Taraxacum bithynicum

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Taraxacum bithynicum

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Description

"Plants small, usually 3–5 cm tall, often with many-headed root system; plant base with subsparse brownish hairs and black-brown remnants of old petioles. Leaves ± numerous, variously erect-patent, 2–4 (–6.5) × 4–7 cm, ± glabrous, vivid green, leaf blade narrowly spatulate in outline, usually shallowly pinnatilobed to almost pinnatisect, or undivided and then with remote short teeth; terminal lobe helmet-shaped, 5–11 × 5–7 mm, apex rounded to broadly subacute, with distal margin convex to slightly sigmoid, entire to remotely minutely denticulate, with basal lobules ± patent and the proximal margin ± straight, entire; lateral lobes 3–4, short and broad, usually 2–3 × 3–5 mm, ± patent, broadly subacute to almost rounded, distal margin convex to slightly sigmoid, entire to remotely denticulate, proximal margin convex to straight. Interlobes often distinct, narrow, usually 2–3(–4) × 1–1.5 mm, with raised margins, usually entire to sparsely denticulate. Petiole narrow to narrowly winged, light green. Scapes thin, equalling leaves, subglabrous (sometimes brownish hairy distally) to glabrous. Involucre narrow, ± oblong, broadly obconical and ca. 3 mm wide at base. Outer phyllaries 7–13, short, reaching only 1/4–1/3, rarely to 1/2 of the length of the inner ones, loosely appressed, narrowly lanceolate to broadly ovate, (3–)4–5 × 1–2.5 mm, ± dark olivaceous-green, later (and when dry) blackish-olivaceous to almost black, often with black mid-vein and narrow submarginal black strips, usually with an indistinct, 0.1–0.2 mm wide paler border, sometimes with a blackish middle part and gradually paler to membranous borders to 0.5 mm wide, margin distinctly ciliate, apex ± obtuse and paler, ± flat; inner phyllaries 8–9, of ± equal width, deep green, blackish green and sometimes with a callosity near apex. Capitulum very small, to ca. 1.5 cm in diameter, yellow, with low floret number; outer ligules ± flat, subcucullate near apex, striped pale greyish outside, apical teeth probably brownish; stigmas long, ± yellow to pale greyish-greenish yellow, with pale pubescence outside. Pollen present, pollen grains of ± equal size (25.5–25.7 μm). Achenes greyish straw-brown, 3.5–4 × (0.7–)0.8–0.9 mm, achene body sparsely minutely spinulose in the upper 1/4, otherwise ± smooth, gradually narrowing into subconical to subcylindrical short cone ca. 0.5 mm long, beak ca. 3.5–4 mm long, pappus ca. 4–5 mm long, pure white.—Fl. June to August."

from Gürdal & al. (2018: 203-204).A

Systematics

Taraxacum bithynicum was described from the summit area of the Uludağ, Bursa Province, Turkey. In the 20th century the concept of the species was extended by Handel-Mazzetti (1907), Doll (1976) to cover morphologically similar plants from a vast region in the eastern Mediterranean and the species associated with T.. sect. Scariosa. Morphologically the species is, however, rather distant from this section although molecular analyses indicate some relationship, perhaps indicating that the sexual diploid species is a hybridogenous derivative of this section (Gürdal & al. 2018). Relying on morphology, the species is considered as a local endemic of the summit area of the Uludağ (Gürdal & al. 2018). Its sectional position remains so far unclear.A,B,C

Chromosome numbers

Diploid, 2n = 12.A

Distribution

Taraxacum bithynicum is a local endemic of the summit area of the Uludağ, Bursa Province, Turkey, the ancient Mysian or Bithynian Olympus (hence the epithet). With 2543 m it is the highest elevation in NW Anatolia and its rocky outcrops of various substrates, such as acid granite, gneiss, schist and crystalline limestone, provide a corresponding variety of habitats. Its flora is extremely rich and contains many regional and local endemics.A
Asia-Temperate: Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonreported in errorA,D,E,F,G); North Caucasusreported in errorA,B; Turkey (TurkeynativeB,H,I,J) Europe: Bulgaria (Bulgariareported in errorA,B,K,L,M); Greece (Greecereported in errorA,N); Kriti (Kritireported in errorA,B,N,O,P,Q,R)

Common names

Turkish (Turkey): ZincirotuJ

Bibliography

A. Gürdal B., Štěpánek J., Zeisek V. & al., What is and what is not Taraxacum bithynicum (Compositae, Crepidinae) in Phytotaxa 373: 197-210. 2018
B. Doll R., Die Section Scariosa H.-M. emend. Dahlst. der Gattung Taraxacum in Feddes Repert. 87: 553-585. 1976
C. Handel-Mazzetti, H. von, Monographie der Gattung Taraxacum. 1907
D. Mouterde, P., Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie 3, Texte. 1978-1984
E. Post, G. E. , Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai 2. 1933
F. Rechinger, K. H., Zur Flora von Syrien, Libanon und den angrenzenden türkischen Gebieten. Reliquiae Samuelssonianae VI in Ark. Bot. ser. 2, 5. 1960
G. Tohmé, G. & Tohmé, H., Illustrated flora of Lebanon. 2007
H. Boissier, E., Flora orientalis 3. 1875
I. Davis P. H., Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 5. 1975
J. Güner A. (ed.), Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). 2012
K. Andreev, N., Ančev, M., Kožuharov, S. I., Markova, M., Peev, D. & Petrova, A., Opredelitel na visšite rastenija v Bălgarija. 1992
L. As’ov, B., Petrova, A., Dimitrov, D. & Vasilev, R., Konspekt na visšata flora na Bălgarija, ed. 2. 2002
M. Stojanov, N. & Stefanov, B., Flora na Bălgarija, 4 [Stojanov, N., Stefanov, B. & Kitanov, B.], 2. 1967
N. Dimopoulos P. & al., Vascular plants of Greece, an annotated checklist. Englera 31. 2013 (as Taraxacum bithynicum)
O. Halácsy, E. de, Supplementum conspectus florae graecae. 1908
P. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928-1931
Q. Jahn, R. & Schönfelder, P., Exkursionsflora für Kreta. 1995
R. Rechinger, K. H., Flora aegaea. Flora der Inseln und Halbinseln des Ägäischen Meeres in Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 105(1)