Tragopogon porrifolius

Primary tabs

Tragopogon porrifolius

Common names

(Myanmar): Monla-u-chinA; Basque (Spain): BasatzebuzaB, TerebuzaB; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Удълженолистна козя брадаC,1; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): BarballaB, Cama-serradaB; Chinese (China): 蒜叶婆罗门参 suan ye po luo men shenD; Corsican (Corse): Scorzu biancuE,1; Danish (Denmark): HavrerodF,1; English (Australia): Jerusalem starG, Oyster PlantH, OysterplantG, SalsifyG,H,I,J,K,L,M,N, jerusalem starJ, oyster plantJ, salsafyG; English (Great Britain): SalsifyO,1; English (Myanmar): Oyster plantA, SalsifyA; English (New Zealand): SalsifyP; English (Northern America): Purple goatsbeardQ; Finnish (Finland): KaurajuuriF,1; French (Belgium): Salsifis blancR,1; French (Corse): Salsifis à feuilles de poireauE,1; French (France): Salsifis blancS,1, Salsifis cultivéS,1, Salsifis du MidiT,1, Salsifis à feuilles de PoireauS,1; French (Northern America): Salsifis cultivéQ; French (Switzerland): SalsifisU,1, Salsifis à feuilles de poireauU,1; Galician (Spain): BarbacabreiraB; German (Switzerland): HaferwurzelU,1, Lauchblättriger BocksbartU,1; Italian (Italy): Barba di Becco violettaV,1, Raperonzolo selvaticoV,1, SalseficaV,1; Italian (Switzerland): Barba di Becco violettaU,1; Portuguese (Portugal): Barba-de-bodeB, Barba-de-cabraB, CersefiB; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): Barba caprunaB, BarbajaB, Salsifi blancoB, TetillónB, TobaB; Swedish (Sweden): HaverrotF,2, Äkta haverrotW,1; Turkish (Turkey): teke sakali çiçeğiX
1. recommended, 2. synonym


Herbs 40–125 cm tall, biennial or annual. Stem erect, simple or branched from middle third, glabrous or slightly tomentulose. Basal and lower cauline leaves lanceolate or linear, 15–40 × 0.3–0.7 cm, marginally often undulate. 6–12 mm in diam.; peduncle inflated. Capitula solitary to few. Involucre 4–5 cm at anthesis, to 8 cm in fruit. Phyllaries 7 or 8, ca. 1/3 longer than florets and ± equaling achenes with pappus. Ligules violet. Outer achenes 3.7–4.5 cm; body pale brown, curviform, 1.4–1.6 mm in diam.; beak whitish, 2–2.5 cm, slender, smooth, apically inflated; pappus disk ± tomentulose. Pappus dirty white, 2.7–3.7 cm. Fl. and fr. May–Aug. 2n = 12.

from: Shih C., Sukhorukov A. P. & Mavrodiev E. V. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 210. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Herb, perennial, biennial or annual, (10)-60-125-(150) cm high. Taproot thick. Flowering stems erect, sulcate, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, unbranched or branched. Lower cauline leaves linear or narrowly ovate, 20.0-30.0 cm long, 3.0-4.0-(10.0) cm wide, acuminate, semiamplexicaul, expanded, woolly or glabrous, brownish on both surfaces. Middle and upper cauline leaves few, remote, 10.0-20.0 cm long, acuminate, amplexicaul. Synflorescence with 1 head. Peduncle hollow and swollen just below head. Heads with 85-110 flowers. Involucre at flowering broadly campanulate, glabrous; involucral bracts linear-ovate, 30.0-40.0 mm long, glabrous. Corolla ligulate, reddish violet or purple, rarely yellow toward the base; tube 9.0-10.0 mm long, pilose at apex; ligule 14.0-15.0 mm long, 3.0-4.0 mm wide. Anthertube purplish, c. 5.0 mm long; apical appendages subacute. Style 14.0-15.0 mm long; branches c. 3.0 mm long. Achenes narrowly fusiform in outline, straight or slightly curved, c. 7.0 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, pale brown, with 10 ribs, with a filiform beak; beak c. 17.0 mm long. Pappus pale brown or white, persistent, finely plumose, the outer series thicker than the inner.

Based on: Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae , Tribe Cichorieae . – Enfield; Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. - Kew (as Tragopogon sinuatus); Richardson, I. B. K. 1976: 162. Tragopogon L. (incl. Geropogon L.). – Pp. 322-325 in: Tutin, G. & al. (ed.), Flora Europaea 4. – Cambridge.; Soltis, P. S. 2006: 59. Tragopogon Linnaeus. – Pp. 303-306 in: Flora of North America Editorial Com. (ed.), Flora of North America 19. – New York / Oxford; Tadesse, M. 2004: 29. Tragopogon - Pp 73-74 in: Hedberg, I., Friis, I., Edwards, S. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. – Uppsala; Yatskievych, G. 2006: 49. Tragopogon L. (goat’s beard) – Pp. 390-393 in: Yatskievych, G. (ed.), Flora of Missouri 2, revised Edition. – St. Louis.


Africa: Algerianative (AlgerianativeY); Canary Is.native: doubtfully native (Canary Is.introducedZ); Cape Provincesintroduced (Eastern Cape ProvinceintroducedAA, Northern Cape ProvinceintroducedAA, Western Cape ProvinceintroducedAA); Ethiopiaintroduced (EthiopiaintroducedAB); Free Stateintroduced (Free StateintroducedAA); KwaZulu-Natalintroduced (KwaZulu-NatalintroducedAA); Libyanative (LibyanativeAC,AD,AE); MorocconativeAF,AG,AH; Northern Provincesintroduced (GautengintroducedAA,AI, MpumalangaintroducedAA,AI, North-West ProvinceintroducedAI, Northern ProvinceintroducedAA,AI); Tunisianative (TunisianativeAJ) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative; China North-Centralintroduced (BeijingintroducedD, ShaanxiintroducedD); China South-Centralintroduced (GuizhouintroducedD, SichuanintroducedD, YunnanintroducedAK,D); Cyprusnative (Cyprus); East Aegean Is.native (East Aegean Is.); Irannative; Iraqnative; Kazakhstannative; Kirgizistannative; Lebanon-Syrianative (LebanonnativeAL, Syria); North Caucasusnative; Palestinenative (Israel, JordannativeAL,AM); Saudi Arabiaintroduced (Saudi ArabiaintroducedAN); Sinainative (Sinai); Tadzhikistannative; Transcaucasusnative (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Nakhichevan); Turkeynative; Turkmenistannative; Xinjiangintroduced (XinjiangintroducedAK,D) Asia-Tropical: Myanmarintroduced (MyanmarintroducedA); Pakistannative; West Himalayanative Australasia: New South Walesintroduced (Australian Capital TerritoryintroducedH,I,J,L, New South WalesintroducedAO,G,H,J,L,N); New Zealand Northintroduced (New Zealand NorthintroducedP); New Zealand Southintroduced (New Zealand SouthintroducedP); Northern Territoryintroduced (Northern TerritoryintroducedG); Queenslandintroduced (QueenslandintroducedG,H,J,L,M,N); South Australiaintroduced (South AustraliaintroducedG,H,J,L,N); Tasmaniaintroduced (TasmaniaintroducedG,H,I,J,L,N); Victoriaintroduced (VictoriaintroducedG,H,J,L,N); Western Australiaintroduced (Western AustraliaintroducedG,H,J,K,L,N) Europe: Austriaintroduced: doubtfully introduced (perhaps cultivated only) (AustriaintroducedAP); Balearesnative (BalearesnativeAQ,AR,AS,AT,B); Baltic Statescultivated (Estoniadoubtfully presentAU,AV, Latviadoubtfully presentAU,AV, Lithuaniadoubtfully presentAU,AV,AW); Belarusintroduced (BelarusintroducedAU); Belgiumintroduced (BelgiumintroducedAX); Bulgarianative (BulgarianativeAT,AY,C); Central European Russiaintroduced (Central European RussiaintroducedAU); Corsenative (CorsenativeAZ,BA,BB,BC,BD,BE); Czechoslovakiaintroduced (Czech RepublicintroducedBF,BG); Denmarkcultivated (DenmarkintroducedAT,BH); East European Russiaintroduced (East European RussiaintroducedAU); FrancenativeAT,BI,BJ; Germanyintroduced (GermanyintroducedAT,BK); Great Britaincultivated (Great BritainintroducedAT); Greecenative (GreecenativeAT,BL); Irelandintroduced (IrelandintroducedBM,BN,BO, Northern IrelandintroducedBM,BN); Italyintroduced (ItalynativeBP); Kritinative (KritinativeAT,BL); Krymintroduced (KrymintroducedAW,BQ,BR); Netherlandscultivated (NetherlandsintroducedAT,BS); Northwest European Russiaintroduced (Northwest European RussiaintroducedAU); Polandintroduced (PolandintroducedBT); Portugalcultivated (PortugalnativeB,BU); Romanianative (RomanianativeAT,BV); Sardegnanative (SardegnanativeAT,V); Sicilynative (MaltanativeBW, SicilynativeV); Spainnative (Gibraltar, SpainnativeAQ,AT,B,BX); Swedenintroduced (SwedenintroducedAT,BY,BZ); Switzerlandintroduced (SwitzerlandintroducedAT,CA,CB); Turkey-in-Europenative (Turkey-in-EuropenativeAT,BL,CC); Ukraineintroduced (MoldovaintroducedAU, UkraineintroducedAU); Yugoslavianative (Bosnia-HerzegovinanativeCD, CroatianativeCE,CF, Macedonia, Montenegro, SlovenianativeCG,CH) Northern America: Albertaintroduced (AlbertaintroducedCI,Q); Arizonaintroduced (ArizonaintroducedCI); Arkansasintroduced (ArkansasintroducedCI); British Columbiaintroduced (British ColumbiaintroducedCI,Q); Californiaintroduced (CaliforniaintroducedCI); Coloradointroduced (ColoradointroducedCI); Connecticutintroduced (ConnecticutintroducedCI); Delawareintroduced (DelawareintroducedCI); District of Columbiaintroduced (District of ColumbiaintroducedCI); Georgia, U.S.A.introduced (Georgia, U.S.A.introducedCI); Idahointroduced (IdahointroducedCI); Illinoisintroduced (IllinoisintroducedCI); Indianaintroduced (IndianaintroducedCI); Iowaintroduced (IowaintroducedCI); Kansasintroduced (KansasintroducedCI); Kentuckyintroduced (KentuckyintroducedCI); Maineintroduced (MaineintroducedCI); Manitobaintroduced (ManitobaintroducedCI,Q); Marylandintroduced (MarylandintroducedCI); Massachusettsintroduced (MassachusettsintroducedCI); Mexico Northwestintroduced (Baja CaliforniaintroducedCJ); Michiganintroduced (MichiganintroducedCI); Missouriintroduced (MissouriintroducedCI); Montanaintroduced (MontanaintroducedCI); Nebraskaintroduced (NebraskaintroducedCI); Nevadaintroduced (NevadaintroducedCI); New Brunswickintroduced (New BrunswickintroducedCI,Q); New Hampshireintroduced (New HampshireintroducedCI); New Jerseyintroduced (New JerseyintroducedCI); New Mexicointroduced (New MexicointroducedCI); New Yorkintroduced (New YorkintroducedCI); North Carolinaintroduced (North CarolinaintroducedCI); Nova Scotiaintroduced (Nova ScotiaintroducedCI,Q); Ohiointroduced (OhiointroducedCI); Oklahomaintroduced (OklahomaintroducedCI); Ontariointroduced (OntariointroducedCI,Q); Oregonintroduced (OregonintroducedCI); Pennsylvaniaintroduced (PennsylvaniaintroducedCI); Québecintroduced (QuébecintroducedCI,Q); South Dakotaintroduced (South DakotaintroducedCI); Tennesseeintroduced (TennesseeintroducedCI); Texasintroduced (TexasintroducedCI); Utahintroduced (UtahintroducedCI); Vermontintroduced (VermontintroducedCI); Virginiaintroduced (VirginiaintroducedCI); Washingtonintroduced (WashingtonintroducedCI,CJ); West Virginiaintroduced (West VirginiaintroducedCI); Wisconsinintroduced (WisconsinintroducedCI); Wyomingintroduced (WyomingintroducedCI) Southern America: Argentina Northeastintroduced (Buenos AiresintroducedCK,CL); Argentina Northwestintroduced (JujuyintroducedCK,CL, MendozaintroducedCK,CL, San JuanintroducedCM); Argentina Southintroduced (ChubutintroducedCK,CL, Rio NegrointroducedCK,CL); Chile Centralintroduced (BiobíointroducedCK, CoquimbointroducedCK, O'HigginsintroducedCK, SantiagointroducedCK, ValparaísointroducedCK); Chile Southintroduced (AisénintroducedCK)


The pale brownish edible tuberous taproot has been used as vegetable in S Europe and the Mediterranean area since antiquity, similar to the black-corticose tuberous root of Scorzonera hispanica, which came into cultivation only in modern times. Cultivation of Tragopogon porrifolius as a vegetable has spread into other parts of Europe, from where it is mentioned in the herbals of the 15th and 16th century, and later also into the New World. Small scale cultivation has persisted still in the 21. century, although in the 20th century it has been replaced in many regions by the more productive S. hispanica. (Wagenitz G. in Hegi (ed.) 1987: 1042-1043; Franke 1981: 194). CN,CO


Lauterbach D. 2009: Images (1 added).
Boufford D. E. 2009: Images (1 added).
Willing E. 2012: Images (9 added)


A. Kress W. J., DeFilipps R. A., Farr E. & Daw Yin Yin Kyi, A checklist of trees, shrubs, herbs and climbers of Myanmar in Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 45. 2003
B. Talavera S. & al. (ed.), Flora iberica 16(2). Compositae (partim). 2017
C. Andreev, N. & Kozucharov, S. I., Opredelitel na vissite rastenija v Balgarija. 1992
D. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
E. Jeanmonod D. & Gamisans J., Flora Corsica. 2007
F. Anderberg, A. A. & Anderberg, A.-L., Den virtuella floran
G. Cunningham G. M., Mulham W. E., Milthorpe P. L. & Leigh J. H., Plants of Western New South Wales. 1981
H. Jeanes J. A. - 18. Chondrilla - 32. Tragopogon in Walsh N. G. & Entwisle T. J., Flora of Victoria 4. 1999
I. Burbidge N. T. & Gray M., Flora of the Australian Capital territory. 1970
J. Jesso J. P. & Toelken H. R., Flora of South Australia, ed. 4, 3. 1986
K. Lander N. S. - Family 113. Asteraceae (Compositae) in Marchant N. G., Wheeler J. R., Rye B. L., Bennett E. M., Lander N. S. & Macfarlane T. D., Flora of the Perth Region 2. 1987
L. Murray L. - 168. Tragopogon - 177. Youngia in Harden G. J., Flora of New South Wales 3. 1992
M. Stanley T. D. & Ross E. M., Flora of south-eastern Queensland 2. 1986
N. Wheeler J., Marchant N., Lewington M. & Graham L. - Flora of the South West (Burnbury, Augusta, Denmark) in Fl. Australia Suppl. Ser. 12(2). 2002
O. Dony, J. G. , Jury, S. L. & Perring, F. H., English Names of Wild Flowers, a list recommended by the Botanical Society of the British Isles, ed. 2. 1986
P. Garnock-Jones P. J. - Cichorioideae in Webb C. J., Sykes W. R. & Garnock-Jones P. J., Flora of New Zealand 4. 1988
Q. Brouillet L., Coursol F., Favreau M. & Anions M., VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada
R. Mauhin, F., Les noms français des plantes vasculaires de Belgique et des Régions voisines . 2007
S. Anonymous [Association Tela Botanica], Tela Botanica, le réseau de la botanique francophone. Flores en ligne, France métropolitaine
T. Anonymous [Association Tela Botanica], Tela Botanica, le réseau de la botanique francophone. Flores en ligne, France métropolitaine (as Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis (Jord.) Nyman)
U. Aeschimann, D. & Heitz, C., Index synonymique de la flore de Suisse et territoires limitrophes (ISFS). 1996
V. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982
W. Karlsson, T., Checklista över Nordens kärlväxter . 2004
X. Matthews V. A. - 103. Tragopogon L. - 104. Geropogon L. in Davis, P. H., Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 5. 1975
Y. Quézel, P. & Santa, S., Nouvelle flore de l'Algérie et des régions désertiques méridionales 2. 1963
Z. Hansen A. & Sunding P., Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4th revised edition in Sommerfeltia 17. 1994
AA. Herman P. P. J., Plants of Southern Africa: Cichorium - Youngia in Strelitzia 14. 2003
AB. Tadesse M. - 16. Scolymus - 29. Tragopogon in Hedberg I. & Edwards S., Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 2004
AC. Boulos, L., A check-list of the Libyan flora 3. Compositae (by C. Jeffrey). in Candollea 34. 1979
AD. Jafri, S. M. H. & El-Gadi, A. , Flora of Libya 107. 1983
AE. Pampanini, R., Prodromo della flora cirenaica. 1931
AF. Jahandiez, E. & Maire, R., Catalogue des plantes du Maroc 3. 1934
AG. Nègre, R. , Petite flore des régions arides du Maroc occidental 2. 1962
AH. Valdés, B., Rejdali, M., Achhal El Khadmiri, A., Jury, S. L. & Montserrat, J. M., Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Nord du Maroc, incluant des clés d’identification 2. 2002
AI. Retief P. & Herman P. P. J., Plants of the northern provinces of Southern Africa in Strelitzia 6. 1997
AJ. Pottier-Alapetite, G., Flore de la Tunisie. Angiospermes-Dicotyledones 2. Gamopetales 2. 1981
AK. C. Shih, Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 80(1). 1997
AL. Post, G. E. , Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai 2. 1933
AM. Al-Eisawi, D., List of Jordan vascular plants in Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 18. 1982
AN. Heller D. & Heyn C. C., Conspectus Florae Orientalis 8. 1993
AO. Beadle N. C. W., Students flora of the north eastern New South Wales 4. 1980
AP. Adler, W. , Oswald, K. & Fischer, R., Exkursionsflora von Österreich. 1994
AQ. Bolos, O. de & al., Flora manual dels països catalans. 1990
AR. Bonafè Barceló, F., Flora de Mallorca 4. 1980
AS. Duvigneaud, J., Catalogue provisoire de la flore des Baléares [ed. 2] in Soc. Échange Pl. Vasc. Eur. Occid. Médit. 17, suppl. 1979
AT. Tutin, T. G. & al., Flora Europaea. 1964-1993
AU. Fedorov, A. A., Flora evropejskoj časti SSSR 8 [Cvelev, N. N.]. 1989
AV. Kuusk, V. , Tabaka, L. & Jankjavičene, R., Flora baltijskih republik. Svodka sosudistyh rastenij 3. 2003
AW. Komarov, Fl. URSS 29. 1964
AX. Verloove, F., Ingeburgerde plantensoorten in Vlaanderen. 2002
AY. As’ov, B., Dimitrov, D., Vasilev, R. & Petrova, A., Konspekt na visšata flora na Bălgarija, ed. 2. 2002
AZ. Gamisans, J., Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Corse. 1985 (as Tragopogon porrifolius)
BA. Guinochet, M. & Vilmorin, R. de, Flore de France 4. 1982 (as Tragopogon porrifolius)
BB. Jeanmonod D. & Schlüssel A., Compléments au Prodrome de la Flore Corse. Asteraceae III. 2012 (as Tragopogon porrifolius)
BC. Jeanmonod, D. & Burdet, H. M., Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Corse, ed. 2. 1993 (as Tragopogon porrifolius)
BD. Natali, A. & Jeanmonod, D., Flore analytique des plantes introduites en Corse. 1996 (as Tragopogon porrifolius)
BE. Tutin, T. G. & al., Flora Europaea. 1964-1993 (as Tragopogon porrifolius)
BF. Kubát, K., Klíč ke květeně České republiky. 2002
BG. Slavík, B. & Štěpánková, J., Květena České Republiky 7. 2004
BH. Hansen, K., Dansk feltflora. 1993
BI. Fournier, P., Les quatre flores de la France, Corse comprise. 1934-1940 (as Tragopogon eriospermus)
BJ. Fournier, P., Les quatre flores de la France, Corse comprise. 1934-1940 (as Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. sativus)
BK. Wisskirchen, R. & Haeupler, H., Standardliste der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands. 1998
BL. Boissier, E., Flora Orientalis 3. 1875
BM. Reynolds, S. C. P., A catalogue of alien plants in Ireland. 2002
BN. Scannell, M. J. P. & Synnott, D. M., Census catalogue of the flora of Ireland, ed. 2. 1987
BO. Webb, D. A. , Parnell, J. & Doogue, D., An Irish Flora. 1996
BP. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1. 1976 (as Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. sativus)
BQ. Mosyakin, S. L. & Fedoronchuk, M. M. , Vascular plants of Ukraine. A nomenclatural checklist. 1999
BR. Vul’f, E. V., Flora Kryma/Flora Taurica 3(2). 1966
BS. Meijden, R. van der, Heukels' Flora van Nederland, ed. 21. 1990
BT. Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkova, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M., in Biodivers. Poland 1. 2002
BU. Coutinho, A. X. P., A flora de Portugal, ed. 2. 1939
BV. Ciocârlan, V., Flora ilustrata a României 2. 1990
BW. Haslam, S. M., Sell, P. D. & Wolsely, P. A., A Flora of the Maltese Islands. 1977
BX. Valdes, B., Talavera, S. & Fernandez-Galiano, E., Flora Vascular de Andalucía Occidental 3. 1987
BY. Karlsson, T. , Förteckning över svenska kärlväxter in Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 91(5). 1998
BZ. Krok, T. O. B. N. & Almquist, S., Svensk Flora: Fanerogamer och ormbunksvaxter 27, ed. 27. 1994
CA. Aeschimann, D. & Burdet, H. M., Flore de la Suisse, ed. 2. 1994
CB. Hess, H. E., Bestimmungsschlüssel zur Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete, ed. 4. 1998
CC. Webb, D. A., The Flora of European Turkey in Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., B 65/B/1. 1966
CD. Beck von Mannagetta, G., Flora Bosnae et Hercegovinae [Flora Bosne, Hercegovine i novipazarskog sandžaka] 4(4) [Slišković, T.]. 1983
CE. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928-1931 (as Tragopogon eriospermus)
CF. Nikolić, T., Flora Croatica. Index florae Croaticae, 3 in Nat. Croat. 9, suppl. 1. 2000
CG. Martinčič, A., Mala flora Slovenije, ed. 3. 1999
CH. Trpin, D. & Vreš, B., Register flore Slovenije. Praprotnice in cvetnice. 1995
CI. Soltis P. S. - 59. Tragopogon in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.), Flora of North America. North of Mexico 19. 2006
CJ. Wiggins I. L., Flora of Baja California. 1980
CK. Baeza C. M., Stuessy T. F., Tremetsberger K. & Urtubey E. - Lactucaceae in Zuloaga F. O., Morrone O. & Belgrano M. J. (eds.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentinia, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) 2. 2008
CL. Zuloaga F. O. & Morrone O. (ed.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de la República Argentina II in Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74. 1999
CM. Urtubey E. - Lactuceae in Kiesling R. (ed.), Flora de San Juan, Republica Argentina 3b. 2013
CN. Franke W., Nutzpflanzenkunde, ed. 2. 1981
CO. Hegi, G., Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa, ed. 2, VI(4). 1987