Nehmé, M., Dictionnaire Etymologique de la Flore du Liban. 2000
BP. Mandaville J. P., Flora of Eastern Saudi Arabia. 1990
BQ. Nehmé, M., Etymological Dictionary of Syrian Flora. 2008
BR. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Flora Armenii 9. 1995
BS. Andreev, N. & Kozucharov, S. I., Opredelitel na vissite rastenija v Balgarija. 1992
BT. Jeanmonod D. & Gamisans J., Flora Corsica. 2007
BU. Anderberg, A. A. & Anderberg, A.-L., Den virtuella floran
BV. Jeanes J. A. - 18. Chondrilla - 32. Tragopogon in Walsh N. G. & Entwisle T. J., Flora of Victoria 4. 1999
BW. Murray L. - 168. Tragopogon - 177. Youngia in Harden G. J., Flora of New South Wales 3. 1992
BX. Jesso J. P. & Toelken H. R., Flora of South Australia, ed. 4, 3. 1986
BY. Cunningham G. M., Mulham W. E., Milthorpe P. L. & Leigh J. H., Plants of Western New South Wales. 1981
BZ. Stanley T. D. & Ross E. M., Flora of south-eastern Queensland 2. 1986
CA. Wheeler J., Marchant N., Lewington M. & Graham L. - Flora of the South West (Burnbury, Augusta, Denmark) in Fl. Australia Suppl. Ser. 12(2). 2002
CB. Burbidge N. T. & Gray M., Flora of the Australian Capital territory. 1970
CC. Lander N. S. - Family 113. Asteraceae (Compositae) in Marchant N. G., Wheeler J. R., Rye B. L., Bennett E. M., Lander N. S. & Macfarlane T. D., Flora of the Perth Region 2. 1987
CD. Viney D. E., An illustrated Flora of North Cyprus. 1994 (as Sonchus)
CE. Dony, J. G. , Jury, S. L. & Perring, F. H., English Names of Wild Flowers, a list recommended by the Botanical Society of the British Isles, ed. 2. 1986
CF. Crowe A., A field guide to the native edible plants of New Zealand. 1997
CG. Kuusk, V., Tabaka, L. & Jankjavičene, R., Flora baltijskih republik. Svodka sosudistyh rastenij 3. 2003
CH. Mauhin, F., Les noms français des plantes vasculaires de Belgique et des Régions voisines . 2007
CI. Anonymous [Association Tela Botanica], Tela Botanica, le réseau de la botanique francophone. Flores en ligne, France métropolitaine
CJ. Scott A. J. - Lactuceae in Bosser J., Guého J. & Jeffrey C. (ed.), Flore des Mascareignes. La Réunion, Maurice, Rodrigues 109. 1993
CK. Baker J. G., Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles: A description of the flowering plants and ferns of these island. 1877
CL. De Cordemoy E. J., Flore de l'île de la Réunion: Phanérogames, Cryptogames vasculaires, Muscinées avec l'indication de propriétés économiques et industrielles des plantes. 1895
CM. Aeschimann, D. & Heitz, C., Index synonymique de la flore de Suisse et territoires limitrophes (ISFS). 1996
CN. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4: Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 10. 2005
CO. Avinoam Danin, Flora of Israel Online -
CP. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982
CQ. Lawalrée A. - 56. Tolpis - 61. Crepis in Troupin G., Flore du Rwanda. Spermatophytes 3. 1985
CR. Schäfer H., Flora of the Azores. A field guide, ed. 2. 2005
CS. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986
CT. De Koning J., Checklist of vernacular plant names in Mozambique. – Wageningen Agr. Univ. Pap. 93.2. 1993
CU. Karlsson, T., Checklista över Nordens kärlväxter . 2004
CV. Fichtl R. & Adi A., Honeybee Flora of Ethiopia. 1994
CW. Güner A. (ed.), Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). 2012 (as Sonchus asper (L.) Hill subsp. asper)
CX. Botany Research and Development Group of Vietnam, Vietnam Plant data center. Plant database. 2007
CY. Jeffrey C. - Compositae (Asteraceae) in Hanelt P. (ed.), Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (except ornamentals) 4. 2001: 2056