Chondrilla

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Distribution

Africa: Algerianative; Libyanative; Tunisianative Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative; Altaynative; Cyprusnative; East Aegean Is.native; Irannative; Iraqnative; Kazakhstannative; Kirgizistannative; Lebanon-Syrianative; Mongolianative; North Caucasusnative; Palestinenative; Saudi Arabianative; Tadzhikistannative; Tibetnative; Transcaucasusnative; Turkeynative; Turkmenistannative; Uzbekistannative; West Siberianative; Xinjiangnative Asia-Tropical: Pakistannative; West Himalayanative Australasia: New South Walesintroduced; New Zealand Northintroduced; Northern Territoryintroduced; Queenslandintroduced; South Australiaintroduced; Tasmaniaintroduced; Victoriaintroduced; Western Australiaintroduced Europe: Albanianative; Austrianative; Balearesnative; Baltic Statesnative; Belarusnative; Belgiumnative; Bulgarianative; Central European Russianative; Corsenative; Czechoslovakianative; East European Russianative; Germanynative; Greecenative; Hungarynative; Kritinative; Krymnative; Polandnative; Portugalnative; Romanianative; Sardegnanative; Sicilynative; South European Russianative; Spainnative; Switzerlandnative; Turkey-in-Europenative; Ukrainenative; Yugoslavianative Northern America: British Columbiaintroduced; Californiaintroduced; Delawareintroduced; District of Columbiaintroduced; Georgia, U.S.A.introduced; Idahointroduced; Illinoisintroduced; Marylandintroduced; Michiganintroduced; Montanaintroduced; New Jerseyintroduced; Ontariointroduced; Oregonintroduced; Pennsylvaniaintroduced; Virginiaintroduced; Washingtonintroduced; West Virginiaintroduced Southern America: Argentina Northeastintroduced

Description

Herbs, perennial [or rarely annual], with or without basal leaf rosette, often broomlike, glabrous or with simple bristles, arachnoid hairy, or tomentose. Synflorescence of individual axes in broomlike plants sparsely racemiform or with a single terminal capitulum. Capitula with usually 5–12 florets. Involucre narrowly cylindric. Phyllaries glabrous, arachnoid hairy, or with simple bristles; outer phyllaries few, only slightly longer centripetally, longest ca. 1/4 as long as inner ones; inner phyllaries 5(–7) or ca. 8, ± equal in length, ± linear-lanceolate. Receptacle naked. Florets yellow. Achene body subcylindric, somewhat narrowed toward base, with 5 main ribs, each rib usually divided into 3 secondary ribs, apically or from middle with tubercles or scales, apically usually with a corona of 5 entire or 3-lobed ± membranous scales; beak usually present, short and stout to longer and filiform, when fully mature with or without fine transversal articulation preforming rupture of beak. Pappus white, simple, of scabrid bristles.

from: Shih C. & Kilian N. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 242. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Common names

Albanian (Albania): ZegunA,1; Arabic (Lebanon): خُنْدَريلىB,1, مُرَّيْرَةB,1; Arabic (Syria): خُنْدَريلىC,1, مُرَّيْرَةC,1; Armenian (Armenia): ԽիժաճարճատուկD,1, ԾամանիկD,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): КривецE,1; Chinese (China): 粉苞菊属 fen bao ju shuF; French (Corse): ChondrilleG,1; German (Germany): KnorpellatichH,1; Hebrew (Israel): כּוֹנְדְּרִילָהI,1, כונדרילהI,1; Italian (Italy): LattugaccioJ,1; Italian (Switzerland): LattugaccioK,1; Romanian (Moldova): РэсфугL,1; Russian (Armenia): ХондриллаD,1; Turkish (Turkey): KarakavukM
1. recommended

Chromosome numbers

Diploids, triploids, tetraploids, hexaploids; x = 5.N

Bibliography

A. Vangjeli, J., Flora e Shqipërisë 4. 1999
B. Nehmé, M., Dictionnaire Etymologique de la Flore du Liban. 2000
C. Nehmé, M., Etymological Dictionary of Syrian Flora. 2008
D. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Flora Armenii 9. 1995
E. Andreev, N. & Kozucharov, S. I., Opredelitel na vissite rastenija v Balgarija. 1992
F. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
G. Jeanmonod D. & Gamisans J., Flora Corsica. 2007
H. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4: Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 10. 2005
I. Avinoam Danin, Flora of Israel Online - http://flora.huji.ac.il
J. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982
K. Aeschimann, D. & Heitz, C., Index synonymique de la flore de Suisse et territoires limitrophes (ISFS). 1996
L. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986
M. Güner A. (ed.), Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). 2012
N. Watanabe K., Index to chromosome numbers in Asteraceae.