Hymenonema laconicum

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Description

Perennial rosette-forming herb, with a dense indumentum of white rigid hairs, usually with a single flowering stem 30–77 cm tall and sparsely to more frequently branched from the base or higher up, branches subtended by leaves similar to but smaller than the rosette leaves. Rosette leaves 10–25(–30) × 2.4–6.2 cm, pinnatifid with dentate, lobed segments; terminal segment (9–)15–35 mm wide, larger than lateral segments. Capitula (1–)5–15(–20) in a paniculiform synflorescence. Involucre 14–25 × 15–26 mm at anthesis; involucral bracts 28–54, in several imbricate rows, ovate to oblong, glabrous, with a distinct scarious margin 1–3 mm wide and an acute apex. Receptacle paleate, pitted, paleae membranous, pits with unequal cilia, to 1 mm long. Florets orange-yellow, usually with a purple spot at base, tube to 15 mm long, ligule to 25 × 5 mm; anther tube dark purple, to 8 mm long, densely hairy,with triangular apical appendages of same colour; Style to 23 mm long. Achenes brown, 4.7–6 × 1.4–2 mm, 5-ribbed, punctate, densely hairy with rigid, appressed hairs. Pappus with pale straw-coloured, awned scales, dark purple in distal 1/3; scales in 1 row, strongly varying in length, shortest ones 2–10 mm, longest ones 15–18.6 mm long.

modified from Liveri & al. (2018: 8-9)A

Distribution

Hymenonema laconicum is endemic to the lowlands surrounding Mt Parnonas and Mt Taigetos in the Peloponnisos.A
Europe: Greecenative (GreecenativeA,B,C,D,E,F)

Credits

Liveri E. 2018: Images (3 added)

Chromosome numbers

Liveri & al. (2014) counted a chromosome number of 2n = 20. The diploid karyotype is symmetric, consisting of metacentric and one pair of satellited submetacentric chromosomes, with the formula 18m + 2sm-SAT. G

Biology and ecology

The species grows on limestone, on dry slopes, in open vegetation such as Quercus-Pistacia scrub, but also on abandoned terraces, roadsides and in olive groves, at elevations of (5-)20-800(-1300) m. It is flowering from May to July and fruiting from June to August.A

Bibliography

A. Liveri E. & al., Taxonomic study on the Greek endemic genus Hymenonema (Asteraceae: Cichorieae), using morphological and karyological traits in Willdenowia 48: 5-21. 2018
B. Boissier, E., Flora Orientalis 3. 1875
C. Dimopoulos P. & al., Vascular plants of Greece, an annotated checklist. Englera 31. 2013 (as Hymenonema laconicum)
D. Halácsy, E. de, Conspectus florae graecae 2. 1902
E. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928-1931
F. Tutin, T. G. & al., Flora Europaea. 1964-1993
G. Liveri E. & al. in Fl. Medit. 24. 2014