Lapsana communis

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Lapsana communis

http://media.bgbm.org/erez/erez?src=EditWP6/photos/Lapsana_communis_A_01.jpg

Common names

Albanian (Albania): Lapsane e rëndomtëA,1; Arabic (Lebanon): خَفَج شائعB,1; Arabic (Syria): خَفَج شائعC,1; Basque (Spain): AstazaD; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): СгърбунE,1; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): Herba del mugróD, LámpsanaD; Czech (Czech Republic): Kapustka obecnáF,1; Danish (Denmark): HaremadG,1; English (Great Britain): NipplewortH,1; English (Jamaica): NipplewortI; English (New Zealand): NipplewortJ; English (Northern America): Common nipplewortK; Estonian (Estonia): Harilik linnukapsasL,1; Finnish (Finland): LinnunkaaliG,1; French (Belgium): Lampsane communeM,1; French (Corse): Lapsane communeN,1; French (France): GragelineO,2, Herbe aux mamellesO,2, LamproiseO,2, Lampsane communeO,1, Lapsane communeO,2, Poule-grasseO,2; French (Northern America): Lapsane communeK; French (Réunion): Lastron bâtardP, Lastron marronQ; French (Switzerland): Lapsane communeR,1; Galician (Spain): Herna de mamasD, LabrestoD, MamotaD; German (Germany): Gewöhnlicher RainkohlS,1; German (Switzerland): RainkohlR,1; Icelandic (Iceland): HérafífillT; Italian (Italy): GrespignoloU,1, LassanaU,1; Italian (Switzerland): LassanaR,1; Latvian (Latvia): Parastā salāteneL,1; Lithuanian (Lithuania): Paprastoji gaivaL,1; Norwegian (Norway): HarematG,1; Polish (Poland): Łoczyga pospolitaV,1; Portuguese (Portugal): Cove-brancaD, LabrestoD, LapsanaD; Romanian (Moldova): Ярба сгайбей комунэW,1; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): ArtusaD, LampsanaD, NabilloD; Swedish (Sweden): HarfibblaG,2, HarkålX,1, Vanlig harkålG,X,1,2; Turkish (Turkey): ŞebrekY
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Description

Annual to perennial herbs with fibrous roots. Stems usually solitary, 10-125(-150) cm, erect, leafy, pale yellowish-green, sometimes tinted purplish, striate, often flexuous, with few to numerous, pale, wavy simple eglandular hairs especially below. Leaves dull medium to yellowish-green on upper surface, pale beneath with prominent veins; basal often numerous but dying before anthesis, the lamina 1-20 x 1-10 cm, oblong-obovate in outline, lyrate-pinnatifid, obtuse at apex, the terminal lobe large, ovate or triangular-ovate, undulate and sinuate-dentate and more or less cordate at the base, the lateral lobes several and much smaller, gradually decreasing in size downwards, very unequal, patent or recurved, ovate, oblong or pinnatifid, obtuse to rounded, dentate and sessile or narrowed at base to a winged petiolule, the area between the lobes with a narrow, irregular wing, with a narrowly winged [5etiole; cauline gradually decreasing in size, the lower usually similar to basal, the upper ovate, obtuse to acute at apex, petiolate or sessile, the uppermost often lanceolate, denticulate or entire and sessile; all with few to numerous simple eglandular hairs on the upper surface and numerous, unequal ones below especially on the veins. Capitula 3-100(-380), 10-30 mm in diameter, in an open, more or less corymbose panicle; peduncles usually glabrous, rarely with glandular hairs. Involucral bracts in 2 rows; outer 0.5-1.2 x 0.5-1.0 mm, pale green, triangular-ovate, obtuse at apex, glabrous; inner 5-10 x 1.2-1.5 mm, pale yellowish-green, often reddish tipped, linear-oblong, more or less obtuse at apex, keeled, usually glabrous, rarely with glandular hairs. Flowers all ligulate, bisexual; ligules a little longer than to 2.5 times as long as the involucral bracts, yellow, with 5 lobes at apex. Receptacle flat, without scales, Achenes 3.5-5.0 mm, the outer longer than the inner, linear-oblanceolate, slightly flattened, about 20-ribbed, not beaked; pappus absent. Flowers 6-9.

from: Sell, P. and Murell, G. 2006: Flora of Great Britain and Ireland 4. – Cambridge.

Distribution

Africa: Algeria (Algerianative); Azores (Açôresnative); Canary Is. (Canary Is.native: doubtfully native); Cape Provinces (Western Cape ProvinceintroducedZ); Madeira (Madeiranative); Morocconative; Réunion (RéunionintroducedP,Q); Tunisia (Tunisianative) Asia-Temperate: Altay (AltaynativeAA,AB); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.native); Iran (Irannative); Iraq (Iraqnative); Kazakhstan (KazakhstannativeAC); Kirgizistan (KirgizistannativeAD); KoreaintroducedAE; Krasnoyarsk (KrasnoyarsknativeAB); Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); North Caucasusnative (Dagestannative, Kabardino-Balkariyanative, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiyanative, Krasnodarnative, Severo-Osetiyanative, Stavropolnative); Palestine (Israelnative, Jordannative); Sakhalin (SakhalinintroducedAF); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkey (Turkeynative); Uzbekistan (UzbekistannativeAG); West Siberia (West SiberianativeAB) Asia-Tropical: Pakistan (Pakistannative); West Himalaya (Jammu-KashmirnativeAH) Australasia: Kermadec Is. (Kermadec Is.introducedJ); New South Wales (Australian Capital Territoryintroduced, New South Walesintroduced); New Zealand North (New Zealand NorthintroducedJ); New Zealand South (New Zealand SouthintroducedJ); South Australia (South Australiaintroduced); Tasmania (Tasmaniaintroduced); Victoria (Victoriaintroduced) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Austrianative (Austrianative, Liechtensteinnative); Baleares (Balearesnative); Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarus (Belarusnative); Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative: presence questionable); Central European Russia (Central European Russianative); Corse (Corsenative); Czechoslovakia (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmark (Denmarknative); East European Russia (East European Russianative); Finland (Finlandnative); Francenative; Germany (Germanynative); Great Britain (Great Britainnative); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (Hungarynative); Iceland (IcelandintroducedT); Irelandnative (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative; Krym (Krymnative); Netherlands (Netherlandsnative); North European Russia (North European Russianative); Northwest European Russia (Northwest European Russianative); Norway (Norwaynative); Poland (Polandnative); Portugal (Portugalnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative); Sicilynative (Sicilynative); South European Russia (South European Russianative); Spainnative (AndorranativeAI,D, Spainnative); Sweden (Swedennative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative); Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative: presence questionable, Montenegronative, Serbianative, SlovenianativeAJ,AK) Northern America: Alaska (AlaskaintroducedAL); Alberta (AlbertaintroducedK); Arizona (ArizonaintroducedAL); Arkansas (ArkansasintroducedAL); British Columbia (British ColumbiaintroducedAL,K); California (CaliforniaintroducedAL); Colorado (ColoradointroducedAL); Connecticut (ConnecticutintroducedAL); Greenland (GreenlandintroducedAL,K); Idaho (IdahointroducedAL); Illinois (IllinoisintroducedAL); Indiana (IndianaintroducedAL); Kentucky (KentuckyintroducedAL); Maine (MaineintroducedAL); Manitoba (ManitobaintroducedK); Maryland (MarylandintroducedAL); Massachusetts (MassachusettsintroducedAL); Mexico Central (México StateintroducedAM); Michigan (MichiganintroducedAL); Missouri (MissouriintroducedAL); New Brunswick (New BrunswickintroducedK); New Jersey (New Jerseyintroduced); New York (New YorkintroducedAL); Newfoundland (NewfoundlandintroducedK); North Carolina (North CarolinaintroducedAL); North Dakota (North DakotaintroducedAL); Nova Scotia (Nova ScotiaintroducedK); Ohio (OhiointroducedAL); Oklahoma (OklahomaintroducedAL); Ontario (OntariointroducedAL,K); Oregon (Oregonintroduced); Pennsylvania (PennsylvaniaintroducedAL); Prince Edward I. (Prince Edward I.introducedK); Québec (QuébecintroducedAL,K); Rhode I. (Rhode I.introducedAL); Saskatchewan (SaskatchewanintroducedAL,K); Tennessee (TennesseeintroducedAL); Texas (TexasintroducedAL); Utah (UtahintroducedAL); Vermont (VermontintroducedAL); Virginia (VirginiaintroducedAL); Washington (WashingtonintroducedAL); West Virginia (West VirginiaintroducedAL); Wisconsin (WisconsinintroducedAL) Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Buenos AiresintroducedAN,AO, CórdobaintroducedAN,AO); Argentina South (NeuquénintroducedAN,AO); Bolivia (BoliviaintroducedAP); Chile Central (BiobíointroducedAN, CoquimbointroducedAN, La AraucaniaintroducedAN, MauleintroducedAN, O'HigginsintroducedAN, SantiagointroducedAN, ValparaísointroducedAN); Chile South (AisénintroducedAN, Los LagosintroducedAN); Dominican Republic (Dominican RepublicintroducedAQ,I); Haiti (HaitiintroducedAQ,I); Jamaica (JamaicaintroducedI); Juan Fernández Is. (Juan Fernández Is.introducedAN); Venezuela (VenezuelaintroducedAR,AS)

Credits

Willing E. 2012: Images (4 added)

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