Hypochaeris

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Description

Herbs, perennial or rarely annual, often rosulate, usually with rigid simple hairs. Stems solitary to few [or sometimes acaulescent], usually sparsely branched or more rarely simple, leafless or sparsely leafy. Synflorescence single-headed or weakly corymbiform with few to several capitula. Heads with ca. 20 to many florets. Involucre cylindric, narrowly campanulate, or broadly hemispheric. Phyllaries ± glabrous or hispid; outer phyllaries in several series, gradually longer centripetally, ± imbricate, often ca. 3/4 or more as long as inner ones; inner phyllaries ± linear-lanceolate to linear, ± equal in length. Receptacle with linear scarious scales ± as long as involucre and enclosing base of florets. Florets yellow or white. Achene mostly rather long, homomorphic or dimorphic; body cylindric to fusiform, with 5 muricate main ribs, with or without secondary ribs, with or more rarely without a slender to capillaceous beak often longer than body. Pappus white or dirty white, with all bristles stiffly fimbriately plumose or inner ones plumose and outer ones scabrid.

from: Shih C. & Kilian N. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 345–346. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Distribution

Africa: Algeria (Algerianative); Azores (Açôresnative); Canary Is. (Canary Is.native); Cape Provinces (Eastern Cape Provinceintroduced, Western Cape Provinceintroduced); Free State (Free Stateintroduced); Kenya (Kenyaintroduced); KwaZulu-Natal (KwaZulu-Natalintroduced); Lesotho (Lesothointroduced); Libya (Libyanative); Madagascar (Madagascarintroduced); Madeira (Madeiranative); Morocconative; Mozambique (Mozambiqueintroduced); Northern Provinces (Gautengnative, Mpumalangaintroduced, North-West Provinceintroduced, Northern Provinceintroduced); Réunion (Réunionintroduced); Swaziland (Swazilandintroduced); Tanzania (Tanzaniaintroduced); Tunisia (Tunisianative); Zimbabwe (Zimbabweintroduced) Asia-Temperate: Altay (Altaynative); Amur (Amurnative); Buryatiya (Buryatiyanative); China North-Central (Beijingreported in error, Hebeinative, Shanxinative); China South-Central (Yunnanintroduced); China Southeast (Henannative); Chita (Chitanative); Cyprus (Cyprusnative); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.native); Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongolnative); Irkutsk (Irkutsknative); Japan (Hokkaidonative, Honshuintroduced, Kyushuintroduced, Shikokuintroduced); Kazakhstan (Kazakhstannative); Khabarovsk (Khabarovsknative); Korea (North Koreanative); Krasnoyarsk (Krasnoyarsknative); Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); Manchuria (Heilongjiangnative, Jilinnative, Liaoningnative); Mongolianative (Mongolianative); North Caucasusnative (Chechnyanative, Kabardino-Balkariyanative, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiyanative, Krasnodarnative, Severo-Osetiyanative, Stavropolnative); Palestine (Israelnative); Primorye (Primoryenative); Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabianative); Taiwanintroduced (Taiwanintroduced); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative); Turkey (Turkeynative); Tuva (Tuvanative); West Siberia (West Siberianative); Xinjiang (Xinjiangnative) Asia-Tropical: Assam (Assamintroduced, Meghalayaintroduced); Borneo (Sabahintroduced); East Himalaya (Sikkimintroduced); India (Keralaintroduced, Tamil Naduintroduced, Uttar Pradeshintroduced); Sri Lanka (Sri Lankaintroduced) Australasia: Antipodean Is. (Antipodean Is.introduced); Chatham Is. (Chatham Is.introduced); Kermadec Is. (Kermadec Is.introduced); New South Wales (Australian Capital Territoryintroduced, New South Walesintroduced); New Zealand North (New Zealand Northintroduced); New Zealand South (New Zealand Southintroduced); Northern Territory (Northern Territoryintroduced); Queensland (Queenslandintroduced); South Australia (South Australiaintroduced); Tasmania (Tasmaniaintroduced); Victoria (Victoriaintroduced); Western Australia (Western Australiaintroduced) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Austrianative (Austrianative, Liechtensteinnative); Baleares (Balearesnative); Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarus (Belarusnative); Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European Russianative); Corse (Corsenative); Czechoslovakia (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmark (Denmarknative); East European Russia (East European Russianative); Finland (Finlandnative); Francenative; Germany (Germanynative); Great Britain (Great Britainnative); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (Hungarynative); Irelandnative (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative; Kriti (Kritinative); Krym (Krymnative); Netherlands (Netherlandsnative); North European Russia (North European Russianative); Northwest European Russia (Northwest European Russianative); Norway (Norwaynative); Poland (Polandnative); Portugal (Portugalnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative); Sicilynative (Maltanative, Sicilynative); South European Russia (South European Russianative); Spainnative (Andorranative, Gibraltarnative, Spainnative); Sweden (Swedennative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative); Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: Alabama (Alabamaintroduced); Alaska (Alaskaintroduced); Arkansas (Arkansasintroduced); British Columbia (British Columbiaintroduced); California (Californiaintroduced); Colorado (Coloradointroduced); Connecticut (Connecticutintroduced); Delaware (Delawareintroduced); Florida (Floridaintroduced); Georgia, U.S.A. (Georgia, U.S.A.introduced); Idaho (Idahointroduced); Illinois (Illinoisintroduced); Indiana (Indianaintroduced); Kentucky (Kentuckyintroduced); Labrador (Labradorintroduced); Louisiana (Louisianaintroduced); Maine (Maineintroduced); Maryland (Marylandintroduced); Massachusetts (Massachusettsintroduced); Mexican Pacific Is. (Guadalupe I.introduced); Mexico Central (Mexico Distrito Federalintroduced); Mexico Northwest (Baja Californiaintroduced); Michigan (Michiganintroduced); Mississippi (Mississippiintroduced); Missouri (Missouriintroduced); Montana (Montanaintroduced); Nevada (Nevadaintroduced); New Brunswick (New Brunswickintroduced); New Hampshire (New Hampshireintroduced); New Jersey (New Jerseyintroduced); New York (New Yorkintroduced); Newfoundland (Newfoundlandintroduced, St.Pierre-Miquelonintroduced); North Carolina (North Carolinaintroduced); Nova Scotia (Nova Scotiaintroduced); Ohio (Ohiointroduced); Oklahoma (Oklahomareported in error); Ontario (Ontariointroduced); Oregon (Oregonintroduced); Pennsylvania (Pennsylvaniaintroduced); Québec (Québecintroduced); Rhode I. (Rhode I.introduced); South Carolina (South Carolinaintroduced); Tennessee (Tennesseeintroduced); Texas (Texasintroduced); Utah (Utahintroduced); Vermont (Vermontintroduced); Virginia (Virginiaintroduced); Washington (Washingtonintroduced); West Virginia (West Virginiaintroduced); Wisconsin (Wisconsinintroduced) Pacific: New Caledonia (New Caledoniaintroduced) Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Argentina Distrito Federalnative, Buenos Airesnative, Chaconative, Corrientesnative, Córdobanative, Entre Ríosnative, Formosanative, La Pampanative, Misionesnative); Argentina Northwest (Catamarcanative, Jujuynative, La Riojanative, Mendozanative, Saltanative, San Juannative, San Luisnative, Santiago del Esteronative, Tucumannative); Argentina South (Chubutnative, Neuquénnative, Rio Negronative, Santa Cruznative, Santa Fénative, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)native); Bolivia (Bolivianative); Brazil South (Paranánative, Rio Grande do Sulnative, Santa Catarinanative); Brazil Southeast (Minas Geraisnative, Rio de Janeironative, São Paulonative); Chile Central (Biobíonative, Coquimbonative, La Araucanianative, Maulenative, O'Higginsnative, Santiagonative, Valparaísonative); Chile North (Antofagastanative, Atacamanative, Tarapacanative); Chile South (Aisénnative, Los Lagosnative, Magellanesnative); Colombia (Colombianative); Costa Rica (Costa Ricaintroduced); Ecuador (Ecuadornative); Guatemala (Guatemalaintroduced); Jamaica (Jamaicaintroduced); Juan Fernández Is. (Juan Fernández Is.introduced); Paraguay (Paraguaynative); Peru (Perunative); Uruguayintroduced (Uruguaynative); Venezuela (Venezuelanative)

Systematics

Hypochaeris consists of about 60 annual to perennial herbaceous species with a conspicuously disjunct distribution: some 15 species are centred in the Mediterranean region, with a few extending to N Europe and NE Asia, while the remainder of the species occur in South America. The species of the genus are easily recognised by the combination of a stiffly fimbriately plumose pappus and a paleate receptacle.

The former Hypochaeris sect. Robertia, including only H. robertia, which had been considered an uncertain member of the genus by Samuel & al. (2003, 2006), represents according to the analysis by Enke & al. (2012) a separate lineage outside Hypochaeris, and is best treated as a separate monotypic genus Robertia.

In the phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers of subtribe Hypochaeridinae by Samuel & al. (2006), Hypochaeris is sister to a clade comprising Leontodon s.str., Picris and Helminthotheca, while Scorzoneroides is sister to all four genera. In the phylogenetic analyses of the subtribe based on nrITS sequences by Enke & al. (2012), Hypochaeris is sister to Leontodon s.str., Picris, Helminthotheca and Scorzoneroides. There is, however, no statistical support for the monophyly of Hypochaeris in these reconstructions, and the Maximum Parsimony analysis by Enke & al. (2012) and the Bayesian analysis by Tremetsberger & al. (2012) of nrITS resolved the genus as biphyletic, but also without statistical support. These inconclusive evidences with respect to the monophyly of Hypochaeris given, the Cichorieae Systematics Portal for the time being maintains Hypochaeris in its wider circumscription. Therefore it does not follow the revival of the splitting of the genus by Talavera & al. (2015, 2017) in sereral smaller genera.

Samuel & al. (2003) and Tremetsberger & al. (2005) have shown through phylogenetic analyses of nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers that the South American species form a monophyletic group with Hypochaeris angustifolia from Morocco as its sister. Hypochaeris apparently originated in the Mediterranean region and most probably arrived in South America after long-distance dispersal from NW Africa (Tremetsberger & al. 2005). In South America Hypochaeris after rapid migration into the different geographical regions has colonised most parts, except the tropical rainforest and the extreme arid areas of the coastal deserts (Tremetsberger & al. 2006), and from sea level to the higher Andes at elevations to 5100 m (Urtubey & al. 2009).

The infrageneric classification of Hypochaeris based on morphology, as was revised the last time by Hoffmann (1890), has been confirmed in many but not all respects by the available molecular phylogenetic analyses (Cerbah & al. 1999; Samuel & al. 2003, 2006; Tremetsberger & al. 2005; Enke & al. 2012), which revealed the following clades:
The core Hypochaeris clade includes the four species H. arachnoidea, H. glabra, H. radicata and H. salzmanniana and has a likely SW Mediterranean (Moroccan) origin (Ortiz & al. 2009).
The Achyrophorus clade includes H. achyrophorus, H. laevigata, H. leontodontoides and H. rutea (Tremetsberger & al. 2005) and a few more species recognised by Talavera & al. (2015).
The Trommsdorffia clade includes the Eurasian species H. grandiflora, H. maculata and H. uniflora.
The Metabasis clade includes the two species H. cretensis and H. oligocephala.
The Moroccan Hypochaeris angustifolia and the South American species form a separate clade.A,B,C,D,E,F,G,H,I,J,K

Common names

Albanian (Albania): HipokerL,1; Arabic (Lebanon): سِرْيولَةM,1, هيبُشَريسN,1; Arabic (Syria): هيبُشَريسO,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): ХипохерисP,1; Chinese (China): 猫儿菊属 mao er ju shuQ; Czech (Czech Republic): NáholníkR,2, PrasetníkR,1; Estonian (Estonia): PõrsasheinS,1; French (Corse): PorcelleT,1; French (France): PorcelleU,1; German (Germany): FerkelkrautV,1; German (Switzerland): FerkelkrautW,1; Hebrew (Israel): הִיפּוֹכֵרִיסX,1, היפוכריסX,1; Italian (Italy): CostolinaY,Z,1,1; Italian (Switzerland): CostolinaW,1; Latvian (Latvia): PelūdeS,1; Lithuanian (Lithuania): DžiugūnėS,1; Polish (Poland): ProsienicznikAA,1; Romanian (Moldova): Буруянэ порчаскэAB,1; Swedish (Sweden): RosettfibblorAC,1; Turkish (Turkey): DağmaruluAD; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Miêu nhĩAE
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Chromosome numbers

Diploids and tetraploids, x = 6, 5, 4, 3. AF

Bibliography

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C. Ortiz M. A., Tremetsberger K., Stuessy T. & al., Phylogeographic patterns in Hypochaeris section Hypochaeris (Asteraceae, Lactuceae) of the western Mediterranean in J. Biogeogr. 36: 1384-1397. 2009
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