Tragopogon porrifolius

Primary tabs


Africa: Algerianative (AlgerianativeA); Canary Is.native: doubtfully native (Canary Is.introducedB); Cape Provincesintroduced (Eastern Cape ProvinceintroducedC, Northern Cape ProvinceintroducedC, Western Cape ProvinceintroducedC); Ethiopiaintroduced (EthiopiaintroducedD); Free Stateintroduced (Free StateintroducedC); KwaZulu-Natalintroduced (KwaZulu-NatalintroducedC); Libyanative (LibyanativeE,F,G); MorocconativeH,I,J; Northern Provincesintroduced (GautengintroducedC,K, MpumalangaintroducedC,K, North-West ProvinceintroducedK, Northern ProvinceintroducedC,K); Tunisianative (TunisianativeL) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative; China North-Centralintroduced (BeijingintroducedM, ShaanxiintroducedM); China South-Centralintroduced (GuizhouintroducedM, SichuanintroducedM, YunnanintroducedM,N); Cyprusnative (Cyprus); East Aegean Is.native (East Aegean Is.); Irannative; Iraqnative; Kazakhstannative; Kirgizistannative; Lebanon-Syrianative (LebanonnativeO, Syria); North Caucasusnative; Palestinenative (Israel, JordannativeO,P); Saudi Arabiaintroduced (Saudi ArabiaintroducedQ); Sinainative (Sinai); Tadzhikistannative; Transcaucasusnative (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Nakhichevan); Turkeynative; Turkmenistannative; Xinjiangintroduced (XinjiangintroducedM,N) Asia-Tropical: Myanmarintroduced (MyanmarintroducedR); Pakistannative; West Himalayanative Australasia: New South Walesintroduced (Australian Capital TerritoryintroducedS,T,U,V, New South WalesintroducedT,U,V,W,X,Y); New Zealand Northintroduced (New Zealand NorthintroducedZ); New Zealand Southintroduced (New Zealand SouthintroducedZ); Northern Territoryintroduced (Northern TerritoryintroducedX); Queenslandintroduced (QueenslandintroducedAA,T,U,V,X,Y); South Australiaintroduced (South AustraliaintroducedT,U,V,X,Y); Tasmaniaintroduced (TasmaniaintroducedS,T,U,V,X,Y); Victoriaintroduced (VictoriaintroducedT,U,V,X,Y); Western Australiaintroduced (Western AustraliaintroducedAB,T,U,V,X,Y) Europe: Austriaintroduced: doubtfully introduced (perhaps cultivated only) (AustriaintroducedAC); Balearesnative (BalearesnativeAD,AE,AF,AG,AH); Baltic Statescultivated (Estoniadoubtfully presentAI,AJ, Latviadoubtfully presentAI,AJ, Lithuaniadoubtfully presentAI,AJ,AK); Belarusintroduced (BelarusintroducedAI); Belgiumintroduced (BelgiumintroducedAL); Bulgarianative (BulgarianativeAH,AM,AN); Central European Russiaintroduced (Central European RussiaintroducedAI); Corsenative (CorsenativeAO,AP,AQ,AR,AS,AT); Czechoslovakiaintroduced (Czech RepublicintroducedAU,AV); Denmarkcultivated (DenmarkintroducedAH,AW); East European Russiaintroduced (East European RussiaintroducedAI); FrancenativeAH,AX,AY; Germanyintroduced (GermanyintroducedAH,AZ); Great Britaincultivated (Great BritainintroducedAH); Greecenative (GreecenativeAH,BA); Irelandintroduced (IrelandintroducedBB,BC,BD, Northern IrelandintroducedBB,BC); Italyintroduced (ItalynativeBE); Kritinative (KritinativeAH,BA); Krymintroduced (KrymintroducedAK,BF,BG); Netherlandscultivated (NetherlandsintroducedAH,BH); Northwest European Russiaintroduced (Northwest European RussiaintroducedAI); Polandintroduced (PolandintroducedBI); Portugalcultivated (PortugalnativeAG,BJ); Romanianative (RomanianativeAH,BK); Sardegnanative (SardegnanativeAH,BL); Sicilynative (MaltanativeBM, SicilynativeBL); Spainnative (Gibraltar, SpainnativeAD,AG,AH,BN); Swedenintroduced (SwedenintroducedAH,BO,BP); Switzerlandintroduced (SwitzerlandintroducedAH,BQ,BR); Turkey-in-Europenative (Turkey-in-EuropenativeAH,BA,BS); Ukraineintroduced (MoldovaintroducedAI, UkraineintroducedAI); Yugoslavianative (Bosnia-HerzegovinanativeBT, CroatianativeBU,BV, Macedonia, Montenegro, SlovenianativeBW,BX) Northern America: Albertaintroduced (AlbertaintroducedBY,BZ); Arizonaintroduced (ArizonaintroducedBZ); Arkansasintroduced (ArkansasintroducedBZ); British Columbiaintroduced (British ColumbiaintroducedBY,BZ); Californiaintroduced (CaliforniaintroducedBZ); Coloradointroduced (ColoradointroducedBZ); Connecticutintroduced (ConnecticutintroducedBZ); Delawareintroduced (DelawareintroducedBZ); District of Columbiaintroduced (District of ColumbiaintroducedBZ); Georgia, U.S.A.introduced (Georgia, U.S.A.introducedBZ); Idahointroduced (IdahointroducedBZ); Illinoisintroduced (IllinoisintroducedBZ); Indianaintroduced (IndianaintroducedBZ); Iowaintroduced (IowaintroducedBZ); Kansasintroduced (KansasintroducedBZ); Kentuckyintroduced (KentuckyintroducedBZ); Maineintroduced (MaineintroducedBZ); Manitobaintroduced (ManitobaintroducedBY,BZ); Marylandintroduced (MarylandintroducedBZ); Massachusettsintroduced (MassachusettsintroducedBZ); Mexico Northwestintroduced (Baja CaliforniaintroducedCA); Michiganintroduced (MichiganintroducedBZ); Missouriintroduced (MissouriintroducedBZ); Montanaintroduced (MontanaintroducedBZ); Nebraskaintroduced (NebraskaintroducedBZ); Nevadaintroduced (NevadaintroducedBZ); New Brunswickintroduced (New BrunswickintroducedBY,BZ); New Hampshireintroduced (New HampshireintroducedBZ); New Jerseyintroduced (New JerseyintroducedBZ); New Mexicointroduced (New MexicointroducedBZ); New Yorkintroduced (New YorkintroducedBZ); North Carolinaintroduced (North CarolinaintroducedBZ); Nova Scotiaintroduced (Nova ScotiaintroducedBY,BZ); Ohiointroduced (OhiointroducedBZ); Oklahomaintroduced (OklahomaintroducedBZ); Ontariointroduced (OntariointroducedBY,BZ); Oregonintroduced (OregonintroducedBZ); Pennsylvaniaintroduced (PennsylvaniaintroducedBZ); Québecintroduced (QuébecintroducedBY,BZ); South Dakotaintroduced (South DakotaintroducedBZ); Tennesseeintroduced (TennesseeintroducedBZ); Texasintroduced (TexasintroducedBZ); Utahintroduced (UtahintroducedBZ); Vermontintroduced (VermontintroducedBZ); Virginiaintroduced (VirginiaintroducedBZ); Washingtonintroduced (WashingtonintroducedBZ,CA); West Virginiaintroduced (West VirginiaintroducedBZ); Wisconsinintroduced (WisconsinintroducedBZ); Wyomingintroduced (WyomingintroducedBZ) Southern America: Argentina Northeastintroduced (Buenos AiresintroducedCB,CC); Argentina Northwestintroduced (JujuyintroducedCB,CC, MendozaintroducedCB,CC, San JuanintroducedCD); Argentina Southintroduced (ChubutintroducedCB,CC, Rio NegrointroducedCB,CC); Chile Centralintroduced (BiobíointroducedCB, CoquimbointroducedCB, O'HigginsintroducedCB, SantiagointroducedCB, ValparaísointroducedCB); Chile Southintroduced (AisénintroducedCB)


Herbs 40–125 cm tall, biennial or annual. Stem erect, simple or branched from middle third, glabrous or slightly tomentulose. Basal and lower cauline leaves lanceolate or linear, 15–40 × 0.3–0.7 cm, marginally often undulate. 6–12 mm in diam.; peduncle inflated. Capitula solitary to few. Involucre 4–5 cm at anthesis, to 8 cm in fruit. Phyllaries 7 or 8, ca. 1/3 longer than florets and ± equaling achenes with pappus. Ligules violet. Outer achenes 3.7–4.5 cm; body pale brown, curviform, 1.4–1.6 mm in diam.; beak whitish, 2–2.5 cm, slender, smooth, apically inflated; pappus disk ± tomentulose. Pappus dirty white, 2.7–3.7 cm. Fl. and fr. May–Aug. 2n = 12.

from: Shih C., Sukhorukov A. P. & Mavrodiev E. V. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 210. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Herb, perennial, biennial or annual, (10)-60-125-(150) cm high. Taproot thick. Flowering stems erect, sulcate, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, unbranched or branched. Lower cauline leaves linear or narrowly ovate, 20.0-30.0 cm long, 3.0-4.0-(10.0) cm wide, acuminate, semiamplexicaul, expanded, woolly or glabrous, brownish on both surfaces. Middle and upper cauline leaves few, remote, 10.0-20.0 cm long, acuminate, amplexicaul. Synflorescence with 1 head. Peduncle hollow and swollen just below head. Heads with 85-110 flowers. Involucre at flowering broadly campanulate, glabrous; involucral bracts linear-ovate, 30.0-40.0 mm long, glabrous. Corolla ligulate, reddish violet or purple, rarely yellow toward the base; tube 9.0-10.0 mm long, pilose at apex; ligule 14.0-15.0 mm long, 3.0-4.0 mm wide. Anthertube purplish, c. 5.0 mm long; apical appendages subacute. Style 14.0-15.0 mm long; branches c. 3.0 mm long. Achenes narrowly fusiform in outline, straight or slightly curved, c. 7.0 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, pale brown, with 10 ribs, with a filiform beak; beak c. 17.0 mm long. Pappus pale brown or white, persistent, finely plumose, the outer series thicker than the inner.

Based on: Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae , Tribe Cichorieae . – Enfield; Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. - Kew (as Tragopogon sinuatus); Richardson, I. B. K. 1976: 162. Tragopogon L. (incl. Geropogon L.). – Pp. 322-325 in: Tutin, G. & al. (ed.), Flora Europaea 4. – Cambridge.; Soltis, P. S. 2006: 59. Tragopogon Linnaeus. – Pp. 303-306 in: Flora of North America Editorial Com. (ed.), Flora of North America 19. – New York / Oxford; Tadesse, M. 2004: 29. Tragopogon - Pp 73-74 in: Hedberg, I., Friis, I., Edwards, S. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. – Uppsala; Yatskievych, G. 2006: 49. Tragopogon L. (goat’s beard) – Pp. 390-393 in: Yatskievych, G. (ed.), Flora of Missouri 2, revised Edition. – St. Louis.

Common names

(Myanmar): Monla-u-chinR; Basque (Spain): BasatzebuzaAG, TerebuzaAG; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Удълженолистна козя брадаAM,1; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): BarballaAG, Cama-serradaAG; Chinese (China): 蒜叶婆罗门参 suan ye po luo men shenM; Corsican (Corse): Scorzu biancuCE,1; Danish (Denmark): HavrerodCF,1; English (Australia): Jerusalem starX, Oyster PlantT, OysterplantX, SalsifyAA,AB,S,T,U,V,X,Y, jerusalem starU, oyster plantU, salsafyX; English (Great Britain): SalsifyCG,1; English (Myanmar): Oyster plantR, SalsifyR; English (New Zealand): SalsifyZ; English (Northern America): Purple goatsbeardBY; Finnish (Finland): KaurajuuriCF,1; French (Belgium): Salsifis blancCH,1; French (Corse): Salsifis à feuilles de poireauCE,1; French (France): Salsifis blancCI,1, Salsifis cultivéCI,1, Salsifis du MidiCJ,1, Salsifis à feuilles de PoireauCI,1; French (Northern America): Salsifis cultivéBY; French (Switzerland): SalsifisCK,1, Salsifis à feuilles de poireauCK,1; Galician (Spain): BarbacabreiraAG; German (Switzerland): HaferwurzelCK,1, Lauchblättriger BocksbartCK,1; Italian (Italy): Barba di Becco violettaBL,1, Raperonzolo selvaticoBL,1, SalseficaBL,1; Italian (Switzerland): Barba di Becco violettaCK,1; Portuguese (Portugal): Barba-de-bodeAG, Barba-de-cabraAG, CersefiAG; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): Barba caprunaAG, BarbajaAG, Salsifi blancoAG, TetillónAG, TobaAG; Swedish (Sweden): HaverrotCF,2, Äkta haverrotCL,1; Turkish (Turkey): teke sakali çiçeğiCM
1. recommended, 2. synonym


The pale brownish edible tuberous taproot has been used as vegetable in S Europe and the Mediterranean area since antiquity, similar to the black-corticose tuberous root of Scorzonera hispanica, which came into cultivation only in modern times. Cultivation of Tragopogon porrifolius as a vegetable has spread into other parts of Europe, from where it is mentioned in the herbals of the 15th and 16th century, and later also into the New World. Small scale cultivation has persisted still in the 21. century, although in the 20th century it has been replaced in many regions by the more productive S. hispanica. (Wagenitz G. in Hegi (ed.) 1987: 1042-1043; Franke 1981: 194). CN,CO


Lauterbach D. 2009: Images (1 added).
Boufford D. E. 2009: Images (1 added).
Willing E. 2012: Images (9 added)


A. Quézel, P. & Santa, S., Nouvelle flore de l'Algérie et des régions désertiques méridionales 2. 1963
B. Hansen A. & Sunding P., Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4th revised edition in Sommerfeltia 17. 1994
C. Herman P. P. J., Plants of Southern Africa: Cichorium - Youngia in Strelitzia 14. 2003
D. Tadesse M. - 16. Scolymus - 29. Tragopogon in Hedberg I. & Edwards S., Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 2004
E. Boulos, L., A check-list of the Libyan flora 3. Compositae (by C. Jeffrey). in Candollea 34. 1979
F. Jafri, S. M. H. & El-Gadi, A. , Flora of Libya 107. 1983
G. Pampanini, R., Prodromo della flora cirenaica. 1931
H. Jahandiez, E. & Maire, R., Catalogue des plantes du Maroc 3. 1934
I. Nègre, R. , Petite flore des régions arides du Maroc occidental 2. 1962
J. Valdés, B., Rejdali, M., Achhal El Khadmiri, A., Jury, S. L. & Montserrat, J. M., Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Nord du Maroc, incluant des clés d’identification 2. 2002
K. Retief P. & Herman P. P. J., Plants of the northern provinces of Southern Africa in Strelitzia 6. 1997
L. Pottier-Alapetite, G., Flore de la Tunisie. Angiospermes-Dicotyledones 2. Gamopetales 2. 1981
M. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
N. C. Shih, Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 80(1). 1997
O. Post, G. E. , Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai 2. 1933
P. Al-Eisawi, D., List of Jordan vascular plants in Mitt. Bot. Staatssamml. München 18. 1982
Q. Heller D. & Heyn C. C., Conspectus Florae Orientalis 8. 1993
R. Kress W. J., DeFilipps R. A., Farr E. & Daw Yin Yin Kyi, A checklist of trees, shrubs, herbs and climbers of Myanmar in Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 45. 2003
S. Burbidge N. T. & Gray M., Flora of the Australian Capital territory. 1970
T. Jeanes J. A. - 18. Chondrilla - 32. Tragopogon in Walsh N. G. & Entwisle T. J., Flora of Victoria 4. 1999
U. Jesso J. P. & Toelken H. R., Flora of South Australia, ed. 4, 3. 1986
V. Murray L. - 168. Tragopogon - 177. Youngia in Harden G. J., Flora of New South Wales 3. 1992
W. Beadle N. C. W., Students flora of the north eastern New South Wales 4. 1980
X. Cunningham G. M., Mulham W. E., Milthorpe P. L. & Leigh J. H., Plants of Western New South Wales. 1981
Y. Wheeler J., Marchant N., Lewington M. & Graham L. - Flora of the South West (Burnbury, Augusta, Denmark) in Fl. Australia Suppl. Ser. 12(2). 2002
Z. Garnock-Jones P. J. - Cichorioideae in Webb C. J., Sykes W. R. & Garnock-Jones P. J., Flora of New Zealand 4. 1988
AA. Stanley T. D. & Ross E. M., Flora of south-eastern Queensland 2. 1986
AB. Lander N. S. - Family 113. Asteraceae (Compositae) in Marchant N. G., Wheeler J. R., Rye B. L., Bennett E. M., Lander N. S. & Macfarlane T. D., Flora of the Perth Region 2. 1987
AC. Adler, W. , Oswald, K. & Fischer, R., Exkursionsflora von Österreich. 1994
AD. Bolos, O. de & al., Flora manual dels països catalans. 1990
AE. Bonafè Barceló, F., Flora de Mallorca 4. 1980
AF. Duvigneaud, J., Catalogue provisoire de la flore des Baléares [ed. 2] in Soc. Échange Pl. Vasc. Eur. Occid. Médit. 17, suppl. 1979
AG. Talavera S. & al. (ed.), Flora iberica 16(2). Compositae (partim). 2017
AH. Tutin, T. G. & al., Flora Europaea. 1964-1993
AI. Fedorov, A. A., Flora evropejskoj časti SSSR 8 [Cvelev, N. N.]. 1989
AJ. Kuusk, V. , Tabaka, L. & Jankjavičene, R., Flora baltijskih republik. Svodka sosudistyh rastenij 3. 2003
AK. Komarov, Fl. URSS 29. 1964
AL. Verloove, F., Ingeburgerde plantensoorten in Vlaanderen. 2002
AM. Andreev, N. & Kozucharov, S. I., Opredelitel na vissite rastenija v Balgarija. 1992
AN. As’ov, B., Dimitrov, D., Vasilev, R. & Petrova, A., Konspekt na visšata flora na Bălgarija, ed. 2. 2002
AO. Gamisans, J., Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Corse. 1985 (as Tragopogon porrifolius)
AP. Guinochet, M. & Vilmorin, R. de, Flore de France 4. 1982 (as Tragopogon porrifolius)
AQ. Jeanmonod D. & Schlüssel A., Compléments au Prodrome de la Flore Corse. Asteraceae III. 2012 (as Tragopogon porrifolius)
AR. Jeanmonod, D. & Burdet, H. M., Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Corse, ed. 2. 1993 (as Tragopogon porrifolius)
AS. Natali, A. & Jeanmonod, D., Flore analytique des plantes introduites en Corse. 1996 (as Tragopogon porrifolius)
AT. Tutin, T. G. & al., Flora Europaea. 1964-1993 (as Tragopogon porrifolius)
AU. Kubát, K., Klíč ke květeně České republiky. 2002
AV. Slavík, B. & Štěpánková, J., Květena České Republiky 7. 2004
AW. Hansen, K., Dansk feltflora. 1993
AX. Fournier, P., Les quatre flores de la France, Corse comprise. 1934-1940 (as Tragopogon eriospermus)
AY. Fournier, P., Les quatre flores de la France, Corse comprise. 1934-1940 (as Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. sativus)
AZ. Wisskirchen, R. & Haeupler, H., Standardliste der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands. 1998
BA. Boissier, E., Flora Orientalis 3. 1875
BB. Reynolds, S. C. P., A catalogue of alien plants in Ireland. 2002
BC. Scannell, M. J. P. & Synnott, D. M., Census catalogue of the flora of Ireland, ed. 2. 1987
BD. Webb, D. A. , Parnell, J. & Doogue, D., An Irish Flora. 1996
BE. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1. 1976 (as Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. sativus)
BF. Mosyakin, S. L. & Fedoronchuk, M. M. , Vascular plants of Ukraine. A nomenclatural checklist. 1999
BG. Vul’f, E. V., Flora Kryma/Flora Taurica 3(2). 1966
BH. Meijden, R. van der, Heukels' Flora van Nederland, ed. 21. 1990
BI. Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkova, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M., in Biodivers. Poland 1. 2002
BJ. Coutinho, A. X. P., A flora de Portugal, ed. 2. 1939
BK. Ciocârlan, V., Flora ilustrata a României 2. 1990
BL. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982
BM. Haslam, S. M., Sell, P. D. & Wolsely, P. A., A Flora of the Maltese Islands. 1977
BN. Valdes, B., Talavera, S. & Fernandez-Galiano, E., Flora Vascular de Andalucía Occidental 3. 1987
BO. Karlsson, T. , Förteckning över svenska kärlväxter in Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 91(5). 1998
BP. Krok, T. O. B. N. & Almquist, S., Svensk Flora: Fanerogamer och ormbunksvaxter 27, ed. 27. 1994
BQ. Aeschimann, D. & Burdet, H. M., Flore de la Suisse, ed. 2. 1994
BR. Hess, H. E., Bestimmungsschlüssel zur Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete, ed. 4. 1998
BS. Webb, D. A., The Flora of European Turkey in Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., B 65/B/1. 1966
BT. Beck von Mannagetta, G., Flora Bosnae et Hercegovinae [Flora Bosne, Hercegovine i novipazarskog sandžaka] 4(4) [Slišković, T.]. 1983
BU. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928-1931 (as Tragopogon eriospermus)
BV. Nikolić, T., Flora Croatica. Index florae Croaticae, 3 in Nat. Croat. 9, suppl. 1. 2000
BW. Martinčič, A., Mala flora Slovenije, ed. 3. 1999
BX. Trpin, D. & Vreš, B., Register flore Slovenije. Praprotnice in cvetnice. 1995
BY. Brouillet L., Coursol F., Favreau M. & Anions M., VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada
BZ. Soltis P. S. - 59. Tragopogon in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.), Flora of North America. North of Mexico 19. 2006
CA. Wiggins I. L., Flora of Baja California. 1980
CB. Baeza C. M., Stuessy T. F., Tremetsberger K. & Urtubey E. - Lactucaceae in Zuloaga F. O., Morrone O. & Belgrano M. J. (eds.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentinia, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) 2. 2008
CC. Zuloaga F. O. & Morrone O. (ed.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de la República Argentina II in Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 74. 1999
CD. Urtubey E. - Lactuceae in Kiesling R. (ed.), Flora de San Juan, Republica Argentina 3b. 2013
CE. Jeanmonod D. & Gamisans J., Flora Corsica. 2007
CF. Anderberg, A. A. & Anderberg, A.-L., Den virtuella floran
CG. Dony, J. G. , Jury, S. L. & Perring, F. H., English Names of Wild Flowers, a list recommended by the Botanical Society of the British Isles, ed. 2. 1986
CH. Mauhin, F., Les noms français des plantes vasculaires de Belgique et des Régions voisines . 2007
CI. Anonymous [Association Tela Botanica], Tela Botanica, le réseau de la botanique francophone. Flores en ligne, France métropolitaine
CJ. Anonymous [Association Tela Botanica], Tela Botanica, le réseau de la botanique francophone. Flores en ligne, France métropolitaine (as Tragopogon porrifolius subsp. australis (Jord.) Nyman)
CK. Aeschimann, D. & Heitz, C., Index synonymique de la flore de Suisse et territoires limitrophes (ISFS). 1996
CL. Karlsson, T., Checklista över Nordens kärlväxter . 2004
CM. Matthews V. A. - 103. Tragopogon L. - 104. Geropogon L. in Davis, P. H., Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 5. 1975
CN. Franke W., Nutzpflanzenkunde, ed. 2. 1981
CO. Hegi, G., Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa, ed. 2, VI(4). 1987