Sonchus asper

Primary tabs

http://media.bgbm.org/erez/erez?src=EditWP6/photos/Sonchus_asper_Bb_01.JPG

Distribution

Africa: Algeria (Algerianative); Angola (AngolaintroducedA); Azores (Açôresnative); Burkina (BurkinaintroducedB); Canary Is. (Canary Is.native); Egypt (Egyptnative); Ethiopia (Ethiopiaintroduced); Libya (Libyanative); Madeira (Madeiranative); Morocconative; Selvagens (Selvagensnative); Sudan (SudanintroducedC); Tunisia (Tunisianative) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan (Afghanistannative); Altay (AltaynativeD); Amur (AmurnativeE); Buryatiya (BuryatiyanativeD); China North-Central (ShandongintroducedF,G); China South-Central (HubeiintroducedF,G, SichuanintroducedF,G); China Southeast (GuangxiintroducedG, JiangsuintroducedF,G, ZhejiangintroducedF,G); Cyprus (Cyprusnative); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.native); Gulf States (QatarintroducedH); Iran (Irannative); Iraq (Iraqnative); Irkutsk (IrkutsknativeD); Kazakhstan (KazakhstanintroducedG,I); Khabarovsk (KhabarovsknativeE); Kirgizistan (KirgizistanintroducedG,J,K); Korea (North KoreaintroducedG,L,M, South KoreaintroducedG,L,M); Krasnoyarsk (KrasnoyarsknativeD); Kuril Is. (Kuril Is.nativeE); Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); North Caucasusnative (DagestannativeN, Kabardino-BalkariyanativeN, Karacheyevo-CherkessiyanativeN, KrasnodarnativeN, StavropolnativeN); Palestine (Israelnative, Jordannative); Primorye (PrimoryenativeE); Sakhalin (SakhalinnativeE); Saudi Arabia (Saudi ArabiaintroducedO); Sinai (Sinainative); Tadzhikistan (TadzhikistanintroducedG,P); Taiwan (TaiwanintroducedG); Tibet (TibetintroducedF,G); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkey (Turkeynative); Turkmenistan (Turkmenistannative); Uzbekistan (UzbekistanintroducedG,Q); West Siberia (West SiberianativeD); Xinjiang (XinjiangintroducedF,G); Yakutskiya (YakutskiyanativeD) Asia-Tropical: Bangladesh (BangladeshintroducedR); East Himalaya (BhutanintroducedG); IndiaintroducedS; Jawa (JawaintroducedT); Nepal (NepalintroducedG,U); New Guinea (Irian JayaintroducedV, Papua New GuineaintroducedV,W,X,Y,Z); Pakistan (Pakistannative); Thailand (ThailandintroducedG); Vietnam (VietnamintroducedAA,G); West Himalaya (Jammu-KashmirintroducedAB) Australasia: Antipodean Is. (Antipodean Is.introducedAC); Chatham Is. (Chatham Is.introducedAC); New South Wales (Australian Capital Territoryintroduced, New South Walesintroduced); New Zealand North (New Zealand NorthintroducedAC,W); New Zealand South (New Zealand SouthintroducedAC,W); Northern Territory (Northern Territoryintroduced); Queensland (Queenslandintroduced); South Australia (South Australiaintroduced); Tasmania (Tasmaniaintroduced); Victoria (Victoriaintroduced); Western Australia (Western Australiaintroduced) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Austrianative (AustrianativeAD,AE, LiechtensteinnativeAF); Baleares (Balearesnative); Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarus (Belarusnative); Belgium (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European Russianative); Corse (Corsenative); Czechoslovakia (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmark (DenmarknativeAE,AG,AH); East European Russia (East European Russianative); Finland (Finlandnative); Francenative (FrancenativeAE); Germany (Germanynative); Great Britain (Great Britainnative); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (HungarynativeAE,AI,AJ); Iceland (IcelandintroducedAK); Ireland (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative; Kriti (Kritinative); Krym (Krymnative); Netherlands (NetherlandsnativeAE,AL); North European Russia (North European Russianative); Northwest European Russia (Northwest European Russianative); Norway (NorwaynativeAE,AH); Poland (PolandnativeAE,AM,AN); Portugal (Portugalnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative); SicilynativeAE (MaltanativeAO, Sicilynative); South European Russia (South European Russianative); Spainnative (AndorranativeAP,AQ, Gibraltarnative, Spainnative); Sweden (Swedennative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative); Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative: presence questionable, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: Alabama (AlabamaintroducedAR); Alaska (AlaskaintroducedAR); Alberta (AlbertaintroducedAR,AS); Arizona (ArizonaintroducedAR,AT); Arkansas (ArkansasintroducedAR); British Columbia (British ColumbiaintroducedAR,AS); California (CaliforniaintroducedAR,AT); Colorado (ColoradointroducedAR); Connecticut (ConnecticutintroducedAR); Delaware (DelawareintroducedAR); District of Columbia (District of ColumbiaintroducedAR); Florida (FloridaintroducedAR); Georgia, U.S.A. (Georgia, U.S.A.introducedAU); Greenland (GreenlandintroducedAS); Idaho (IdahointroducedAR); Illinois (IllinoisintroducedAR); Indiana (IndianaintroducedAR); Iowa (IowaintroducedAR); Kansas (KansasintroducedAR); Kentucky (KentuckyintroducedAR); Labrador (LabradorintroducedAR,AS); Louisiana (LouisianaintroducedAR); Maine (MaineintroducedAR); Manitoba (ManitobaintroducedAR,AS); Maryland (MarylandintroducedAR); Massachusetts (MassachusettsintroducedAR); Mexico Central (Mexico Distrito FederalintroducedAV,AW, MorelosintroducedAV, México StateintroducedAV,AW, PueblaintroducedAV); Mexico Northeast (ChihuahuaintroducedAV,AX, CoahuilaintroducedAV, DurangointroducedAV, GuanajuatointroducedAV, QuerétarointroducedAV, San Luis PotosíintroducedAV); Mexico Northwest (Baja CaliforniaintroducedAV,AY, SinaloaintroducedAV, SonoraintroducedAT); Mexico Southeast (ChiapasintroducedAV); Mexico Southwest (GuerrerointroducedAW, JaliscointroducedAV, MichoacánintroducedAV); Michigan (MichiganintroducedAR); Minnesota (MinnesotaintroducedAR); Mississippi (MississippiintroducedAR); Missouri (MissouriintroducedAR); Montana (MontanaintroducedAR); Nebraska (NebraskaintroducedAR); Nevada (NevadaintroducedAR); New Brunswick (New BrunswickintroducedAR,AS); New Hampshire (New HampshireintroducedAR); New Jersey (New JerseyintroducedAR); New Mexico (New MexicointroducedAR); New York (New YorkintroducedAR); Newfoundland (NewfoundlandintroducedAR,AS, St.Pierre-MiquelonintroducedAR,AS); North Dakota (North DakotaintroducedAR); Nova Scotia (Nova ScotiaintroducedAR,AS); Ohio (OhiointroducedAR); Oklahoma (OklahomaintroducedAR); Ontario (OntariointroducedAR,AS); Oregon (OregonintroducedAR); Pennsylvania (PennsylvaniaintroducedAR); Prince Edward I. (Prince Edward I.introducedAR,AS); Québec (QuébecintroducedAR,AS); Rhode I. (Rhode I.introducedAR); Saskatchewan (SaskatchewanintroducedAR,AS); South Carolina (South CarolinaintroducedAR); South Dakota (South DakotaintroducedAR); Tennessee (TennesseeintroducedAR); Texas (TexasintroducedAR); Utah (UtahintroducedAR); Vermont (VermontintroducedAR); Virginia (VirginiaintroducedAR); Washington (WashingtonintroducedAR); West Virginia (West VirginiaintroducedAR); Wisconsin (WisconsinintroducedAR); Wyoming (WyomingintroducedAR); Yukon (YukonintroducedAR,AS) Pacific: Hawaii (Hawaiian Is.introduced) Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Buenos AiresintroducedAZ, ChacointroducedAZ,BA, CórdobaintroducedAZ, Entre RíosintroducedAZ,BA, La PampaintroducedAZ,BA, MisionesintroducedAZ,BA); Argentina Northwest (CatamarcaintroducedAZ,BA, JujuyintroducedAZ,BA, La RiojaintroducedAZ,BA, MendozaintroducedAZ,BA, SaltaintroducedAZ,BA, San JuanintroducedBA,BB, San LuisintroducedBA); Argentina South (ChubutintroducedAZ,BA, NeuquénintroducedAZ,BA, Rio NegrointroducedBA, Santa CruzintroducedAZ,BA, Santa FéintroducedAZ,BA, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)introducedAZ,BA); Bahamas (BahamasintroducedBC,BD); Bolivia (Boliviaintroduced); Brazil South (Santa CatarinaintroducedBA); Chile Central (BiobíointroducedBA, CoquimbointroducedBA, La AraucaniaintroducedBA, MauleintroducedBA, O'HigginsintroducedBA, SantiagointroducedBA, ValparaísointroducedBA); Chile North (AntofagastaintroducedBA, AtacamaintroducedBA, TarapacaintroducedBA); Chile South (AisénintroducedBA, Los LagosintroducedBA, MagellanesintroducedBA); Colombia (ColombiaintroducedBE); Desventurados Is. (Desventurados Is.introducedBA); Dominican Republic (Dominican RepublicintroducedBC,BF); Haiti (HaitiintroducedBC,BF); Jamaica (JamaicaintroducedBC); Juan Fernández Is. (Juan Fernández Is.introducedBA); Leeward Is. (Antigua-BarbudaintroducedBC,BG, GuadeloupeintroducedBC,BG); Paraguay (ParaguayintroducedBA); Puerto Rico (Puerto RicointroducedBC,BH); Uruguay (UruguayintroducedBA); Venezuela (VenezuelaintroducedBI,BJ); Windward Is. (BarbadosintroducedBC,BG, MartiniqueintroducedBC,BG)

Description

Herb, annual or biennial, 10-120-(220) cm high. Flowering stems erect, sulcate and sometimes angular, hollow, glaucous, glabrous or glandular in the upper part, unbranched or branched. Lower cauline leaves ovate to oblong, 6.0-21.0-(40.0) cm long, 1.5-8.0 cm wide, entire, pinnatifid or pinnatisect, spinose or dentate, obtuse or acute, petiole-like attenuate with a winged petiole, glabrous, green or glaucous on both surfaces. Middle and upper cauline leaves spinose, auriculate and amplexicaul. Synflorescence corymbiform, with 4-10-(20) heads. Peduncle 1.0-2.0 cm long, glabrous or glandular. Heads with more than 100 flowers. Involucre at flowering campanulate, c. 10.0 mm long, at flowering (6.0)-8.0-10.0-(25.0) mm in diameter; outer involucral bracts narrowly ovate, 3.0-4.0 mm long, 0.8-1.5 mm wide, glandular or glabrous; inner involucral bracts linear, up to 10.0 mm long, c. 1.5 mm wide, acuminate. Corolla ligulate, yellow; tube c. 6.0 mm long, thinly woolly towards apex; ligule c. 6.0 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, tinged purple externally. Anthertube black at apex, c. 1.5 mm long; apical appendages acute. Style c. 8.0 mm long; branches c. 0.8 mm long. Achenes obovoid or fusiform in outline, strongly compressed, c. 3.0 mm long, 0.8-1.0-(1.8) mm wide, mostly smooth, remotely ciliate at the ribs and wings, sometimes wrinkled, brown, with 3 longitudinal ribs on each face. Pappus white, 6.0-10.0 mm long, flexible, remotely scabridulous.

Based on: Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae , Tribe Cichorieae . – Enfield; Grierson, A. J. C. 1980: 59. Sonchus – Pp. 272-275 in: Dassayanake, M. D., Fosberg, F. R. Flora of Ceylon I – Washington, D.C.; Jeffrey, C. & Beentje, H. J. 2000: Cichorieae . – Pp. 63-108 in: Beentje, H. J. & Smith, S. A. L. (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae (Part 1). – Kew; Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. – Kew; Pope, G. V. 1992: Flora Zambesiaca 6, part 1. – London; Yatskievych, G. 2006: 46. Pyrrhoppapus DC. (flase dandelion), 47. Sonchus L. (sow thistle). – Pp. 382-387 in: Yatskievych, G. (ed.), Flora of Missouri 2, revised Edition. – St. Louis.

Common names

(India): MhatraBK, Pila DhutiBL; (Mexico): CardoAV, cerrajaAV, chicalotilloAV, epazotilloAV, lechuguillaAV; Albanian (Albania): Rrëshyell i ashpërBM,1; Arabic (East Africa): umm al labanBN; Arabic (Lebanon): تِفاف جاسئBO,1, خُرُّم مُرّBO,1, سُمَيْرَةBO,1; Arabic (Saudi Arabia): KhuwwayshBP; Arabic (Syria): تِفاف جاسئBQ,1, خُرُّم مُرّBQ,1, سُمَيْرَةBQ,1; Armenian (Armenia): Կաթնբեկ խորդուբորդBR,1; Basque (Spain): Asta-uzarraAQ, GardaberaAQ; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Влакнест кострецBS,1; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): LlensóAQ, Lletsó bordAQ, Lliscó de burroAQ; Chinese (China): 花叶滇苦菜 hua ye dian ku caiG; Corsican (Corse): LattaroneBT,1; Danish (Denmark): Ru SvinemælkBU,1; English (Australia): Native Sow-ThistleBV, Native SowthistleBW, Native sow-thistleBX, Prickly SowthistleBY,BZ,CA, Rough Milk ThistleBY, Rough Sow-thistleCB, Rough SowthistleBY,BZ,CA,CC, Spiny SowthistleBY; English (Bahamas): Prickly sow thistleBC; English (Cyprus): Sow ThistleCD; English (Great Britain): Prickly Sow-thistleCE,1; English (Indian Subcontinent): rough sow thistleS; English (New Zealand): Prickly sow thistleAC,CF; English (Northern America): Pprickly sow-thistleAS; Estonian (Estonia): Kare piimohakasCG,1; Finnish (Finland): OtavalvattiBU,1; French (Belgium): Laiteron épineuxCH,1; French (Corse): Laiteron rudeBT,1; French (France): Laiteron piquantCI,1, Laiteron rudeCI,1, Laiteron épineuxCI,1; French (Mascarene Islands): LastronCJ, Lastron piquantCJ; French (Mauritius): LastronCK; French (Northern America): Laiteron rudeAS; French (Réunion): Lastron piquantCL; French (Switzerland): Laiteron rudeCM,1; Fur (East Africa): kornariBN; Galician (Spain): Cardio melardoAQ, LeitarugasAQ; German (Germany): Raue GänsedistelCN,1; German (Switzerland): Rauhe GänsedistelCM,1; Hebrew (Israel): מָרוֹר מַכְחִילCO,1, מרור מכחילCO,1; Hindi (India): Dodak; Hindi (Indian Subcontinent): DidhiS; Icelandic (Iceland): GaltarfífillAK; Italian (Italy): Grespino spinosoCP,1; Italian (Switzerland): Grespino spinosoCM,1; Kinyarwanda (Rwanda): KikembekembeCQ, ruriraCQ; Korean (Korea): Keung-bang-ga-ji-tongM; Latvian (Latvia): Dzeloņainā mīkstpieneCG,1; Maori (New Zealand): RaurōroaCF; Marathi (Indian Subcontinent): MahatraS; Norwegian (Norway): StivdylleBU,1; Polish (Poland): Mlecz kolczastyAM,1; Portuguese (Açôres): Serralha-espinhosaCR, Serralha-ásperaCR; Romanian (Moldova): Сусай аспруCS,1; Ronga (Mozambique): muchovoCT; Russian (Armenia): Осот шероховатыйBR,1; Spanish; Castilian (Dominican Republic): Yerba espinosaBC; Spanish; Castilian (Puerto Rico): LechuguillaBC; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): AcerrajasAQ, Achicoria leichariegaAQ, AzapuercosAQ, CardinchaAQ, Cardo lecheroAQ, CardonchaAQ, CerrajaAQ, LecheriegaAQ, LechuguillaAQ, LincherinaAQ, SerrañaAQ, XarrayonesAQ; Swedish (Sweden): SvinmjölktistelBU,2, SvinmolkeCU,1, SvintistelBU,2; Tauya (Central and East Africa): fosi-moskojeh; Tauya (Ethiopia): fosi-moskojewCV; Tsonga (Mozambique): hlaviCT; Turkish (Cyprus): SütleğenCD; Turkish (Turkey): EşekgevreğıCW; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Cúc nhọnCX, Nhũ cúcAA,CX, Rổng cúc nhọnCX, Tục đoạn cúcCX
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Uses

Sonchus asper is used as salad or vegetable, the young leaves and shoots of wild-growing plants being eaten raw, cooked or slightly steamed.CY

Credits

Gemeinholzer B. 2009: Images (1 added).
Willing E. 2012: Images (3 added)

Systematics

Sonchus asper seems to represents a taxon complex rather than a species but its taxonomy is not yet fully understood and the delimitation of taxa in the literature often not really convincing. A recent multivariate analysis of the morphological variation of the complex in the W Mediterranean region by Mejías & al. (2012) seems, however, pathbreaking. These authors have shown that two taxa can reliably be distinguished. One is represented by small-flowered, predominantly selfing plants, the other by large-flowered predominantly outcrossing plants. It seems that both can be distinguished also by their karyotype and distribution. The large-flowered taxon apparently corresponds to subsp. glaucenscens (or S. nymanni), the small-flowered one to subsp. asper (or S. asper in the narrow sense). Reliable diagnostic features are the length of the ligule of the marginal flowers and the length of the anther tube of the inner flowers (see Key to the subspecies).

References


Mejías J. A., García del Rei M. & Silva J. L. 2012: Variability in prickly sow-thistle (Sonchus asper) from western Mediterranean region. – Bocconea 24: 285–293.

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