Crepis capillaris

Primary tabs

http://media.bgbm.org/erez/erez?src=EditWP6/photos/Crepis_capillaris_A_01.jpg

Description

Rosette herb, annual or biennial, 10-90 cm high, with taproot. Flowering stems several to 1, erecet to procumbent or ascending, striate, pale green and sometimes tinged purple, hispid, branched or unbranched. Rosette leaves narrowly ovate or narrowly obovate, 5.0-30.0 cm long, up to 4.5 cm wide, runcinate or lyrate-pinnatifid, denticulate, entire or dentate, sometimes mucronate, obtuse or acute, petiole-like attenuate with a winged petiole, glabrous or hispid, green and sometimes tinged purple on both surfaces; lateral lobes ovate and linear, retrorse. Cauline leaves narrowly ovate, acute, auriculate and amplexicaul, glabrous and hispid, apically reduced to scales. Synflorescence corymbiform. Peduncle 5.0-65.0 cm long, tomentose, glabrous or sometimes glandular. Heads with 20-60 flowers. Involucre at flowering cylindrical to turbinate, 5.0-8.0 mm long, at flowering 3.0-6.0 mm in diameter; involucral bracts green, sparsely glandular, tomentose or glabrous, margin mostly scarious; outer involucral bracts linear, appressed to inner; inner involucral bracts linear-ovate, 4.5-9.0 mm long, 0.5-1.0 mm wide, more or less acute. Receptacle flat, pitted, naked. Corolla ligulate, 8.0-12.0 mm long, yellow; tube 2.0-3.0 mm long, pubescent; ligule tinged red. Anthertube yellow, 3.0-3.5 mm long; apical appendages acute, 0.5-0.6 mm long. Style yellow or greenish; branches 1.2-1.5 mm long. Achenes cylindrical or fusiform in outline, straight or curved, 1.5-2.5 mm long, glabrous or scabrous, brownish-yellow or brown, with 10 ribs, attenuate. Pappus white, 3.0-4.0 mm long, caducous, flexible.

Based on: Babcock, E. B. 1947: The genus Crepis 2. – Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 22; Bogler, D. J.: 36. Crepis Linnaeus. – Pp. 222-239 in: Flora of North America Editorial Com. (ed.), Flora of North America 19. – New York / Oxford; Sell, P. and Murell, G. 2006: Flora of Great Britain and Ireland 4. – Cambridge.

Distribution

Africa: Azoresnative (AçôresnativeA,B,C); Canary Is.native: doubtfully native (Canary Is.native: doubtfully nativeB); Cape Provincesintroduced (Eastern Cape ProvinceintroducedD,E); KwaZulu-Natalintroduced (KwaZulu-NatalintroducedD,E); Madeiraintroduced: naturalized (Madeiraintroduced: naturalizedB,F) Asia-Temperate: North Caucasusnative (KrasnodarnativeG); Turkeynative: presence questionable (Turkeynative: presence questionableH,I) Asia-Tropical: West Himalayanative (Himachal PradeshnativeJ, Jammu-KashmirnativeJ) Australasia: Chatham Is.introduced (Chatham Is.introducedK); Kermadec Is.introduced (Kermadec Is.introducedK); New South Walesintroduced (Australian Capital TerritoryintroducedL,M,N,O, New South WalesintroducedL,M,N,O,P,Q); New Zealand Northintroduced (New Zealand NorthintroducedK); New Zealand Southintroduced (New Zealand SouthintroducedK); Queenslandintroduced (QueenslandintroducedO); South Australiaintroduced (South AustraliaintroducedL,N,O,Q,R); Tasmaniaintroduced (TasmaniaintroducedL,M,N,O,Q,R); Victoriaintroduced (VictoriaintroducedL,N,O,Q,R); Western Australiaintroduced (Western AustraliaintroducedN,O,Q) Europe: Albanianative (AlbanianativeC,S,T,U); Austrianative (AustrianativeV, LiechtensteinnativeW); Balearesnative: presence questionable (Balearesnative: presence questionableX); Baltic Statesnative: doubtfully native (Kaliningradnative: presence questionableY,Z, Lithuanianative: doubtfully nativeAA,Z); Belgiumnative (BelgiumnativeAB, LuxembourgnativeAC); Bulgarianative (BulgarianativeAD,AE,AF,AG,C); Central European Russianative: doubtfully native (Central European Russianative: doubtfully nativeZ); Corseintroduced (CorseintroducedAH,AI,AJ,AK,AL,AM,C); Czechoslovakianative (Czech RepublicnativeAN,AO,AP,AQ, SlovakianativeAN,AO,AR); Denmark (DenmarkAS,C); FrancenativeAI,AK,AT,AU,AV,AW,AX,AY,AZ,BA,BB,C; Germanynative (GermanynativeBC,BD,BE,C); Great Britainnative (Great BritainnativeC); Greecereported in error (Greecereported in errorAF,BF,BG,BH,BI,C); Hungarynative (HungarynativeBJ,BK,C); Icelandintroduced (IcelandintroducedBL); Irelandnative (IrelandnativeBM,BN, Northern IrelandnativeBM); ItalynativeBO,BP,BQ,BR,C; Krymnative (KrymBS,BT,C,Z); Netherlandsnative (NetherlandsnativeBU,C); North European Russianative: doubtfully native (North European Russianative: doubtfully nativeZ); Northwest European Russianative: doubtfully native (Northwest European Russianative: doubtfully nativeZ); Norwayintroduced (NorwayintroducedBV); Polandnative (PolandnativeBW,BX,C); Portugalnative (PortugalnativeA,BY,BZ,C,CA,CB,CC,CD,CE); Romanianative (RomanianativeC,CF,CG); Sicilynative (MaltanativeCH); Spainnative (AndorranativeCI, GibraltarnativeCJ, SpainnativeAT,C,CK,CL,CM,CN,CO,CP); Swedenintroduced (SwedenintroducedC,CQ,CR); Switzerlandnative (SwitzerlandnativeC,CS,CT); Turkey-in-Europenative: presence questionable (Turkey-in-Europenative: presence questionableC,CU,H); Ukrainenative (UkrainenativeBT,CV,Z); Yugoslavianative (Bosnia-HerzegovinanativeAF,CW, CroatianativeAF,CX, MacedonianativeAF,CY, MontenegronativeAF,CZ, SerbianativeAF,DA, SlovenianativeDB,DC) Northern America: Alaskaintroduced (AlaskaintroducedDD); Albertaintroduced (AlbertaintroducedDD,DE); Arkansasintroduced (ArkansasintroducedDD); British Columbiaintroduced (British ColumbiaintroducedDD,DE); Californiaintroduced (CaliforniaintroducedDD); Coloradointroduced (ColoradointroducedDD); Connecticutintroduced (ConnecticutintroducedDD); Delawareintroduced (DelawareintroducedDD); District of Columbiaintroduced (District of ColumbiaintroducedDD); Idahointroduced (IdahointroducedDD); Illinoisintroduced (IllinoisintroducedDD); Indianaintroduced (IndianaintroducedDD); Iowaintroduced (IowaintroducedDD); Kentuckyintroduced (KentuckyintroducedDD); Maineintroduced (MaineintroducedDD); Marylandintroduced (MarylandintroducedDD); Massachusettsintroduced (MassachusettsintroducedDD); Mexico Gulf (VeracruzintroducedDF); Michiganintroduced (MichiganintroducedDD); Mississippiintroduced (MississippiintroducedDD); Missouriintroduced (MissouriintroducedDD); Montanaintroduced (MontanaintroducedDD); Nevadaintroduced (NevadaintroducedDD); New Brunswickintroduced (New BrunswickintroducedDD,DE); New Hampshireintroduced (New HampshireintroducedDD); New Jerseyintroduced (New JerseyintroducedDD); New Yorkintroduced (New YorkintroducedDD); North Carolinaintroduced (North CarolinaintroducedDD); North Dakotaintroduced (North DakotaintroducedDD); Nova Scotiaintroduced (Nova ScotiaintroducedDD,DE); Ohiointroduced (OhiointroducedDD); Ontariointroduced (OntariointroducedDD,DE); Oregonintroduced (OregonintroducedDD); Pennsylvaniaintroduced (PennsylvaniaintroducedDD); Québecintroduced (QuébecintroducedDD,DE); Rhode I.introduced (Rhode I.introducedDD); Tennesseeintroduced (TennesseeintroducedDD); Texasintroduced (TexasintroducedDD); Utahintroduced (UtahintroducedDD); Vermontintroduced (VermontintroducedDD); Virginiaintroduced (VirginiaintroducedDD); Washingtonintroduced (WashingtonintroducedDD); West Virginiaintroduced (West VirginiaintroducedDD); Wisconsinintroduced (WisconsinintroducedDD); Yukonintroduced (YukonintroducedDE) Southern America: Argentina Northeastintroduced (Buenos AiresintroducedDG,DH, CórdobaintroducedDG,DH); Argentina Northwestintroduced (MendozaintroducedDG,DH, San JuanintroducedDI, San LuisintroducedDG,DH); Argentina Southintroduced (ChubutintroducedDG,DH, NeuquénintroducedDG,DH, Rio NegrointroducedDG,DH, Santa CruzintroducedDG,DH, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)introducedDG,DH); Boliviaintroduced (BoliviaintroducedDJ); Chile Centralintroduced (BiobíointroducedDG, La AraucaniaintroducedDG, MauleintroducedDG, O'HigginsintroducedDG, SantiagointroducedDG); Chile Southintroduced (AisénintroducedDG, Los LagosintroducedDG, MagellanesintroducedDG); Colombia (ColombiaintroducedDK); Costa Rica (Costa RicaintroducedDF); Dominican Republicintroduced (Dominican RepublicintroducedDL); Juan Fernández Is.introduced (Juan Fernández Is.introducedDG); Uruguayintroduced (UruguayintroducedDG)

Credits

Willing E. 2012: Images (3 added)

Common names

Albanian (Albania): Shmangë kapilareDM,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Голостъблена дрипавкаAD,1; Czech (Czech Republic): Škarda vláskovitáDN,1; Danish (Denmark): Grøn HøgeskægDO,1; English (Australia): Smooth HawksbeardM,O,Q, Smooth hawk's-beardL; English (Great Britain): Smooth Hawk's-beardDP,1; English (New Zealand): HawksbeardK; English (Northern America): Smooth hawksbeardDE; Finnish (Finland): HoikkakelttoDO,1; French (Belgium): Crépis à tige capillaireDQ,1; French (Corse): Crépide capillaireDR,1; French (France): Crépide capillaireDS,1, Crépide verdâtreDS,1, Crépide à tiges capillairesDS,1, Crépis capillaireDS,1, Crépis verdâtreDS,1, Crépis à tiges capillairesDS,1; French (Northern America): Crépis capillaireDE; French (Switzerland): Crépide capillaireDT,1; German (Germany): Kleinköpfiger PippauDU,1; German (Switzerland): Kleinköpfiger PippauDT,1; Icelandic (Iceland): FálkaskeggBL; Italian (Italy): Radicchiella capillareBQ,1; Italian (Switzerland): Radicchiella capillareDT,1; Norwegian (Norway): BrakkhaukeskjeggDO,1; Polish (Poland): Pępawa zielonaBW,1; Swedish (Sweden): GrönfibblaDV,1
1. recommended

Bibliography

A. Franco, J. Do Amaral, Nova flora de Portugal (continente e Açores). 2. 1984
B. Hansen A. & Sunding P., Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4th revised edition in Sommerfeltia 17. 1994
C. Tutin, T. G. & al., Flora Europaea. 1964-1993
D. Herman P. P. J., Plants of Southern Africa: Cichorium - Youngia in Strelitzia 14. 2003
E. Hermann P. P. J., Retief E., Koekemoer M. & Welman W. G., Asteraceae (Compositae). Pp. 101-170 in: Leistner O. A. (ed.), Seed plants of Southern Africa: families and genera in Strelitzia 10. 2000
F. Vieira, R. M. da S., Flora da Madeira. Plantas vasculares naturalizadas no arquipélago da Madeire in Bol. Mus. Munic. Funchal (Hist. Nat.) Supl. 8. 2002
G. Almq. in Öfvers. Kongl. Vetensk.-Akad. Förh. 41(7). 1884
H. Davis P. H., Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 5. 1975
I. Güner A. (ed.), Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). 2012
J. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995
K. Garnock-Jones P. J. - Cichorioideae in Webb C. J., Sykes W. R. & Garnock-Jones P. J., Flora of New Zealand 4. 1988
L. Burbidge N. T. & Gray M., Flora of the Australian Capital territory. 1970
M. Murray L. - 168. Tragopogon - 177. Youngia in Harden G. J., Flora of New South Wales 3. 1992
N. Thompson I. R. & al. - Asteraceae tribe Cichorieae in Wilson A. (ed.), Flora of Australia 37. 2015
O. Walsh N. G. - 16. Crepis in Walsh N. G. & Entwisle T. J., Flora of Victoria 4. 1999
P. Beadle N. C. W., Students flora of the north eastern New South Wales 4. 1980
Q. Wheeler J., Marchant N., Lewington M. & Graham L. - Flora of the South West (Burnbury, Augusta, Denmark) in Fl. Australia Suppl. Ser. 12(2). 2002
R. Jesso J. P. & Toelken H. R., Flora of South Australia, ed. 4, 3. 1986
S. Demiri, M., Flora ekskursioniste e shqiperise. 1983
T. Vangjeli, A., Flora e Shqiperise 4. 1999
U. Vangjeli, J., Udhëheqës fushor i florës së Shqipërisë. 2003
V. Adler, W. , Oswald, K. & Fischer, R., Exkursionsflora von Österreich. 1994
W. Seitter, H., Die Flora des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. 1977
X. Fraga, P., Mascaró, C., Carreras, D., Garcia, O., Pallicer, X., Pons, M., Seoane, M. & Truyol, M., Catàleg de la flora vascular de Menorca. 2004
Y. Dedkov, V. P. (ed. ), Konspekt sosudistyh rastenij Kaliningradskoj Oblasti. 1999
Z. Fedorov, A. A., Flora evropejskoj časti SSSR 8 [Cvelev, N. N.]. 1989
AA. Kuusk, V. , Tabaka, L. & Jankjavičene, R., Flora baltijskih republik. Svodka sosudistyh rastenij 3. 2003
AB. Van Rompaey, E. & Delvosalle, L., Atlas van de Belgische en Luxemburgse flora – Pteridofyten en Spermatofyten.. 1972
AC. Colling, G., Red List of the Vascular Plants of Luxembourg in Ferrantia 42. 2005
AD. Andreev, N. & Kozucharov, S. I., Opredelitel na vissite rastenija v Balgarija. 1992
AE. As’ov, B., Dimitrov, D., Vasilev, R. & Petrova, A., Konspekt na visšata flora na Bălgarija, ed. 2. 2002
AF. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928-1931
AG. Stojanov, N., Stefanov, B. & Kitanov, B, Flora na Bălgarija, ed. 4, 2. 1967
AH. Bouchard, J., Flore pratique de la Corse. 1978 (as Crepis virens)
AI. Fournier, P., Les quatre flores de la France, Corse comprise. 1934-1940 (as Crepis virens)
AJ. Gamisans, J., Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Corse. 1985
AK. Guinochet, M. & Vilmorin, R. de, Flore de France 4. 1982
AL. Jeanmonod D. & Schlüssel A., Compléments au Prodrome de la Flore Corse. Asteraceae III. 2012 (as Crepis capillaris)
AM. Jeanmonod, D. & Burdet, H. M., Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Corse, ed. 2. 1993
AN. Dostál, J., Nová kvetena CSSR 2. 1989
AO. Dostál, J., Vel’ký kl’úc na určovanie vyšších rastlín 2. 1992
AP. Kubát, K., Klíč ke květeně České republiky. 2002
AQ. Slavík, B. & Štěpánková, J., Květena České Republiky 7. 2004
AR. Marhold, K. & Hindák, F., Zoznam nižších a vyšších rastlín Slovenska. 1998
AS. Hansen, K., Dansk feltflora. 1993
AT. Bolòs, O. de & Vigo, J., Flora dels països catalans 3. 1995
AU. Coste, H., Flore descriptive et illustree de la France 2. 1902-1903 (as Crepis agrestis)
AV. Coste, H., Flore descriptive et illustree de la France 2. 1902-1903 (as Crepis diffusa)
AW. Coste, H., Flore descriptive et illustree de la France 2. 1902-1903 (as Crepis virens)
AX. Coste, H., Flore descriptive et illustrée de la France. Supplément 3. 1975 (as Crepis capillaris subsp. agrestis)
AY. Coste, H., Flore descriptive et illustrée de la France. Supplément 3. 1975 (as Crepis capillaris subsp. capillaris)
AZ. Coste, H., Flore descriptive et illustrée de la France. Supplément 3. 1975 (as Crepis virens var. diffusa)
BA. Fournier, P., Les quatre flores de la France, Corse comprise. 1934-1940 (as Crepis virens var. agrestis)
BB. Fournier, P., Les quatre flores de la France, Corse comprise. 1934-1940 (as Crepis virens var. diffusa)
BC. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 3. Gefäßpflanzen: Atlasband, ed. 10. 2000
BD. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4. Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 8. 1994
BE. Wisskirchen, R. & Haeupler, H., Standardliste der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands. 1998
BF. Boissier, E., Flora Orientalis 3. 1875
BG. Dimopoulos P. & al., Vascular plants of Greece, an annotated checklist. Englera 31. 2013
BH. Halácsy, E. de, Conspectus florae graecae 2. 1902 (as Crepis virens)
BI. Rechinger, K. H., Flora Aegaea. Flora der Inseln und Halbinseln des Ägäischen Meeres in Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl., Denkschr. 105(1). 1944
BJ. Horváth, F. , Dobolyi, Z. K. , Morschhauser, T, Lőkös, L. , Karas, L. & Szerdahelyi, T., Flóra adatbázis 1.2. Taxon-lista és attribútum allomány. 1995
BK. Simon, T., A magyarországi edényes flóra határozója. Harasztok - virágos növények.. 1992
BL. Wasowicz P. & al. in Flora 208. 2013
BM. Scannell, M. J. P. & Synnott, D. M., Census catalogue of the flora of Ireland, ed. 2. 1987
BN. Webb, D. A. , Parnell, J. & Doogue, D., An Irish Flora. 1996
BO. Conti, F., Abbate, G., Alessandrini, A., Blasi, C. (eds.), An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora. 2005
BP. Fiori, A., Nuova flora analitica d’Italia 2. 1925-1929 (as Crepis virens)
BQ. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982
BR. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1. 1976
BS. Boissier, E., Flora Orientalis 3. 1875 (as Crepis virens var. agrestis)
BT. Prokudin, J. N. (ed.), Opredelitel’ vysših rastenij Ukrainy. 1987
BU. Meijden, R. van der, Heukels' Flora van Nederland, ed. 21. 1990
BV. Lid, J. & Lid, D. T., Norsk Flora, ed. 6. 1994
BW. Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkova, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M., in Biodivers. Poland 1. 2002
BX. Mirek, Z., Vascular plants of Poland. A Checklist. in Polish Bot. Stud., Guideb. Ser. 15. 1995
BY. Coutinho, A. X. P., A flora de Portugal, ed. 2. 1939 (as Crepis virens)
BZ. Coutinho, A. X. P., A flora de Portugal, ed. 2. 1939 (as Crepis virens f. gaditana)
CA. Coutinho, A. X. P., A flora de Portugal, ed. 2. 1939 (as Crepis virens f. lusitanica)
CB. Coutinho, A. X. P., A flora de Portugal, ed. 2. 1939 (as Crepis virens subsp. agrestis)
CC. Coutinho, A. X. P., A flora de Portugal, ed. 2. 1939 (as Crepis virens subsp. capillaris)
CD. Coutinho, A. X. P., A flora de Portugal, ed. 2. 1939 (as Crepis virens var. pinnatifida)
CE. Sampaio, G., Flora portuguesa, ed. 2. 1947
CF. Ciocârlan, V., Flora ilustrata a României 2. 1990
CG. Popescu, A. & Sanda, V., Conspectul florei cormofitelor spontane din România in Acta Bot. Horti Bucurest. [suppl.]. 1998
CH. Haslam, S. M., Sell, P. D. & Wolsely, P. A., A Flora of the Maltese Islands. 1977
CI. Losa, M. & Montserrat, P., Aportación al conocimiento de la flora de Andorra. 1951 (as Crepis virens)
CJ. Linares, L. , Checklist of the Gibraltar Flora in Alectoris 8. 1993
CK. Bolos, O. de & al., Flora manual dels països catalans. 1990
CL. Cadevall I Diars, J. & Sallent, A., Flora de Catalunya 3(3-6). 1923 (as Crepis virens)
CM. Cadevall I Diars, J. & Sallent, A., Flora de Catalunya 3(3-6). 1923 (as Crepis virens prol. diffusa)
CN. Valdes, B., Talavera, S. & Fernandez-Galiano, E., Flora Vascular de Andalucía Occidental 3. 1987
CO. Willkomm, M. & Lange J., Prodromus florae hispanicae 2. 1865-1870 (as Crepis virens)
CP. Willkomm, M. & Lange J., Prodromus florae hispanicae 2. 1865-1870 (as Crepis virens var. agrestis)
CQ. Karlsson, T. , Förteckning över svenska kärlväxter in Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 91(5). 1998
CR. Krok, T. O. B. N. & Almquist, S., Svensk Flora: Fanerogamer och ormbunksvaxter 27, ed. 27. 1994
CS. Aeschimann, D. & Burdet, H. M., Flore de la Suisse, ed. 2. 1994
CT. Hess, H. E., Bestimmungsschlüssel zur Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete, ed. 4. 1998
CU. Webb, D. A., The Flora of European Turkey in Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., B 65/B/1. 1966
CV. Mosyakin, S. L. & Fedoronchuk, M. M. , Vascular plants of Ukraine. A nomenclatural checklist. 1999
CW. Beck von Mannagetta, G., Flora Bosnae et Hercegovinae [Flora Bosne, Hercegovine i novipazarskog sandžaka] 4(4) [Slišković, T.]. 1983
CX. Nikolić, T., Flora Croatica. Index florae Croaticae, 3 in Nat. Croat. 9, suppl. 1. 2000
CY. Teofilovski A., Prilozi za florata na Republika Makedonija. 2011
CZ. Rohlena, J., Conspectus florae montenegrinae in Preslia 20-21. 1942
DA. Josifović, M. & al., Flora SR Srbije 7. 1975
DB. Martinčič, A., Mala flora Slovenije, ed. 3. 1999
DC. Trpin, D. & Vreš, B., Register flore Slovenije. Praprotnice in cvetnice. 1995
DD. Bogler D. J. - 36. Crepis in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.), Flora of North America. North of Mexico 19. 2006
DE. Brouillet L., Coursol F., Favreau M. & Anions M., VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada
DF. Pruski J. F. & Robinson H., Flora mesoamericana, 5(2) Asteraceae, electronic ed. 2015
DG. Baeza C. M., Stuessy T. F., Tremetsberger K. & Urtubey E. - Lactucaceae in Zuloaga F. O., Morrone O. & Belgrano M. J. (eds.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentinia, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) 2. 2008
DH. Zuloaga F. O. & Morrone O. (ed.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de la República Argentina II in Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74. 1999
DI. Urtubey E. - Lactuceae in Kiesling R. (ed.), Flora de San Juan, Republica Argentina 3b. 2013
DJ. Møller P. & al., Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. 2014
DK. Avila F. & al. - Asteraceae in Bernal R. & al., Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. 2016
DL. Acevedo-Rodríguez P. & Strong M. T., Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. – Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 98. 2012
DM. Vangjeli, J., Flora e Shqipërisë 4. 1999
DN. Jindřich Chrtek, Seznam vyšších rostlin květeny České republiky
DO. Anderberg, A. A. & Anderberg, A.-L., Den virtuella floran
DP. Dony, J. G. , Jury, S. L. & Perring, F. H., English Names of Wild Flowers, a list recommended by the Botanical Society of the British Isles, ed. 2. 1986
DQ. Mauhin, F., Les noms français des plantes vasculaires de Belgique et des Régions voisines . 2007
DR. Jeanmonod D. & Gamisans J., Flora Corsica. 2007
DS. Anonymous [Association Tela Botanica], Tela Botanica, le réseau de la botanique francophone. Flores en ligne, France métropolitaine
DT. Aeschimann, D. & Heitz, C., Index synonymique de la flore de Suisse et territoires limitrophes (ISFS). 1996
DU. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4: Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 10. 2005
DV. Karlsson, T., Checklista över Nordens kärlväxter . 2004