Tragopogon porrifolius

Primary tabs

http://media.bgbm.org/erez/erez?src=EditWP6/photos/Tragopogon_porrifolius_Bc_01.jpg

Distribution

Africa: Algerianative (AlgerianativeA); Canary Is.native: doubtfully native (Canary Is.introducedB); Cape Provincesintroduced (Eastern Cape ProvinceintroducedC, Northern Cape ProvinceintroducedC, Western Cape ProvinceintroducedC); Ethiopiaintroduced (EthiopiaintroducedD); Free Stateintroduced (Free StateintroducedC); KwaZulu-Natalintroduced (KwaZulu-NatalintroducedC); Libyanative (LibyanativeE,F,G); MorocconativeH,I,J; Northern Provincesintroduced (GautengintroducedC,K, MpumalangaintroducedC,K, North-West ProvinceintroducedK, Northern ProvinceintroducedC,K); Tunisianative (TunisianativeL) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative; China North-Centralintroduced (BeijingintroducedM, ShaanxiintroducedM); China South-Centralintroduced (GuizhouintroducedM, SichuanintroducedM, YunnanintroducedM,N); Cyprusnative (Cyprus); East Aegean Is.native (East Aegean Is.); Irannative; Iraqnative; Kazakhstannative; Kirgizistannative; Lebanon-Syrianative (LebanonnativeO, Syria); North Caucasusnative; Palestinenative (Israel, JordannativeO,P); Saudi Arabiaintroduced (Saudi ArabiaintroducedQ); Sinainative (Sinai); Tadzhikistannative; Transcaucasusnative (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Nakhichevan); Turkeynative; Turkmenistannative; Xinjiangintroduced (XinjiangintroducedM,N) Asia-Tropical: Myanmarintroduced (MyanmarintroducedR); Pakistannative; West Himalayanative Australasia: New South Walesintroduced (Australian Capital TerritoryintroducedS,T,U,V, New South WalesintroducedT,U,V,W,X,Y); New Zealand Northintroduced (New Zealand NorthintroducedZ); New Zealand Southintroduced (New Zealand SouthintroducedZ); Northern Territoryintroduced (Northern TerritoryintroducedX); Queenslandintroduced (QueenslandintroducedAA,T,U,V,X,Y); South Australiaintroduced (South AustraliaintroducedT,U,V,X,Y); Tasmaniaintroduced (TasmaniaintroducedS,T,U,V,X,Y); Victoriaintroduced (VictoriaintroducedT,U,V,X,Y); Western Australiaintroduced (Western AustraliaintroducedAB,T,U,V,X,Y) Europe: Austriaintroduced: doubtfully introduced (perhaps cultivated only) (AustriaintroducedAC); Balearesnative (BalearesnativeAD,AE,AF,AG,AH); Baltic Statescultivated (Estoniadoubtfully presentAI,AJ, Latviadoubtfully presentAI,AJ, Lithuaniadoubtfully presentAI,AJ,AK); Belarusintroduced (BelarusintroducedAI); Belgiumintroduced (BelgiumintroducedAL); Bulgarianative (BulgarianativeAH,AM,AN); Central European Russiaintroduced (Central European RussiaintroducedAI); Corsenative (CorsenativeAO,AP,AQ,AR,AS,AT); Czechoslovakiaintroduced (Czech RepublicintroducedAU,AV); Denmarkcultivated (DenmarkintroducedAH,AW); East European Russiaintroduced (East European RussiaintroducedAI); FrancenativeAH,AX,AY; Germanyintroduced (GermanyintroducedAH,AZ); Great Britaincultivated (Great BritainintroducedAH); Greecenative (GreecenativeAH,BA); Irelandintroduced (IrelandintroducedBB,BC,BD, Northern IrelandintroducedBB,BC); Italyintroduced (ItalynativeBE); Kritinative (KritinativeAH,BA); Krymintroduced (KrymintroducedAK,BF,BG); Netherlandscultivated (NetherlandsintroducedAH,BH); Northwest European Russiaintroduced (Northwest European RussiaintroducedAI); Polandintroduced (PolandintroducedBI); Portugalcultivated (PortugalnativeAG,BJ); Romanianative (RomanianativeAH,BK); Sardegnanative (SardegnanativeAH,BL); Sicilynative (MaltanativeBM, SicilynativeBL); Spainnative (Gibraltar, SpainnativeAD,AG,AH,BN); Swedenintroduced (SwedenintroducedAH,BO,BP); Switzerlandintroduced (SwitzerlandintroducedAH,BQ,BR); Turkey-in-Europenative (Turkey-in-EuropenativeAH,BA,BS); Ukraineintroduced (MoldovaintroducedAI, UkraineintroducedAI); Yugoslavianative (Bosnia-HerzegovinanativeBT, CroatianativeBU,BV, Macedonia, Montenegro, SlovenianativeBW,BX) Northern America: Albertaintroduced (AlbertaintroducedBY,BZ); Arizonaintroduced (ArizonaintroducedBZ); Arkansasintroduced (ArkansasintroducedBZ); British Columbiaintroduced (British ColumbiaintroducedBY,BZ); Californiaintroduced (CaliforniaintroducedBZ); Coloradointroduced (ColoradointroducedBZ); Connecticutintroduced (ConnecticutintroducedBZ); Delawareintroduced (DelawareintroducedBZ); District of Columbiaintroduced (District of ColumbiaintroducedBZ); Georgia, U.S.A.introduced (Georgia, U.S.A.introducedBZ); Idahointroduced (IdahointroducedBZ); Illinoisintroduced (IllinoisintroducedBZ); Indianaintroduced (IndianaintroducedBZ); Iowaintroduced (IowaintroducedBZ); Kansasintroduced (KansasintroducedBZ); Kentuckyintroduced (KentuckyintroducedBZ); Maineintroduced (MaineintroducedBZ); Manitobaintroduced (ManitobaintroducedBY,BZ); Marylandintroduced (MarylandintroducedBZ); Massachusettsintroduced (MassachusettsintroducedBZ); Mexico Northwestintroduced (Baja CaliforniaintroducedCA); Michiganintroduced (MichiganintroducedBZ); Missouriintroduced (MissouriintroducedBZ); Montanaintroduced (MontanaintroducedBZ); Nebraskaintroduced (NebraskaintroducedBZ); Nevadaintroduced (NevadaintroducedBZ); New Brunswickintroduced (New BrunswickintroducedBY,BZ); New Hampshireintroduced (New HampshireintroducedBZ); New Jerseyintroduced (New JerseyintroducedBZ); New Mexicointroduced (New MexicointroducedBZ); New Yorkintroduced (New YorkintroducedBZ); North Carolinaintroduced (North CarolinaintroducedBZ); Nova Scotiaintroduced (Nova ScotiaintroducedBY,BZ); Ohiointroduced (OhiointroducedBZ); Oklahomaintroduced (OklahomaintroducedBZ); Ontariointroduced (OntariointroducedBY,BZ); Oregonintroduced (OregonintroducedBZ); Pennsylvaniaintroduced (PennsylvaniaintroducedBZ); Québecintroduced (QuébecintroducedBY,BZ); South Dakotaintroduced (South DakotaintroducedBZ); Tennesseeintroduced (TennesseeintroducedBZ); Texasintroduced (TexasintroducedBZ); Utahintroduced (UtahintroducedBZ); Vermontintroduced (VermontintroducedBZ); Virginiaintroduced (VirginiaintroducedBZ); Washingtonintroduced (WashingtonintroducedBZ,CA); West Virginiaintroduced (West VirginiaintroducedBZ); Wisconsinintroduced (WisconsinintroducedBZ); Wyomingintroduced (WyomingintroducedBZ) Southern America: Argentina Northeastintroduced (Buenos AiresintroducedCB,CC); Argentina Northwestintroduced (JujuyintroducedCB,CC, MendozaintroducedCB,CC, San JuanintroducedCD); Argentina Southintroduced (ChubutintroducedCB,CC, Rio NegrointroducedCB,CC); Chile Centralintroduced (BiobíointroducedCB, CoquimbointroducedCB, O'HigginsintroducedCB, SantiagointroducedCB, ValparaísointroducedCB); Chile Southintroduced (AisénintroducedCB)

Description

Herbs 40–125 cm tall, biennial or annual. Stem erect, simple or branched from middle third, glabrous or slightly tomentulose. Basal and lower cauline leaves lanceolate or linear, 15–40 × 0.3–0.7 cm, marginally often undulate. 6–12 mm in diam.; peduncle inflated. Capitula solitary to few. Involucre 4–5 cm at anthesis, to 8 cm in fruit. Phyllaries 7 or 8, ca. 1/3 longer than florets and ± equaling achenes with pappus. Ligules violet. Outer achenes 3.7–4.5 cm; body pale brown, curviform, 1.4–1.6 mm in diam.; beak whitish, 2–2.5 cm, slender, smooth, apically inflated; pappus disk ± tomentulose. Pappus dirty white, 2.7–3.7 cm. Fl. and fr. May–Aug. 2n = 12.

from: Shih C., Sukhorukov A. P. & Mavrodiev E. V. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 210. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.


Herb, perennial, biennial or annual, (10)-60-125-(150) cm high. Taproot thick. Flowering stems erect, sulcate, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, unbranched or branched. Lower cauline leaves linear or narrowly ovate, 20.0-30.0 cm long, 3.0-4.0-(10.0) cm wide, acuminate, semiamplexicaul, expanded, woolly or glabrous, brownish on both surfaces. Middle and upper cauline leaves few, remote, 10.0-20.0 cm long, acuminate, amplexicaul. Synflorescence with 1 head. Peduncle hollow and swollen just below head. Heads with 85-110 flowers. Involucre at flowering broadly campanulate, glabrous; involucral bracts linear-ovate, 30.0-40.0 mm long, glabrous. Corolla ligulate, reddish violet or purple, rarely yellow toward the base; tube 9.0-10.0 mm long, pilose at apex; ligule 14.0-15.0 mm long, 3.0-4.0 mm wide. Anthertube purplish, c. 5.0 mm long; apical appendages subacute. Style 14.0-15.0 mm long; branches c. 3.0 mm long. Achenes narrowly fusiform in outline, straight or slightly curved, c. 7.0 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, pale brown, with 10 ribs, with a filiform beak; beak c. 17.0 mm long. Pappus pale brown or white, persistent, finely plumose, the outer series thicker than the inner.

Based on: Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae , Tribe Cichorieae . – Enfield; Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. - Kew (as Tragopogon sinuatus); Richardson, I. B. K. 1976: 162. Tragopogon L. (incl. Geropogon L.). – Pp. 322-325 in: Tutin, G. & al. (ed.), Flora Europaea 4. – Cambridge.; Soltis, P. S. 2006: 59. Tragopogon Linnaeus. – Pp. 303-306 in: Flora of North America Editorial Com. (ed.), Flora of North America 19. – New York / Oxford; Tadesse, M. 2004: 29. Tragopogon - Pp 73-74 in: Hedberg, I., Friis, I., Edwards, S. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. – Uppsala; Yatskievych, G. 2006: 49. Tragopogon L. (goat’s beard) – Pp. 390-393 in: Yatskievych, G. (ed.), Flora of Missouri 2, revised Edition. – St. Louis.

Common names

(Myanmar): Monla-u-chinR; Basque (Spain): BasatzebuzaAG, TerebuzaAG; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Удълженолистна козя брадаAM,1; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): BarballaAG, Cama-serradaAG; Chinese (China): 蒜叶婆罗门参 suan ye po luo men shenM; Corsican (Corse): Scorzu biancuCE,1; Danish (Denmark): HavrerodCF,1; English (Australia): Jerusalem starX, Oyster PlantT, OysterplantX, SalsifyAA,AB,S,T,U,V,X,Y, jerusalem starU, oyster plantU, salsafyX; English (Great Britain): SalsifyCG,1; English (Myanmar): Oyster plantR, SalsifyR; English (New Zealand): SalsifyZ; English (Northern America): Purple goatsbeardBY; Finnish (Finland): KaurajuuriCF,1; French (Belgium): Salsifis blancCH,1; French (Corse): Salsifis à feuilles de poireauCE,1; French (France): Salsifis blancCI,1, Salsifis cultivéCI,1, Salsifis du MidiCJ,1, Salsifis à feuilles de PoireauCI,1; French (Northern America): Salsifis cultivéBY; French (Switzerland): SalsifisCK,1, Salsifis à feuilles de poireauCK,1; Galician (Spain): BarbacabreiraAG; German (Switzerland): HaferwurzelCK,1, Lauchblättriger BocksbartCK,1; Italian (Italy): Barba di Becco violettaBL,1, Raperonzolo selvaticoBL,1, SalseficaBL,1; Italian (Switzerland): Barba di Becco violettaCK,1; Portuguese (Portugal): Barba-de-bodeAG, Barba-de-cabraAG, CersefiAG; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): Barba caprunaAG, BarbajaAG, Salsifi blancoAG, TetillónAG, TobaAG; Swedish (Sweden): HaverrotCF,2, Äkta haverrotCL,1; Turkish (Turkey): teke sakali çiçeğiCM
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Uses

The pale brownish edible tuberous taproot has been used as vegetable in S Europe and the Mediterranean area since antiquity, similar to the black-corticose tuberous root of Scorzonera hispanica, which came into cultivation only in modern times. Cultivation of Tragopogon porrifolius as a vegetable has spread into other parts of Europe, from where it is mentioned in the herbals of the 15th and 16th century, and later also into the New World. Small scale cultivation has persisted still in the 21. century, although in the 20th century it has been replaced in many regions by the more productive S. hispanica. (Wagenitz G. in Hegi (ed.) 1987: 1042-1043; Franke 1981: 194). CN,CO

Credits

Lauterbach D. 2009: Images (1 added).
Boufford D. E. 2009: Images (1 added).
Willing E. 2012: Images (9 added)

Bibliography

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