Lactuca lineage

Primary tabs

Lactuca lineage

no image available

Common names

Albanian (Albania): MaruleA,1; Arabic (Lebanon): خَسّB,1, سْتِبْتورَمْفوسC,1, سْكَرْيولَةD,1; Arabic (Syria): خَسّE,1, سْتِبْتورَمْفوسF,1, سْكَرْيولَةG,1; Armenian (Armenia): ԼակտուցելաH,1, ԿաթնուկI,1, ՀազարI,1, ՄառոլI,1, ՍկարիոլաJ,1, ՍտեպտորամֆուսK,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Грудковидна салатаL,1, СалатаM,1; Chinese (China): 莴苣属 wo ju shuN; Czech (Czech Republic): LocikaO,1; English (Great Britain): LettuceP,1; Estonian (Estonia): SalatQ,1; French (Corse): LaitueR,1; German (Germany): LattichS; Hebrew (Israel): חַסָּהT,1, חסהT,1; Italian (Italy): LattugaU,1; Latvian (Latvia): SalātsQ,1; Polish (Poland): SałataV,1; Romanian (Moldova): ЛэптучьW,1, СкариолэX,1; Russian (Armenia): ЛактуцеллаH,1, ЛатукI,1, СалатI,1, СкариолаJ,1, СтепторамфусK,1; Swedish (Sweden): SallaterY,1, StrandsallaterZ,1; Turkish (Turkey): MarulAA
1. recommended


Circumscription and delimitation of Lactuca L. is the key issue in the classification of subtribe Lactucinae.As explained in the Systematics section of the subtribe, Lactuca and other entities are treated here, until the generic classification of the subtribe is settled, as lineages according to the molecular (nrITS) analysis by Kilian & al. (2017).

The Lactuca lineage is composed of nine well-supported terminal clades in the nrITS tree, which group into three major clades. With few exceptions the terminal clades are also present in the plastid DNA tree but with unresolved or different relationships. These three major clades (according to the nrITS tree) are: (1) The NE Mediterranean Lactuca aurea clade (including L. glareosa, L. variabilis and others) is sister to a clade comprising (2) the core Lactuca clade and (3) a varied clade uniting 5 terminal clades.

The core Lactuca clade holds L. indica and its allies in one clade and L. serriola/sativa, L. virosa, L. georgica, L. saligna, the L. viminea group, L. quercina and L. oblongifolia, L. sibirica and L. tatarica in a sister clade (for details see Jones & al. 2018).

The varied clade includes the L. racemosa-L. macrophylla clade, the isolated Afghan L. picridiformis, the L. perennis clade, the L. plumieri-L. canadensis clade with the American 2n =34 taxa (for details see Jones & al. 2018), the L. tuberosa clade and finally the L. inermis-L. tenerrima clade.AB,AC


Herbs, perennial or annual, more rarely subshrubs (only Lactuca orientalis in China). Stems usually leafy. Leaves pinnate or undivided. Capitula with 4–30 or more florets. Involucre narrowly cylindric. Phyllaries glabrous or hairy; outer phyllaries gradually longer centripetally, ± imbricate, often ca. 1/2 as long as inner phyllaries or even ± approaching them in length; inner phyllaries usually 3, 5, or 8, ± linear-lanceolate to linear, often of unequal length in fruit. Receptacle naked. Florets some shade of yellow or blue. Achene narrowly or broadly ellipsoid, body subcompressed to compressed, between 2 thicker or wider lateral ribs with 1 to several slender ribs on either side; beak usually present, stout, slender, or filiform. Pappus white or sometimes with a faint yellow tinge, single, of slender scabrid bristles [or double with an additional outer row of minute hairs].

from: Shih C. & Kilian N. (2011: 233).AD

Chromosome numbers

Diploids and, rarely, tetraploids, x = 9, 8; the allotetraploid Lactuca canadensis-L. watsoniana clade with 2n = 34 has x = 8 and x = 9 progenitors.AB,AC,AE,AF


Africa: Algeria (Algerianative); Angola (Angolanative); Azores (Açôresnative); Benin (Beninnative); Botswana (Botswanaintroduced); Burkina (Burkinanative); Burundi (Burundinative); Cameroon (Cameroonnative); Canary Is. (Canary Is.native); Cape Provinces (Eastern Cape Provincenative, Northern Cape Provincenative, Western Cape Provincenative); Central African Republic (Central African Republicnative); Chad (Chadnative); Comoros (Comorosnative); Congo (Congonative); Djibouti (Djiboutinative); Egypt (Egyptnative); Equatorial Guinea (Equatorial Guineanative); Eritrea (Eritreanative); Ethiopia (Ethiopianative); Free State (Free Statenative); Ghana (Ghananative); Guinea (Guineanative); Gulf of Guinea Is. (Biokonative); Ivory Coast (Ivory Coastnative); Kenya (Kenyanative); KwaZulu-Natal (KwaZulu-Natalnative); Lesotho (Lesothonative); Liberia (Liberianative); Libya (Libyanative); Madagascar (Madagascarnative); Madeira (Madeiranative); Malawi (Malawinative); Mali (Malinative); Mauritius (Mauritiusnative); Morocconative; Mozambique (Mozambiquenative); Namibia (Namibianative); Niger (Nigernative); Nigeria (Nigerianative); Northern Provinces (Gautengnative, Mpumalanganative, North-West Provincenative, Northern Provincenative); Rodrigues (Rodriguesnative); Rwanda (Rwandanative); Réunion (Réunionnative); Seychelles (Seychellesintroduced); Sierra Leone (Sierra Leonenative); Somalia (Somalianative); Sudan (Sudannative); Swaziland (Swazilandnative); Tanzania (Tanzanianative); Tunisia (Tunisianative); Uganda (Ugandanative); Zaire (Zairenative); Zambia (Zambianative); Zimbabwe (Zimbabwenative) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan (Afghanistannative); Altay (Altaynative); Amur (Amurnative); Buryatiya (Buryatiyanative); China North-Central (Gansunative, Hebeinative, Shaanxinative, Shandongnative, Shanxinative); China South-Central (Chongqingnative, Guizhounative, Hubeinative, Sichuannative, Yunnannative); China Southeast (Anhuinative, Fujiannative, Guangdongnative, Guangxinative, Henannative, Hunannative, Jiangsunative, Jiangxinative, Zhejiangnative); Chita (Chitanative); Cyprus (Cyprusnative); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.native); Gulf States (United Arab Emiratesnative); Hainan (Hainannative); Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongolnative); Iran (Irannative); Iraq (Iraqnative); Irkutsk (Irkutsknative); Japannative (Hokkaidonative, Honshunative, Kyushunative, Shikokunative); Kamchatka (Kamchatkanative); Kazakhstan (Kazakhstannative); Khabarovsk (Khabarovsknative); Kirgizistan (Kirgizistannative); Korea (North Koreanative, South Koreanative); Krasnoyarsk (Krasnoyarsknative); Kuril Is. (Kuril Is.native); Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); Magadan (Magadannative); Manchuria (Heilongjiangnative, Jilinnative, Liaoningnative); Mongolia (Mongolianative); Nansei-shoto (Nansei-shotonative); North Caucasusnative (Chechnyanative, Dagestannative, Kabardino-Balkariyanative, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiyanative, Krasnodarnative, Severo-Osetiyanative, Stavropolnative); Ogasawara-shoto (Ogasawara-shotonative: doubtfully native); Oman (Omannative); Palestine (Israelnative, Jordannative); Primorye (Primoryenative); Qinghai (Qinghainative); Sakhalinnative (Sakhalinnative); Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabianative); Sinai (Sinainative); Tadzhikistan (Tadzhikistannative); Taiwan (Taiwannative); Tibet (Tibetnative); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkey (Turkeynative); Turkmenistan (Turkmenistannative); Tuva (Tuvanative); Uzbekistan (Uzbekistannative); West Siberia (West Siberianative); Xinjiang (Xinjiangnative); Yakutskiya (Yakutskiyanative); Yemen (North Yemennative, South Yemennative) Asia-Tropical: Assam (Assamnative, Meghalayanative); East Himalaya (Arunachal Pradeshnative, Bhutannative, Darjilingnative, Sikkimnative); India (Delhinative, Haryananative, Madhya Pradeshnative, Punjabnative, Rajasthannative, Uttar Pradeshnative, West Bengalnative); Jawa (Jawanative); Laosnative; Malaya (Peninsular Malaysianative: doubtfully native); Myanmar (Myanmarnative); Nepal (Nepalnative); New Guinea (Irian Jayanative, Papua New Guineanative); Pakistan (Pakistannative); Philippines (Philippinesnative); Sumatera (Sumateranative: doubtfully native); Thailand (Thailandnative); Vietnam (Vietnamnative); West Himalaya (Himachal Pradeshnative, Jammu-Kashmirnative, Uttaranchalnative) Australasia: New South Wales (Australian Capital Territoryintroduced: naturalized, New South Walesintroduced); New Zealand North (New Zealand Northintroduced); New Zealand South (New Zealand Southintroduced); Northern Territory (Northern Territoryintroduced); Queensland (Queenslandintroduced); South Australia (South Australiaintroduced); Tasmania (Tasmaniaintroduced); Victoria (Victoriaintroduced); Western Australia (Ashmore-Cartier Is.introduced, Western Australiaintroduced) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Austrianative (Austrianative, Liechtensteinintroduced); Baleares (Balearesnative); Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latviaintroduced, Lithuaniaintroduced); Belarus (Belarusnative); Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European Russianative); Corse (Corsenative); Czechoslovakia (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmark (Denmarknative); East European Russia (East European Russianative); Finland (Finlandnative); Francenative; Germany (Germanynative); Great Britain (Great Britainnative); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (Hungarynative); Irelandintroduced (Irelandintroduced, Northern Irelandintroduced); Italynative; Kriti (Kritinative); Krym (Krymnative); Netherlands (Netherlandsnative); North European Russia (North European Russianative); Northwest European Russia (Northwest European Russianative); Norway (Norwaynative); Poland (Polandintroduced); Portugal (Portugalnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative); Sicilynative (Maltanative, Sicilynative); South European Russia (South European Russianative); Spainnative (Andorranative, Gibraltarnative, Spainnative); Sweden (Swedennative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative); Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: Alabama (Alabamanative); Alaska (Alaskanative); Alberta (Albertanative); Arizona (Arizonanative); Arkansas (Arkansasnative); British Columbia (British Columbianative); California (Californianative); Colorado (Coloradonative); Connecticut (Connecticutnative); Delaware (Delawarenative); District of Columbia (District of Columbianative); Florida (Floridanative); Georgia, U.S.A. (Georgia, U.S.A.native); Idaho (Idahonative); Illinois (Illinoisnative); Indiana (Indiananative); Iowa (Iowanative); Kansas (Kansasnative); Kentucky (Kentuckynative); Labrador (Labradornative); Louisiana (Louisiananative); Maine (Mainenative); Manitoba (Manitobanative); Maryland (Marylandnative); Massachusetts (Massachusettsnative); Mexico Central (Mexico Distrito Federalintroduced, México Stateintroduced, Pueblanative); Mexico Gulf (Veracruznative); Mexico Northeast (Chihuahuanative, Coahuilanative, Guanajuatointroduced, Hidalgonative, Nuevo Leónnative, Querétarointroduced, San Luis Potosínative, Tamaulipasnative); Mexico Northwest (Baja Californiaintroduced, Sonoraintroduced); Mexico Southeast (Chiapasnative); Mexico Southwest (Michoacánnative, Oaxacanative); Michigan (Michigannative); Minnesota (Minnesotanative); Mississippi (Mississippinative); Missouri (Missourinative); Montana (Montananative); Nebraska (Nebraskanative); Nevada (Nevadanative); New Brunswick (New Brunswicknative); New Hampshire (New Hampshirenative); New Jersey (New Jerseynative); New Mexico (New Mexiconative); New York (New Yorknative); Newfoundland (Newfoundlandnative, St.Pierre-Miquelonnative); North Carolina (North Carolinanative); North Dakota (North Dakotanative); Northwest Territories (Northwest Territoriesnative); Nova Scotia (Nova Scotianative); Ohio (Ohionative); Oklahoma (Oklahomanative); Ontario (Ontarionative); Oregon (Oregonnative); Pennsylvania (Pennsylvanianative); Prince Edward I. (Prince Edward I.native); Québec (Québecnative); Rhode I. (Rhode I.native); Saskatchewan (Saskatchewannative); South Carolina (South Carolinanative); South Dakota (South Dakotanative); Tennessee (Tennesseenative); Texas (Texasnative); Utah (Utahnative); Vermont (Vermontnative); Virginia (Virginianative); Washington (Washingtonnative); West Virginia (West Virginianative); Wisconsin (Wisconsinnative); Wyoming (Wyomingnative); Yukon (Yukonintroduced) Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Argentina Distrito Federalintroduced, Buenos Airesintroduced, Chacointroduced, Corrientesintroduced, Córdobaintroduced, Entre Ríosintroduced, La Pampaintroduced); Argentina Northwest (Catamarcaintroduced, Jujuyintroduced, La Riojaintroduced, Mendozaintroduced, San Juanintroduced, San Luisintroduced); Argentina South (Chubutintroduced, Neuquénintroduced, Rio Negrointroduced, Santa Féintroduced); Bahamas (Bahamasnative); Brazil South (Rio Grande do Sulintroduced, Santa Catarinaintroduced); Chile Central (Biobíointroduced, Coquimbointroduced, La Araucaniaintroduced, Mauleintroduced, O'Higginsintroduced, Santiagointroduced, Valparaísointroduced); Chile North (Antofagastaintroduced, Tarapacaintroduced); Cuba (Cubaintroduced); Dominican Republic (Dominican Republicnative); Ecuador (Ecuadorintroduced); Galápagos (Galápagosnative); Guatemala (Guatemalanative); Haiti (Haitinative); Hondurasintroduced; Jamaica (Jamaicanative); Leeward Is. (British Virgin Is.native); Paraguay (Paraguayintroduced); Puerto Rico (Puerto Riconative); Uruguay (Uruguayintroduced)


A. Vangjeli, J., Flora e Shqipërisë 4. 1999 (as Lactuca L.)
B. Nehmé, M., Dictionnaire Etymologique de la Flore du Liban. 2000 (as Lactuca L.)
C. Nehmé, M., Dictionnaire Etymologique de la Flore du Liban. 2000 (as Steptorhamphus Bunge)
D. Nehmé, M., Dictionnaire Etymologique de la Flore du Liban. 2000 (as Scariola F. W. Schmidt)
E. Nehmé, M., Etymological Dictionary of Syrian Flora. 2008 (as Lactuca L.)
F. Nehmé, M., Etymological Dictionary of Syrian Flora. 2008 (as Steptorhamphus Bunge)
G. Nehmé, M., Etymological Dictionary of Syrian Flora. 2008 (as Scariola F. W. Schmidt)
H. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Flora Armenii 9. 1995 (as Lactucella Nazarova)
I. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Flora Armenii 9. 1995 (as Lactuca L.)
J. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Flora Armenii 9. 1995 (as Scariola F. W. Schmidt)
K. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Flora Armenii 9. 1995 (as Steptorhamphus Bunge)
L. Andreev, N. & Kozucharov, S. I., Opredelitel na vissite rastenija v Balgarija. 1992 (as Steptorhamphus Bunge)
M. Andreev, N. & Kozucharov, S. I., Opredelitel na vissite rastenija v Balgarija. 1992 (as Lactuca L.)
N. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011 (as Lactuca L.)
O. Jindřich Chrtek, Seznam vyšších rostlin květeny České republiky (as Lactuca L.)
P. Dony, J. G. , Jury, S. L. & Perring, F. H., English Names of Wild Flowers, a list recommended by the Botanical Society of the British Isles, ed. 2. 1986 (as Lactuca L.)
Q. Kuusk, V., Tabaka, L. & Jankjavičene, R., Flora baltijskih republik. Svodka sosudistyh rastenij 3. 2003 (as Lactuca L.)
R. Jeanmonod D. & Gamisans J., Flora Corsica. 2007 (as Lactuca L.)
S. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4: Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 10. 2005 (as Lactuca L.)
T. Avinoam Danin, Flora of Israel Online - (as Lactuca L.)
U. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Lactuca L.)
V. Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkova, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M., in Biodivers. Poland 1. 2002 (as Lactuca L.)
W. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986 (as Lactuca L.)
X. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986 (as Scariola F. W. Schmidt)
Y. Karlsson, T., Checklista över Nordens kärlväxter . 2004 (as Lactuca L.)
Z. Karlsson, T., Checklista över Nordens kärlväxter . 2004 (as Mulgedium Cass.)
AA. Güner A. (ed.), Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). 2012 (as Lactuca L.)
AB. Jones K. E., Schilling E. E., Dias E. F. & al., Northern Hemisphere disjunctions in Lactuca (Cichorieae, Asteraceae): independent Eurasia to North America migrations and allopolyploidization in Willdenowia 48: 259–284. 2018
AC. Kilian N., Sennikov A. N., Wang Z. H. & al., Sub-Paratethyan origin and Middle to Late Miocene principal diversification of the Lactucinae (Cichorieae, Compositae) inferred from molecular phylogenetics, divergence-dating and biogeographic analysis in Taxon 66: 675-703. 2017
AD. Shih C. & Kilian N. - in Wu & al., Fl. China 20-21. 2011
AE. Dias E. F. & al., Phylogeography of the Macaronesian lettuce species Lactuca watsoniana and L. palmensis (Asteraceae) in Biochem. Genet. doi: 10.1007/s10528-018-9847-8. 2018
AF. Feráková V., The genus Lactuca L. in Europe. 1977