Chondrilla juncea

Primary tabs

http://media.bgbm.org/erez/erez?src=EditWP6/photos/Chondrilla_juncea_Bb_01.jpg

Distribution

Africa: Algerianative (AlgerianativeA); Libyanative (LibyanativeB); MorocconativeC,D,E; Tunisianative (TunisianativeF) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative (AfghanistannativeG,H,I); Altaynative (AltaynativeJ); Cyprusnative (CyprusnativeK,L,M); East Aegean Is.native (East Aegean Is.nativeN,O,P); Irannative (IrannativeI,Q,R); Iraqnative (IraqnativeI,Q); Kazakhstannative (KazakhstannativeS); Lebanon-Syrianative (LebanonnativeT,U,V, SyrianativeT,U,V,W); North Caucasusnative (KrasnodarnativeX, StavropolnativeX); Palestinenative (IsraelnativeV,W, JordannativeY,Z); Saudi Arabianative (Saudi ArabianativeQ); Transcaucasusnative (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, ArmenianativeAA,AB, AzerbaijannativeAA,AC,AD, GeorgianativeAA,AD,AE,AF, NakhichevannativeAA); Turkeynative (TurkeynativeAG,AH,N,T,V); Turkmenistannative (TurkmenistannativeAI,I) Australasia: New South Walesintroduced (Australian Capital TerritoryintroducedAJ,AK,AL,AM,AN, New South WalesintroducedAJ,AK,AL,AM,AN,AO); New Zealand Northintroduced (New Zealand NorthintroducedAP); Northern Territoryintroduced (Northern TerritoryintroducedAO); Queenslandintroduced (QueenslandintroducedAJ,AK,AL,AM,AN,AO,AQ); South Australiaintroduced (South AustraliaintroducedAJ,AK,AL,AM,AN,AO); Tasmaniaintroduced (TasmaniaintroducedAJ,AL,AM,AO); Victoriaintroduced (VictoriaintroducedAJ,AK,AL,AM,AN,AO); Western Australiaintroduced (Western AustraliaintroducedAK,AL,AM,AN,AO,AR) Europe: Albanianative (AlbanianativeAS,AT,AU,AV); Austrianative (AustrianativeAW); Balearesnative (BalearesnativeAT,AX,AY,AZ,BA,BB); Baltic Statesnative (KaliningradnativeBC, LatviaintroducedBD,BE); Belarusnative (BelarusnativeBF); Belgiumnative (BelgiumnativeBG, LuxembourgnativeBH); Bulgarianative (BulgarianativeAT,BI,BJ,BK,BL); Central European Russianative (Central European RussianativeBF); Corsenative (CorsenativeAT,BM,BN,BO,BP,BQ); Czechoslovakianative (Czech RepublicnativeBR,BS,BT,BU, SlovakianativeBR,BS,BV); FrancenativeAT,AX,BM,BO,BW; Germanynative (GermanynativeAT,BX,BY,BZ); Greecenative (GreecenativeCA,CB,CC,CD,CE,CF,CG,CH,O); Hungarynative (HungarynativeAT,CI,CJ); ItalynativeAT,CK,CL,CM,CN,CO,CP; Kritinative (KritinativeCB,CE,CF,CG,CH,CQ,O); Krymnative (KrymnativeAD,AT,BF,CR,CS,CT,T); Netherlands (Netherlandsnative: formerly nativeCU); Polandnative (PolandnativeAT,CV,CW); Portugalnative (PortugalnativeAT,BB,CX,CY,CZ); Romanianative (RomanianativeAT,BK,DA,DB); Sardegnanative (SardegnanativeAT,CK,CL,CN,CO); Sicilynative (SicilynativeCK,CL,CN,CO); Spainnative (AndorranativeAX,BB,DC, GibraltarnativeBB,DD, SpainnativeAX,BB,DE,DF,DG); Switzerlandnative (SwitzerlandnativeAT,DH,DI); Turkey-in-Europenative (Turkey-in-EuropenativeAT,DJ,N,P); Ukrainenative (MoldovanativeBF,DK, UkrainenativeBF,CS); Yugoslavianative (Bosnia-HerzegovinanativeBK,DL,DM, CroatianativeBK,CL,CM,DN, Macedonianative: presence questionableBK, MontenegronativeBK,DO, SerbianativeBK,DP, SlovenianativeDQ,DR) Northern America: British Columbiaintroduced (British ColumbiaintroducedDS,DT); Californiaintroduced (CaliforniaintroducedDT); Delawareintroduced (DelawareintroducedDT); District of Columbiaintroduced (District of ColumbiaintroducedDT); Georgia, U.S.A.introduced (Georgia, U.S.A.introducedDT); Idahointroduced (IdahointroducedDT); Illinoisintroduced (IllinoisintroducedDT); Marylandintroduced (MarylandintroducedDT); Michiganintroduced (MichiganintroducedDT); Montanaintroduced (MontanaintroducedDT); New Jerseyintroduced (New JerseyintroducedDT); Ontariointroduced (OntariointroducedDS,DT); Oregonintroduced (OregonintroducedDT); Pennsylvaniaintroduced (PennsylvaniaintroducedDT); Virginiaintroduced (VirginiaintroducedDT); Washingtonintroduced (WashingtonintroducedDT); West Virginiaintroduced (West VirginiaintroducedDT) Southern America: Argentina Northeastintroduced (Buenos AiresintroducedDU)

Description

Rosette herb, perennial or biennial, up to 100 cm high, glaucous. Flowering stems erect, ribbed, subterete or angular, scabridulous, hispid or toward the apex glabrous, strongly branched; branches ascending. Rosette leaves narrowly oblong, elliptic or obovate, 4.0-10.0-(13.5) cm long, 1.0-3.5-(4.5) cm wide, lyrate-pinnatifid, subentire at lateral lobes or denticulate, usually acute, attenuate. Cauline leaves few, linear, 2.0-8.0 cm long, 0.2-0.5 cm wide, sometimes denticulate at lower leaves or entire. Peduncle very short or absent. Heads with (5)-8-12 flowers. Involucre at flowering cylindrical, c. 8.0 mm long, at flowering 2.0-3.0 mm in diameter; involucral bracts finely tomentose or glabrous; outer involucral bracts ovate, 1.5-2.0 mm long, c. 1.0 mm wide; inner involucral bracts linear, 8.0 mm long, 1.0 mm wide, midrib conspicuously pale, margin narrowly scarious. Corolla ligulate, yellow, minutely brownish-papillose; tube c. 6.0 mm long; ligule c. 8.0 mm long, 1.5 mm wide. Anthertube yellow, c. 5.0 mm long; apical appendages subacute. Style c. 12.0-14.0 mm long, c. 2.0 mm long, yellow. Achenes narrowly cylindrical in outline, slightly curved, c. 3.5 mm long, 1.0 mm wide, in lower two-thirds smooth, in upper third muricate with an apical corona of small scales, pale brown, with a filiform beak; beak c. 5.0 mm long. Pappus white, uniseriate, copious, 6.0-8.0-(9.0) mm long, remotely scabridulous.

Based on: Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR 29, Compositae , Tribe Cichorieae . – Enfield; Matthew, V. A. 1975: 128. Chondrilla L. – Pp. 812-814 in: Davis, P.H. et al (ed.), Flora of Turkey 5. – Edinburgh; Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. – Kew; Sell, P. D. 1976: 174. Chondrilla L., 175. Calycocorsus F. W. Schmidt, 176. Heteracia Fischer & C. A. Meyer, 177. Lapsana L., 178. Crepis L., 179. Hispidella Barnades ex Lam. & 180. Andryala L. – Pp. 343-358 in: Tutin, G. & al. (ed.), Flora Europaea 4. – Cambridge.

Common names

Albanian (Albania): Zegun si zhukëDV,1; Arabic (Lebanon): خُنْدَريلى أَسَـلِيَّةDW,1; Arabic (Syria): خُنْدَريلى أَسَـلِيَّةDX,1; Armenian (Armenia): Խիժաճարճատուկ կնյունանմանDY,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Обикновен кривецBI,1; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): Enciam salvatgeBB; Czech (Czech Republic): Radyk prutnatýDZ,1; English (Australia): DandelionAM, Skeleton WeedAO,AQ, Skeleton weedAJ,AK,AL,AR, gum succoryAL,AO, naked weedAL,AO; English (New Zealand): Skeleton weedAP; English (Northern America): Rush skeletonweedDS; French (Belgium): Chondrille effiléeEA,1; French (Corse): ChondrilleEB,1; French (France): Chondrille effiléeEC,1, Chondrille jonciformeEC,2, Chondrille à feuilles d'AcantheED,1, Chondrille à tiges de JoncEC,1, Salade-à-bûchesEC,2; French (Northern America): Chondrille effiléeDS; French (Switzerland): Chondrille à tiges de joncEE,1; German (Germany): Großer KnorpellattichEF,1; German (Switzerland): Ruten-KnorpelsalatEE,1; Hebrew (Israel): כּוֹנְדְּרִילָה סַמְרָנִיתEG,1, כונדרילה סמרניתEG,1; Italian (Italy): Lattugaccio comuneCN,1; Italian (Switzerland): Lattugaccio comuneEE,1; Polish (Poland): Chondrilla sztywnaCV,1; Portuguese (Portugal): ChondríBB; Russian (Armenia): Хондрилла ситниковиднаяDY,1; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): AjonjeraBB, Escoba aujeraBB, GayumboBB; Turkish (Turkey): KarakavukAH
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Credits

Sukhorukov A. 2010: Images (1 added)
Christodoulou C. S. 2010: Images (2 added)
Willing E. 2017: Images (3 added)

Uses

In the Iberian Peninsula traditionally a liniment is prepared from the roots boiled in olive oil and applied to wounds and fractures of animals, attributing it antiseptic properties. An extract from the aerial parts of the plant is applied as an insecticide to combat the plague of the false flour weevil that affects stoied products.
The basal leaves are eaten raw in salads, or stewed, and stand out among wild vegetables for having a low oxalic acid content.BB

Bibliography

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