Tragopogon porrifolius

Primary tabs

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Common names

(Myanmar): Monla-u-chinA; Basque (Spain): BasatzebuzaB, TerebuzaB; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Удълженолистна козя брадаC,1; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): BarballaB, Cama-serradaB; Chinese (China): 蒜叶婆罗门参 suan ye po luo men shenD; Corsican (Corse): Scorzu biancuE,1; Danish (Denmark): HavrerodF,1; English (Australia): Jerusalem starG, Oyster PlantH, OysterplantG, SalsifyG,H,I,J,K,L,M,N, jerusalem starJ, oyster plantJ, salsafyG; English (Great Britain): SalsifyO,1; English (Myanmar): Oyster plantA, SalsifyA; English (New Zealand): SalsifyP; English (Northern America): Purple goatsbeardQ; Finnish (Finland): KaurajuuriF,1; French (Belgium): Salsifis blancR,1; French (Corse): Salsifis à feuilles de poireauE,1; French (France): Salsifis blancS,1, Salsifis cultivéS,1, Salsifis du MidiT,1, Salsifis à feuilles de PoireauS,1; French (Northern America): Salsifis cultivéQ; French (Switzerland): SalsifisU,1, Salsifis à feuilles de poireauU,1; Galician (Spain): BarbacabreiraB; German (Switzerland): HaferwurzelU,1, Lauchblättriger BocksbartU,1; Italian (Italy): Barba di Becco violettaV,1, Raperonzolo selvaticoV,1, SalseficaV,1; Italian (Switzerland): Barba di Becco violettaU,1; Portuguese (Portugal): Barba-de-bodeB, Barba-de-cabraB, CersefiB; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): Barba caprunaB, BarbajaB, Salsifi blancoB, TetillónB, TobaB; Swedish (Sweden): HaverrotF,2, Äkta haverrotW,1; Turkish (Turkey): teke sakali çiçeğiX
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Description

Herbs 40–125 cm tall, biennial or annual. Stem erect, simple or branched from middle third, glabrous or slightly tomentulose. Basal and lower cauline leaves lanceolate or linear, 15–40 × 0.3–0.7 cm, marginally often undulate. 6–12 mm in diam.; peduncle inflated. Capitula solitary to few. Involucre 4–5 cm at anthesis, to 8 cm in fruit. Phyllaries 7 or 8, ca. 1/3 longer than florets and ± equaling achenes with pappus. Ligules violet. Outer achenes 3.7–4.5 cm; body pale brown, curviform, 1.4–1.6 mm in diam.; beak whitish, 2–2.5 cm, slender, smooth, apically inflated; pappus disk ± tomentulose. Pappus dirty white, 2.7–3.7 cm. Fl. and fr. May–Aug. 2n = 12.

from: Shih C., Sukhorukov A. P. & Mavrodiev E. V. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 210. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.


Herb, perennial, biennial or annual, (10)-60-125-(150) cm high. Taproot thick. Flowering stems erect, sulcate, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, unbranched or branched. Lower cauline leaves linear or narrowly ovate, 20.0-30.0 cm long, 3.0-4.0-(10.0) cm wide, acuminate, semiamplexicaul, expanded, woolly or glabrous, brownish on both surfaces. Middle and upper cauline leaves few, remote, 10.0-20.0 cm long, acuminate, amplexicaul. Synflorescence with 1 head. Peduncle hollow and swollen just below head. Heads with 85-110 flowers. Involucre at flowering broadly campanulate, glabrous; involucral bracts linear-ovate, 30.0-40.0 mm long, glabrous. Corolla ligulate, reddish violet or purple, rarely yellow toward the base; tube 9.0-10.0 mm long, pilose at apex; ligule 14.0-15.0 mm long, 3.0-4.0 mm wide. Anthertube purplish, c. 5.0 mm long; apical appendages subacute. Style 14.0-15.0 mm long; branches c. 3.0 mm long. Achenes narrowly fusiform in outline, straight or slightly curved, c. 7.0 mm long, 1.5 mm wide, pale brown, with 10 ribs, with a filiform beak; beak c. 17.0 mm long. Pappus pale brown or white, persistent, finely plumose, the outer series thicker than the inner.

Based on: Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae , Tribe Cichorieae . – Enfield; Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. - Kew (as Tragopogon sinuatus); Richardson, I. B. K. 1976: 162. Tragopogon L. (incl. Geropogon L.). – Pp. 322-325 in: Tutin, G. & al. (ed.), Flora Europaea 4. – Cambridge.; Soltis, P. S. 2006: 59. Tragopogon Linnaeus. – Pp. 303-306 in: Flora of North America Editorial Com. (ed.), Flora of North America 19. – New York / Oxford; Tadesse, M. 2004: 29. Tragopogon - Pp 73-74 in: Hedberg, I., Friis, I., Edwards, S. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. – Uppsala; Yatskievych, G. 2006: 49. Tragopogon L. (goat’s beard) – Pp. 390-393 in: Yatskievych, G. (ed.), Flora of Missouri 2, revised Edition. – St. Louis.

Distribution

Africa: Algerianative (AlgerianativeY); Canary Is.native: doubtfully native (Canary Is.introducedZ); Cape Provincesintroduced (Eastern Cape ProvinceintroducedAA, Northern Cape ProvinceintroducedAA, Western Cape ProvinceintroducedAA); Ethiopiaintroduced (EthiopiaintroducedAB); Free Stateintroduced (Free StateintroducedAA); KwaZulu-Natalintroduced (KwaZulu-NatalintroducedAA); Libyanative (LibyanativeAC,AD,AE); MorocconativeAF,AG,AH; Northern Provincesintroduced (GautengintroducedAA,AI, MpumalangaintroducedAA,AI, North-West ProvinceintroducedAI, Northern ProvinceintroducedAA,AI); Tunisianative (TunisianativeAJ) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative; China North-Centralintroduced (BeijingintroducedD, ShaanxiintroducedD); China South-Centralintroduced (GuizhouintroducedD, SichuanintroducedD, YunnanintroducedAK,D); Cyprusnative (Cyprus); East Aegean Is.native (East Aegean Is.); Irannative; Iraqnative; Kazakhstannative; Kirgizistannative; Lebanon-Syrianative (LebanonnativeAL, Syria); North Caucasusnative; Palestinenative (Israel, JordannativeAL,AM); Saudi Arabiaintroduced (Saudi ArabiaintroducedAN); Sinainative (Sinai); Tadzhikistannative; Transcaucasusnative (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Nakhichevan); Turkeynative; Turkmenistannative; Xinjiangintroduced (XinjiangintroducedAK,D) Asia-Tropical: Myanmarintroduced (MyanmarintroducedA); Pakistannative; West Himalayanative Australasia: New South Walesintroduced (Australian Capital TerritoryintroducedH,I,J,L, New South WalesintroducedAO,G,H,J,L,N); New Zealand Northintroduced (New Zealand NorthintroducedP); New Zealand Southintroduced (New Zealand SouthintroducedP); Northern Territoryintroduced (Northern TerritoryintroducedG); Queenslandintroduced (QueenslandintroducedG,H,J,L,M,N); South Australiaintroduced (South AustraliaintroducedG,H,J,L,N); Tasmaniaintroduced (TasmaniaintroducedG,H,I,J,L,N); Victoriaintroduced (VictoriaintroducedG,H,J,L,N); Western Australiaintroduced (Western AustraliaintroducedG,H,J,K,L,N) Europe: Austriaintroduced: doubtfully introduced (perhaps cultivated only) (AustriaintroducedAP); Balearesnative (BalearesnativeAQ,AR,AS,AT,B); Baltic Statescultivated (Estoniadoubtfully presentAU,AV, Latviadoubtfully presentAU,AV, Lithuaniadoubtfully presentAU,AV,AW); Belarusintroduced (BelarusintroducedAU); Belgiumintroduced (BelgiumintroducedAX); Bulgarianative (BulgarianativeAT,AY,C); Central European Russiaintroduced (Central European RussiaintroducedAU); Corsenative (CorsenativeAZ,BA,BB,BC,BD,BE); Czechoslovakiaintroduced (Czech RepublicintroducedBF,BG); Denmarkcultivated (DenmarkintroducedAT,BH); East European Russiaintroduced (East European RussiaintroducedAU); FrancenativeAT,BI,BJ; Germanyintroduced (GermanyintroducedAT,BK); Great Britaincultivated (Great BritainintroducedAT); Greecenative (GreecenativeAT,BL); Irelandintroduced (IrelandintroducedBM,BN,BO, Northern IrelandintroducedBM,BN); Italyintroduced (ItalynativeBP); Kritinative (KritinativeAT,BL); Krymintroduced (KrymintroducedAW,BQ,BR); Netherlandscultivated (NetherlandsintroducedAT,BS); Northwest European Russiaintroduced (Northwest European RussiaintroducedAU); Polandintroduced (PolandintroducedBT); Portugalcultivated (PortugalnativeB,BU); Romanianative (RomanianativeAT,BV); Sardegnanative (SardegnanativeAT,V); Sicilynative (MaltanativeBW, SicilynativeV); Spainnative (Gibraltar, SpainnativeAQ,AT,B,BX); Swedenintroduced (SwedenintroducedAT,BY,BZ); Switzerlandintroduced (SwitzerlandintroducedAT,CA,CB); Turkey-in-Europenative (Turkey-in-EuropenativeAT,BL,CC); Ukraineintroduced (MoldovaintroducedAU, UkraineintroducedAU); Yugoslavianative (Bosnia-HerzegovinanativeCD, CroatianativeCE,CF, Macedonia, Montenegro, SlovenianativeCG,CH) Northern America: Albertaintroduced (AlbertaintroducedCI,Q); Arizonaintroduced (ArizonaintroducedCI); Arkansasintroduced (ArkansasintroducedCI); British Columbiaintroduced (British ColumbiaintroducedCI,Q); Californiaintroduced (CaliforniaintroducedCI); Coloradointroduced (ColoradointroducedCI); Connecticutintroduced (ConnecticutintroducedCI); Delawareintroduced (DelawareintroducedCI); District of Columbiaintroduced (District of ColumbiaintroducedCI); Georgia, U.S.A.introduced (Georgia, U.S.A.introducedCI); Idahointroduced (IdahointroducedCI); Illinoisintroduced (IllinoisintroducedCI); Indianaintroduced (IndianaintroducedCI); Iowaintroduced (IowaintroducedCI); Kansasintroduced (KansasintroducedCI); Kentuckyintroduced (KentuckyintroducedCI); Maineintroduced (MaineintroducedCI); Manitobaintroduced (ManitobaintroducedCI,Q); Marylandintroduced (MarylandintroducedCI); Massachusettsintroduced (MassachusettsintroducedCI); Mexico Northwestintroduced (Baja CaliforniaintroducedCJ); Michiganintroduced (MichiganintroducedCI); Missouriintroduced (MissouriintroducedCI); Montanaintroduced (MontanaintroducedCI); Nebraskaintroduced (NebraskaintroducedCI); Nevadaintroduced (NevadaintroducedCI); New Brunswickintroduced (New BrunswickintroducedCI,Q); New Hampshireintroduced (New HampshireintroducedCI); New Jerseyintroduced (New JerseyintroducedCI); New Mexicointroduced (New MexicointroducedCI); New Yorkintroduced (New YorkintroducedCI); North Carolinaintroduced (North CarolinaintroducedCI); Nova Scotiaintroduced (Nova ScotiaintroducedCI,Q); Ohiointroduced (OhiointroducedCI); Oklahomaintroduced (OklahomaintroducedCI); Ontariointroduced (OntariointroducedCI,Q); Oregonintroduced (OregonintroducedCI); Pennsylvaniaintroduced (PennsylvaniaintroducedCI); Québecintroduced (QuébecintroducedCI,Q); South Dakotaintroduced (South DakotaintroducedCI); Tennesseeintroduced (TennesseeintroducedCI); Texasintroduced (TexasintroducedCI); Utahintroduced (UtahintroducedCI); Vermontintroduced (VermontintroducedCI); Virginiaintroduced (VirginiaintroducedCI); Washingtonintroduced (WashingtonintroducedCI,CJ); West Virginiaintroduced (West VirginiaintroducedCI); Wisconsinintroduced (WisconsinintroducedCI); Wyomingintroduced (WyomingintroducedCI) Southern America: Argentina Northeastintroduced (Buenos AiresintroducedCK,CL); Argentina Northwestintroduced (JujuyintroducedCK,CL, MendozaintroducedCK,CL, San JuanintroducedCM); Argentina Southintroduced (ChubutintroducedCK,CL, Rio NegrointroducedCK,CL); Chile Centralintroduced (BiobíointroducedCK, CoquimbointroducedCK, O'HigginsintroducedCK, SantiagointroducedCK, ValparaísointroducedCK); Chile Southintroduced (AisénintroducedCK)

Credits

Lauterbach D. 2009: Images (1 added).
Boufford D. E. 2009: Images (1 added).
Willing E. 2012: Images (9 added)

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