Sonchus arvensis

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Sonchus arvensis

http://media.bgbm.org/erez/erez?src=EditWP6/photos/Sonchus_arvensis_Bc_08.jpg

Description

Plants perennial, with deep-set, branched rhizomes. Stems 40-150 cm long, often somewhat glaucous. Leaves with the clasping basal lobes rounded or pointed, the margins with the teeth having relatively stiff, short, slender prickles at the tips, the upper surface glabrous, not or only slightly shiny, the undersurface glabrous or rarely sparsely pubescent with minute, inconspicuous, unbranched hairs. Basal and lower stem leaves 6-40 cm long, usually irregularly and deeply lobed. Median and upper stem leaves gradually reduced in size, variously shallowly or deeply-lobed, sometimes unlobed and merely toothed. Inflorescence branches glabrous or sparsely to moderately pubescent with spreading, gland-tipped hairs, occasionally with minute, branched, cobwebby to woolly hairs toward the tip. Flowering heads 2.5-4.5 cm in diameter (measured across the spreading corollas). Involucre (10-)14-22 mm long, glabrous or sparsely to moderately pubescent with a central band of spreading, gland-tipped hairs, occasionally with minute, branched, cobwebby to woolly hairs toward the base. Corollas 12-25 mm long, bright yellow to orangish yellow. Pappus 8-14 mm long. Fruits 2.5-3.5 mm long, noticeably 5-8-ribbed on each face, also finely cross-wrinkled, reddish brown to dark brown. 2n=36, 54.

from: Yatskievych, G. 2006: 47. Sonchus L. (sow thistle) – Pp. 383-387 in: Yatskievych, G. (ed.), Flora of Missouri 2, revised Edition. – St. Louis.

Systematics

Sonchus arvensis in its narrower circumscription accepted here, is specifically distinct from S. brachyotus, which is by some authors, e.g. Sennikov (2000), treated as a subspecies of S. arvensis. In the narrower circumscription, S. arvensis is distributed in Europe extending into N Asia, whereby the extent of its distribution into N Asia is insufficiently known. This applies in particular to its reports from NE Asia. Moreover, it is introduced into North America. Reports of S. arvensis from Central, E and SE Asia, so far not referring to S. brachyotus as a subspecies of S. arvensis, are definitely erroneous (Boulos 1973; Sennikov 2000; Shih & Kilian in Shih & al. 2011). The reports from the northern parts of this area are usually due to confusion with S. brachyotus, those from the southern part due to confusion with either S. brachyotus or S. wightianus.

References


Boulos L. 1973: Révision systématique du genre Sonchus L. s.l. IV. – Bot. Not. 126: 155–196.

Sennikov A. N. 2000: Konspect roda Sonchus (Asteraceae) flory Rossii o sopredel'nykh gosudarstv [Synopsis of the genus Sonchus (Asteraceae) in Russia and adjacent countries]. – Bot Zhurn. 85(12): 90–94.

Shih C., Ge X. J.; Kilian N., Kirschner J., Štěpánek J., Sukhorukov A. P., Mavrodiev E. V. & Gottschlich G. 2011: Cichorieae. – Pp. 195–353 in: Wu Z. Y., Raven P. H. & Hong D. Y. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21. Asteraceae. – Beijing: Science Press & St Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden. // ➪ //

Distribution

Africa: Algerianative: presence questionable Asia-Temperate: Altayreported in errorA; Amurreported in errorB; Buryatiyadoubtfully presentA; China North-Central (Gansureported in error, Hebeireported in error, Shaanxireported in error, Shanxireported in error); China South-Central (Hubeireported in errorC, Sichuanreported in error, Yunnanreported in error); China Southeast (Guangxireported in errorC, Henanreported in error, Hunanreported in errorC, Jiangsureported in error, Zhejiangreported in error); Chitadoubtfully presentA; Cyprusnative: presence questionableD,E; East Aegean Is.native; Inner Mongolia (Ningxiareported in errorC); Irkutskdoubtfully presentA; Kamchatkadoubtfully presentB; KazakhstannativeF; Khabarovskdoubtfully presentB; Kirgizistanreported in errorG,H; Krasnoyarskdoubtfully presentA; Kuril Is.doubtfully presentI; Magadandoubtfully presentB; Manchuria (Heilongjiangreported in error, Jilinreported in error, Liaoningreported in error); Mongoliareported in error; North CaucasusnativeJ,K (DagestannativeL, Kabardino-BalkariyanativeL, Karacheyevo-CherkessiyanativeL, KrasnodarnativeL, StavropolnativeL); Primoryedoubtfully presentI; Qinghaireported in error; Sakhalindoubtfully presentI; Tadzhikistanreported in errorM; Tibetreported in error; Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, ArmenianativeK,L,N, Azerbaijannative: presence questionableK,L,O,P, Georgianative); Turkeynative; Tuvadoubtfully presentA; Uzbekistandoubtfully presentQ; West Siberiadoubtfully presentA; Xinjiangreported in error; Yakutskiyadoubtfully presentA Asia-Tropical: Jawadoubtfully presentR; Philippinesreported in errorS Australasia: New Zealand NorthintroducedT; New Zealand SouthintroducedT; South AustraliaintroducedU Europe: Albanianative; Austrianative (Austrianative, LiechtensteinnativeV); Balearesnative: presence questionable; Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarusnative; Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgarianative; Central European Russianative; Corsereported in errorW,X,Y,Z; Czechoslovakia (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative: doubtfully native); Denmarknative; East European Russianative; Finlandnative; Francenative; Føroyarnative; Germanynative; Great Britainnative; Greecenative; Hungarynative; IcelandintroducedAA; Irelandnative (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative; Krymnative; Netherlandsnative; North European Russianative; Northwest European Russianative; Norwaynative; Polandnative; Romanianative; Sardegnanative; Sicily (MaltaintroducedAB,AC); South European Russianative; Spainnative (Spainreported in errorAD,AE); Swedennative; Switzerlandnative; Turkey-in-Europenative; Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative: presence questionableAF, Montenegronative, Serbianative, SlovenianativeAG,AH) Northern America: Alaskaintroduced; Albertaintroduced; British Columbiaintroduced; Californiaintroduced; Coloradointroduced; Connecticutintroduced; Delawareintroduced; Idahointroduced; Illinoisintroduced; Indianaintroduced; Iowaintroduced; Kansasintroduced; Kentuckyintroduced; Labradorintroduced; LouisianaintroducedAI; Maineintroduced; Manitobaintroduced; Marylandintroduced; Massachusettsintroduced; Michiganintroduced; Minnesotaintroduced; Mississippiintroduced; Missouriintroduced; Montanaintroduced; Nebraskaintroduced; Nevadaintroduced; New Brunswickintroduced; New Hampshireintroduced; New Jerseyintroduced; New Yorkintroduced; Newfoundland (Newfoundlandintroduced, St.Pierre-Miquelonintroduced); North Carolinaintroduced; North Dakotaintroduced; Northwest Territoriesintroduced; Nova Scotiaintroduced; Nunavutintroduced; Ohiointroduced; Ontariointroduced; Oregonintroduced; Pennsylvaniaintroduced; Prince Edward I.introduced; Québecintroduced; Rhode I.introduced; Saskatchewanintroduced; South Dakotaintroduced; Tennesseeintroduced; TexasintroducedAI; Utahintroduced; Vermontintroduced; Virginiaintroduced; Washingtonintroduced; West Virginiaintroduced; Wisconsinintroduced; Wyomingintroduced; Yukonintroduced Pacific: FijiintroducedAJ Southern America: Argentina Northwest (MendozaintroducedAK,AL, San JuanintroducedAM); Chile South (MagellanesintroducedAK)

Common names

Armenian (Armenia): Կաթնբեկ դաշտայինAN,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Полски кострецAO,1; Danish (Denmark): Ager-SvinemælkAP,1; English (Australia): Perennial Sow-thistleU, corn sow-thistleU; English (Great Britain): Perennial Sow-thistleAQ,1; English (New Zealand): Perennial sow thistleT; English (Northern America): Field sow-thistleAR; Estonian (Estonia): Põld-piimohakasAS,1; Finnish (Finland): PeltovalvattiAP,1; French (Belgium): Laiteron des champsAT,1; French (France): Laiteron des champsAU,1; French (Switzerland): Laiteron des champsAV,1; German (Germany): Acker-GänsedistelAW,1; German (Switzerland): Acker-GänsedistelAV,1; Icelandic (Iceland): GrísafífillAA; Italian (Italy): Grespino dei campiAX,1; Italian (Switzerland): Grespino dei campiAV,1; Latvian (Latvia): Tīruma mīkstpieneAS,1; Norwegian (Norway): ÅkerdylleAP,1; Polish (Poland): Mlecz polnyAY,1; Romanian (Moldova): Сусай де-кымпAZ,1; Russian (Armenia): Осот полевойAN,1; Swedish (Sweden): FettistelAP,2, MjölktistelAP,2, ÅkermolkeBA,1; Turkish (Turkey): SökelekBB
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Credits

Willing E. 2012: Images (3 added)

Bibliography

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