Sonchus asper

Primary tabs

http://media.bgbm.org/erez/erez?src=EditWP6/photos/Sonchus_asper_Bb_01.JPG

Common names

(India): MhatraA, Pila DhutiB; (Mexico): CardoC, cerrajaC, chicalotilloC, epazotilloC, lechuguillaC; Albanian (Albania): Rrëshyell i ashpërD,1; Arabic (East Africa): umm al labanE; Arabic (Lebanon): تِفاف جاسئF,1, خُرُّم مُرّF,1, سُمَيْرَةF,1; Arabic (Saudi Arabia): KhuwwayshG; Arabic (Syria): تِفاف جاسئH,1, خُرُّم مُرّH,1, سُمَيْرَةH,1; Armenian (Armenia): Կաթնբեկ խորդուբորդI,1; Basque (Spain): Asta-uzarraJ, GardaberaJ; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Влакнест кострецK,1; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): LlensóJ, Lletsó bordJ, Lliscó de burroJ; Chinese (China): 花叶滇苦菜 hua ye dian ku caiL; Corsican (Corse): LattaroneM,1; Danish (Denmark): Ru SvinemælkN,1; English (Australia): Native Sow-ThistleO, Native SowthistleP, Native sow-thistleQ, Prickly SowthistleR,S,T, Rough Milk ThistleR, Rough Sow-thistleU, Rough SowthistleR,S,T,V, Spiny SowthistleR; English (Bahamas): Prickly sow thistleW; English (Cyprus): Sow ThistleX; English (Great Britain): Prickly Sow-thistleY,1; English (Indian Subcontinent): rough sow thistleZ; English (New Zealand): Prickly sow thistleAA,AB; English (Northern America): Pprickly sow-thistleAC; Estonian (Estonia): Kare piimohakasAD,1; Finnish (Finland): OtavalvattiN,1; French (Belgium): Laiteron épineuxAE,1; French (Corse): Laiteron rudeM,1; French (France): Laiteron piquantAF,1, Laiteron rudeAF,1, Laiteron épineuxAF,1; French (Mascarene Islands): LastronAG, Lastron piquantAG; French (Mauritius): LastronAH; French (Northern America): Laiteron rudeAC; French (Réunion): Lastron piquantAI; French (Switzerland): Laiteron rudeAJ,1; Fur (East Africa): kornariE; Galician (Spain): Cardio melardoJ, LeitarugasJ; German (Germany): Raue GänsedistelAK,1; German (Switzerland): Rauhe GänsedistelAJ,1; Hebrew (Israel): מָרוֹר מַכְחִילAL,1, מרור מכחילAL,1; Hindi (India): Dodak; Hindi (Indian Subcontinent): DidhiZ; Icelandic (Iceland): GaltarfífillAM; Italian (Italy): Grespino spinosoAN,1; Italian (Switzerland): Grespino spinosoAJ,1; Kinyarwanda (Rwanda): KikembekembeAO, ruriraAO; Korean (Korea): Keung-bang-ga-ji-tongAP; Latvian (Latvia): Dzeloņainā mīkstpieneAD,1; Maori (New Zealand): RaurōroaAA; Marathi (Indian Subcontinent): MahatraZ; Norwegian (Norway): StivdylleN,1; Polish (Poland): Mlecz kolczastyAQ,1; Portuguese (Açôres): Serralha-espinhosaAR, Serralha-ásperaAR; Romanian (Moldova): Сусай аспруAS,1; Ronga (Mozambique): muchovoAT; Russian (Armenia): Осот шероховатыйI,1; Spanish; Castilian (Dominican Republic): Yerba espinosaW; Spanish; Castilian (Puerto Rico): LechuguillaW; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): AcerrajasJ, Achicoria leichariegaJ, AzapuercosJ, CardinchaJ, Cardo lecheroJ, CardonchaJ, CerrajaJ, LecheriegaJ, LechuguillaJ, LincherinaJ, SerrañaJ, XarrayonesJ; Swedish (Sweden): SvinmjölktistelN,2, SvinmolkeAU,1, SvintistelN,2; Tauya (Central and East Africa): fosi-moskojeh; Tauya (Ethiopia): fosi-moskojewAV; Tsonga (Mozambique): hlaviAT; Turkish (Cyprus): SütleğenX; Turkish (Turkey): EşekgevreğıAW; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Cúc nhọnAX, Nhũ cúcAX,AY, Rổng cúc nhọnAX, Tục đoạn cúcAX
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Description

Herb, annual or biennial, 10-120-(220) cm high. Flowering stems erect, sulcate and sometimes angular, hollow, glaucous, glabrous or glandular in the upper part, unbranched or branched. Lower cauline leaves ovate to oblong, 6.0-21.0-(40.0) cm long, 1.5-8.0 cm wide, entire, pinnatifid or pinnatisect, spinose or dentate, obtuse or acute, petiole-like attenuate with a winged petiole, glabrous, green or glaucous on both surfaces. Middle and upper cauline leaves spinose, auriculate and amplexicaul. Synflorescence corymbiform, with 4-10-(20) heads. Peduncle 1.0-2.0 cm long, glabrous or glandular. Heads with more than 100 flowers. Involucre at flowering campanulate, c. 10.0 mm long, at flowering (6.0)-8.0-10.0-(25.0) mm in diameter; outer involucral bracts narrowly ovate, 3.0-4.0 mm long, 0.8-1.5 mm wide, glandular or glabrous; inner involucral bracts linear, up to 10.0 mm long, c. 1.5 mm wide, acuminate. Corolla ligulate, yellow; tube c. 6.0 mm long, thinly woolly towards apex; ligule c. 6.0 mm long, 0.8 mm wide, tinged purple externally. Anthertube black at apex, c. 1.5 mm long; apical appendages acute. Style c. 8.0 mm long; branches c. 0.8 mm long. Achenes obovoid or fusiform in outline, strongly compressed, c. 3.0 mm long, 0.8-1.0-(1.8) mm wide, mostly smooth, remotely ciliate at the ribs and wings, sometimes wrinkled, brown, with 3 longitudinal ribs on each face. Pappus white, 6.0-10.0 mm long, flexible, remotely scabridulous.

Based on: Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae , Tribe Cichorieae . – Enfield; Grierson, A. J. C. 1980: 59. Sonchus – Pp. 272-275 in: Dassayanake, M. D., Fosberg, F. R. Flora of Ceylon I – Washington, D.C.; Jeffrey, C. & Beentje, H. J. 2000: Cichorieae . – Pp. 63-108 in: Beentje, H. J. & Smith, S. A. L. (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae (Part 1). – Kew; Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. – Kew; Pope, G. V. 1992: Flora Zambesiaca 6, part 1. – London; Yatskievych, G. 2006: 46. Pyrrhoppapus DC. (flase dandelion), 47. Sonchus L. (sow thistle). – Pp. 382-387 in: Yatskievych, G. (ed.), Flora of Missouri 2, revised Edition. – St. Louis.

Systematics

Sonchus asper seems to represents a taxon complex rather than a species but its taxonomy is not yet fully understood and the delimitation of taxa in the literature often not really convincing. A recent multivariate analysis of the morphological variation of the complex in the W Mediterranean region by Mejías & al. (2012) seems, however, pathbreaking. These authors have shown that two taxa can reliably be distinguished. One is represented by small-flowered, predominantly selfing plants, the other by large-flowered predominantly outcrossing plants. It seems that both can be distinguished also by their karyotype and distribution. The large-flowered taxon apparently corresponds to subsp. glaucenscens (or S. nymanni), the small-flowered one to subsp. asper (or S. asper in the narrow sense). Reliable diagnostic features are the length of the ligule of the marginal flowers and the length of the anther tube of the inner flowers (see Key to the subspecies).

References


Mejías J. A., García del Rei M. & Silva J. L. 2012: Variability in prickly sow-thistle (Sonchus asper) from western Mediterranean region. – Bocconea 24: 285–293.

Distribution

Africa: Algeria (Algerianative); Angola (AngolaintroducedAZ); Azores (Açôresnative); Burkina (BurkinaintroducedBA); Canary Is. (Canary Is.native); Egypt (Egyptnative); Ethiopia (Ethiopiaintroduced); Libya (Libyanative); Madeira (Madeiranative); Morocconative; Selvagens (Selvagensnative); Sudan (SudanintroducedBB); Tunisia (Tunisianative) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan (Afghanistannative); Altay (AltaynativeBC); Amur (AmurnativeBD); Buryatiya (BuryatiyanativeBC); China North-Central (ShandongintroducedBE,L); China South-Central (HubeiintroducedBE,L, SichuanintroducedBE,L); China Southeast (GuangxiintroducedL, JiangsuintroducedBE,L, ZhejiangintroducedBE,L); Cyprus (Cyprusnative); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.native); Gulf States (QatarintroducedBF); Iran (Irannative); Iraq (Iraqnative); Irkutsk (IrkutsknativeBC); Kazakhstan (KazakhstanintroducedBG,L); Khabarovsk (KhabarovsknativeBD); Kirgizistan (KirgizistanintroducedBH,BI,L); Korea (North KoreaintroducedAP,BJ,L, South KoreaintroducedAP,BJ,L); Krasnoyarsk (KrasnoyarsknativeBC); Kuril Is. (Kuril Is.nativeBD); Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); North Caucasusnative (DagestannativeBK, Kabardino-BalkariyanativeBK, Karacheyevo-CherkessiyanativeBK, KrasnodarnativeBK, StavropolnativeBK); Palestine (Israelnative, Jordannative); Primorye (PrimoryenativeBD); Sakhalin (SakhalinnativeBD); Saudi Arabia (Saudi ArabiaintroducedBL); Sinai (Sinainative); Tadzhikistan (TadzhikistanintroducedBM,L); Taiwan (TaiwanintroducedL); Tibet (TibetintroducedBE,L); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkey (Turkeynative); Turkmenistan (Turkmenistannative); Uzbekistan (UzbekistanintroducedBN,L); West Siberia (West SiberianativeBC); Xinjiang (XinjiangintroducedBE,L); Yakutskiya (YakutskiyanativeBC) Asia-Tropical: Bangladesh (BangladeshintroducedBO); East Himalaya (BhutanintroducedL); IndiaintroducedZ; Jawa (JawaintroducedBP); Nepal (NepalintroducedBQ,L); New Guinea (Irian JayaintroducedBR, Papua New GuineaintroducedBR,BS,BT,BU,BV); Pakistan (Pakistannative); Thailand (ThailandintroducedL); Vietnam (VietnamintroducedAY,L); West Himalaya (Jammu-KashmirintroducedBW) Australasia: Antipodean Is. (Antipodean Is.introducedAB); Chatham Is. (Chatham Is.introducedAB); New South Wales (Australian Capital Territoryintroduced, New South Walesintroduced); New Zealand North (New Zealand NorthintroducedAB,BS); New Zealand South (New Zealand SouthintroducedAB,BS); Northern Territory (Northern Territoryintroduced); Queensland (Queenslandintroduced); South Australia (South Australiaintroduced); Tasmania (Tasmaniaintroduced); Victoria (Victoriaintroduced); Western Australia (Western Australiaintroduced) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Austrianative (AustrianativeBX,BY, LiechtensteinnativeBZ); Baleares (Balearesnative); Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarus (Belarusnative); Belgium (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European Russianative); Corse (Corsenative); Czechoslovakia (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmark (DenmarknativeBY,CA,CB); East European Russia (East European Russianative); Finland (Finlandnative); Francenative (FrancenativeBY); Germany (Germanynative); Great Britain (Great Britainnative); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (HungarynativeBY,CC,CD); Iceland (IcelandintroducedAM); Ireland (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative; Kriti (Kritinative); Krym (Krymnative); Netherlands (NetherlandsnativeBY,CE); North European Russia (North European Russianative); Northwest European Russia (Northwest European Russianative); Norway (NorwaynativeBY,CB); Poland (PolandnativeAQ,BY,CF); Portugal (Portugalnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative); SicilynativeBY (MaltanativeCG, Sicilynative); South European Russia (South European Russianative); Spainnative (AndorranativeCH,J, Gibraltarnative, Spainnative); Sweden (Swedennative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative); Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative: presence questionable, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: Alabama (AlabamaintroducedCI); Alaska (AlaskaintroducedCI); Alberta (AlbertaintroducedAC,CI); Arizona (ArizonaintroducedCI,CJ); Arkansas (ArkansasintroducedCI); British Columbia (British ColumbiaintroducedAC,CI); California (CaliforniaintroducedCI,CJ); Colorado (ColoradointroducedCI); Connecticut (ConnecticutintroducedCI); Delaware (DelawareintroducedCI); District of Columbia (District of ColumbiaintroducedCI); Florida (FloridaintroducedCI); Georgia, U.S.A. (Georgia, U.S.A.introducedCK); Greenland (GreenlandintroducedAC); Idaho (IdahointroducedCI); Illinois (IllinoisintroducedCI); Indiana (IndianaintroducedCI); Iowa (IowaintroducedCI); Kansas (KansasintroducedCI); Kentucky (KentuckyintroducedCI); Labrador (LabradorintroducedAC,CI); Louisiana (LouisianaintroducedCI); Maine (MaineintroducedCI); Manitoba (ManitobaintroducedAC,CI); Maryland (MarylandintroducedCI); Massachusetts (MassachusettsintroducedCI); Mexico Central (Mexico Distrito FederalintroducedC,CL, MorelosintroducedC, México StateintroducedC,CL, PueblaintroducedC); Mexico Northeast (ChihuahuaintroducedC,CM, CoahuilaintroducedC, DurangointroducedC, GuanajuatointroducedC, QuerétarointroducedC, San Luis PotosíintroducedC); Mexico Northwest (Baja CaliforniaintroducedC,CN, SinaloaintroducedC, SonoraintroducedCJ); Mexico Southeast (ChiapasintroducedC); Mexico Southwest (GuerrerointroducedCL, JaliscointroducedC, MichoacánintroducedC); Michigan (MichiganintroducedCI); Minnesota (MinnesotaintroducedCI); Mississippi (MississippiintroducedCI); Missouri (MissouriintroducedCI); Montana (MontanaintroducedCI); Nebraska (NebraskaintroducedCI); Nevada (NevadaintroducedCI); New Brunswick (New BrunswickintroducedAC,CI); New Hampshire (New HampshireintroducedCI); New Jersey (New JerseyintroducedCI); New Mexico (New MexicointroducedCI); New York (New YorkintroducedCI); Newfoundland (NewfoundlandintroducedAC,CI, St.Pierre-MiquelonintroducedAC,CI); North Dakota (North DakotaintroducedCI); Nova Scotia (Nova ScotiaintroducedAC,CI); Ohio (OhiointroducedCI); Oklahoma (OklahomaintroducedCI); Ontario (OntariointroducedAC,CI); Oregon (OregonintroducedCI); Pennsylvania (PennsylvaniaintroducedCI); Prince Edward I. (Prince Edward I.introducedAC,CI); Québec (QuébecintroducedAC,CI); Rhode I. (Rhode I.introducedCI); Saskatchewan (SaskatchewanintroducedAC,CI); South Carolina (South CarolinaintroducedCI); South Dakota (South DakotaintroducedCI); Tennessee (TennesseeintroducedCI); Texas (TexasintroducedCI); Utah (UtahintroducedCI); Vermont (VermontintroducedCI); Virginia (VirginiaintroducedCI); Washington (WashingtonintroducedCI); West Virginia (West VirginiaintroducedCI); Wisconsin (WisconsinintroducedCI); Wyoming (WyomingintroducedCI); Yukon (YukonintroducedAC,CI) Pacific: Hawaii (Hawaiian Is.introduced) Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Buenos AiresintroducedCO, ChacointroducedCO,CP, CórdobaintroducedCO, Entre RíosintroducedCO,CP, La PampaintroducedCO,CP, MisionesintroducedCO,CP); Argentina Northwest (CatamarcaintroducedCO,CP, JujuyintroducedCO,CP, La RiojaintroducedCO,CP, MendozaintroducedCO,CP, SaltaintroducedCO,CP, San JuanintroducedCP,CQ, San LuisintroducedCP); Argentina South (ChubutintroducedCO,CP, NeuquénintroducedCO,CP, Rio NegrointroducedCP, Santa CruzintroducedCO,CP, Santa FéintroducedCO,CP, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)introducedCO,CP); Bahamas (BahamasintroducedCR,W); Bolivia (Boliviaintroduced); Brazil South (Santa CatarinaintroducedCP); Chile Central (BiobíointroducedCP, CoquimbointroducedCP, La AraucaniaintroducedCP, MauleintroducedCP, O'HigginsintroducedCP, SantiagointroducedCP, ValparaísointroducedCP); Chile North (AntofagastaintroducedCP, AtacamaintroducedCP, TarapacaintroducedCP); Chile South (AisénintroducedCP, Los LagosintroducedCP, MagellanesintroducedCP); Colombia (ColombiaintroducedCS); Desventurados Is. (Desventurados Is.introducedCP); Dominican Republic (Dominican RepublicintroducedCT,W); Haiti (HaitiintroducedCT,W); Jamaica (JamaicaintroducedW); Juan Fernández Is. (Juan Fernández Is.introducedCP); Leeward Is. (Antigua-BarbudaintroducedCU,W, GuadeloupeintroducedCU,W); Paraguay (ParaguayintroducedCP); Puerto Rico (Puerto RicointroducedCV,W); Uruguay (UruguayintroducedCP); Venezuela (VenezuelaintroducedCW,CX); Windward Is. (BarbadosintroducedCU,W, MartiniqueintroducedCU,W)

Uses

Sonchus asper is used as salad or vegetable, the young leaves and shoots of wild-growing plants being eaten raw, cooked or slightly steamed.CY

Credits

Gemeinholzer B. 2009: Images (1 added).
Willing E. 2012: Images (3 added)

Bibliography

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