Sonchus arvensis

Primary tabs

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Distribution

Africa: Algeria (Algerianative: presence questionable) Asia-Temperate: Altay (Altayreported in errorA); Amur (Amurreported in errorB); Buryatiya (Buryatiyadoubtfully presentA); China North-Central (Gansureported in error, Hebeireported in error, Shaanxireported in error, Shanxireported in error); China South-Central (Hubeireported in errorC, Sichuanreported in error, Yunnanreported in error); China Southeast (Guangxireported in errorC, Henanreported in error, Hunanreported in errorC, Jiangsureported in error, Zhejiangreported in error); Chita (Chitadoubtfully presentA); Cyprus (Cyprusnative: presence questionableD,E); Inner Mongolia (Ningxiareported in errorC); Irkutsk (Irkutskdoubtfully presentA); Kamchatka (Kamchatkadoubtfully presentB); Kazakhstan (KazakhstannativeF); Khabarovsk (Khabarovskdoubtfully presentB); Kirgizistan (Kirgizistanreported in errorG,H); Krasnoyarsk (Krasnoyarskdoubtfully presentA); Kuril Is. (Kuril Is.doubtfully presentI); Magadan (Magadandoubtfully presentB); Manchuria (Heilongjiangreported in error, Jilinreported in error, Liaoningreported in error); Mongoliareported in error (Mongoliareported in errorJ); North CaucasusnativeK,L (DagestannativeM, Kabardino-BalkariyanativeM, Karacheyevo-CherkessiyanativeM, KrasnodarnativeM, StavropolnativeM); Primorye (Primoryedoubtfully presentI); Qinghai (Qinghaireported in error); Sakhalin (Sakhalindoubtfully presentI); Tadzhikistan (Tadzhikistanreported in errorN); Tibet (Tibetreported in error); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, ArmenianativeL,M,O, Azerbaijannative: presence questionableL,M,P,Q, Georgianative); Turkey (Turkeynative); Tuva (Tuvadoubtfully presentA); Uzbekistan (Uzbekistandoubtfully presentR); West Siberia (West Siberiadoubtfully presentA); Xinjiang (Xinjiangreported in error); Yakutskiya (Yakutskiyadoubtfully presentA) Asia-Tropical: Jawa (Jawadoubtfully presentS); Philippines (Philippinesreported in errorT) Australasia: New Zealand North (New Zealand NorthintroducedU); New Zealand South (New Zealand SouthintroducedU); South Australia (South AustraliaintroducedV) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Austrianative (Austrianative, LiechtensteinnativeW); Baleares (Balearesnative: presence questionable); Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarus (Belarusnative); Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European Russianative); Corse (Corsereported in errorAA,X,Y,Z); Czechoslovakia (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative: doubtfully native); Denmark (Denmarknative); East European Russia (East European Russianative); Finland (Finlandnative); Francenative; Føroyar (Føroyarnative); Germany (Germanynative); Great Britain (Great Britainnative); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (Hungarynative); Iceland (IcelandintroducedAB); Irelandnative (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative; Krym (Krymnative); Netherlands (Netherlandsnative); North European Russia (North European Russianative); Northwest European Russia (Northwest European Russianative); Norway (Norwaynative); Poland (Polandnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative); Sicily (MaltaintroducedAC,AD); South European Russia (South European Russianative); Spain (Spainreported in errorAE,AF); Sweden (Swedennative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative); Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative: presence questionableAG, Montenegronative, Serbianative, SlovenianativeAH,AI) Northern America: Alaska (Alaskaintroduced); Alberta (Albertaintroduced); British Columbia (British Columbiaintroduced); California (Californiaintroduced); Colorado (Coloradointroduced); Connecticut (Connecticutintroduced); Delaware (Delawareintroduced); Idaho (Idahointroduced); Illinois (Illinoisintroduced); Indiana (Indianaintroduced); Iowa (Iowaintroduced); Kansas (Kansasintroduced); Kentucky (Kentuckyintroduced); Labrador (Labradorintroduced); Louisiana (LouisianaintroducedAJ); Maine (Maineintroduced); Manitoba (Manitobaintroduced); Maryland (Marylandintroduced); Massachusetts (Massachusettsintroduced); Michigan (Michiganintroduced); Minnesota (Minnesotaintroduced); Mississippi (Mississippiintroduced); Missouri (Missouriintroduced); Montana (Montanaintroduced); Nebraska (Nebraskaintroduced); Nevada (Nevadaintroduced); New Brunswick (New Brunswickintroduced); New Hampshire (New Hampshireintroduced); New Jersey (New Jerseyintroduced); New York (New Yorkintroduced); Newfoundland (Newfoundlandintroduced, St.Pierre-Miquelonintroduced); North Carolina (North Carolinaintroduced); North Dakota (North Dakotaintroduced); Northwest Territories (Northwest Territoriesintroduced); Nova Scotia (Nova Scotiaintroduced); Nunavut (Nunavutintroduced); Ohio (Ohiointroduced); Ontario (Ontariointroduced); Oregon (Oregonintroduced); Pennsylvania (Pennsylvaniaintroduced); Prince Edward I. (Prince Edward I.introduced); Québec (Québecintroduced); Rhode I. (Rhode I.introduced); Saskatchewan (Saskatchewanintroduced); South Dakota (South Dakotaintroduced); Tennessee (Tennesseeintroduced); Texas (TexasintroducedAJ); Utah (Utahintroduced); Vermont (Vermontintroduced); Virginia (Virginiaintroduced); Washington (Washingtonintroduced); West Virginia (West Virginiaintroduced); Wisconsin (Wisconsinintroduced); Wyoming (Wyomingintroduced); Yukon (Yukonintroduced) Pacific: Fiji (FijiintroducedAK) Southern America: Argentina Northwest (MendozaintroducedAL,AM, San JuanintroducedAN); Chile South (MagellanesintroducedAL)

Description

Plants perennial, with deep-set, branched rhizomes. Stems 40-150 cm long, often somewhat glaucous. Leaves with the clasping basal lobes rounded or pointed, the margins with the teeth having relatively stiff, short, slender prickles at the tips, the upper surface glabrous, not or only slightly shiny, the undersurface glabrous or rarely sparsely pubescent with minute, inconspicuous, unbranched hairs. Basal and lower stem leaves 6-40 cm long, usually irregularly and deeply lobed. Median and upper stem leaves gradually reduced in size, variously shallowly or deeply-lobed, sometimes unlobed and merely toothed. Inflorescence branches glabrous or sparsely to moderately pubescent with spreading, gland-tipped hairs, occasionally with minute, branched, cobwebby to woolly hairs toward the tip. Flowering heads 2.5-4.5 cm in diameter (measured across the spreading corollas). Involucre (10-)14-22 mm long, glabrous or sparsely to moderately pubescent with a central band of spreading, gland-tipped hairs, occasionally with minute, branched, cobwebby to woolly hairs toward the base. Corollas 12-25 mm long, bright yellow to orangish yellow. Pappus 8-14 mm long. Fruits 2.5-3.5 mm long, noticeably 5-8-ribbed on each face, also finely cross-wrinkled, reddish brown to dark brown. 2n=36, 54.

from: Yatskievych, G. 2006: 47. Sonchus L. (sow thistle) – Pp. 383-387 in: Yatskievych, G. (ed.), Flora of Missouri 2, revised Edition. – St. Louis.

Common names

Armenian (Armenia): Կաթնբեկ դաշտայինAO,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Полски кострецAP,1; Danish (Denmark): Ager-SvinemælkAQ,1; English (Australia): Perennial Sow-thistleV, corn sow-thistleV; English (Great Britain): Perennial Sow-thistleAR,1; English (New Zealand): Perennial sow thistleU; English (Northern America): Field sow-thistleAS; Estonian (Estonia): Põld-piimohakasAT,1; Finnish (Finland): PeltovalvattiAQ,1; French (Belgium): Laiteron des champsAU,1; French (France): Laiteron des champsAV,1; French (Switzerland): Laiteron des champsAW,1; German (Germany): Acker-GänsedistelAX,1; German (Switzerland): Acker-GänsedistelAW,1; Icelandic (Iceland): GrísafífillAB; Italian (Italy): Grespino dei campiAY,1; Italian (Switzerland): Grespino dei campiAW,1; Latvian (Latvia): Tīruma mīkstpieneAT,1; Norwegian (Norway): ÅkerdylleAQ,1; Polish (Poland): Mlecz polnyAZ,1; Romanian (Moldova): Сусай де-кымпBA,1; Russian (Armenia): Осот полевойAO,1; Swedish (Sweden): FettistelAQ,2, MjölktistelAQ,2, ÅkermolkeBB,1; Turkish (Turkey): SökelekBC
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Credits

Willing E. 2012: Images (3 added)

Systematics

Sonchus arvensis in its narrower circumscription accepted here, is specifically distinct from S. brachyotus, which is by some authors, e.g. Sennikov (2000), treated as a subspecies of S. arvensis. In the narrower circumscription, S. arvensis is distributed in Europe extending into N Asia, whereby the extent of its distribution into N Asia is insufficiently known. This applies in particular to its reports from NE Asia. Moreover, it is introduced into North America. Reports of S. arvensis from Central, E and SE Asia, so far not referring to S. brachyotus as a subspecies of S. arvensis, are definitely erroneous (Boulos 1973; Sennikov 2000; Shih & Kilian in Shih & al. 2011). The reports from the northern parts of this area are usually due to confusion with S. brachyotus, those from the southern part due to confusion with either S. brachyotus or S. wightianus.

References


Boulos L. 1973: Révision systématique du genre Sonchus L. s.l. IV. – Bot. Not. 126: 155–196.

Sennikov A. N. 2000: Konspect roda Sonchus (Asteraceae) flory Rossii o sopredel'nykh gosudarstv [Synopsis of the genus Sonchus (Asteraceae) in Russia and adjacent countries]. – Bot Zhurn. 85(12): 90–94.

Shih C., Ge X. J.; Kilian N., Kirschner J., Štěpánek J., Sukhorukov A. P., Mavrodiev E. V. & Gottschlich G. 2011: Cichorieae. – Pp. 195–353 in: Wu Z. Y., Raven P. H. & Hong D. Y. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21. Asteraceae. – Beijing: Science Press & St Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden. // ➪ //

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