Sonchus palustris

Primary tabs

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Description

Herbs to 1.8 m tall, perennial. Rhizome short, 4–5 cm thick. Stems stout, base ca. 3 cm in diam., branched apically. Lower stem leaves sessile, oblanceolate to lanceolate, 15–35 × 5–20 cm, undivided to pinnatipartite, glabrous, base sagittately clasping, margin denticulate, apex acuminate; lateral lobes if present 1–3 pairs, lanceolate, apex acute; terminal lobe triangular to triangular-lanceolate. Middle and upper stem leaves lanceolate; uppermost stem leaves reduced, linear-lanceolate to linear. Synflorescence corymbiform to paniculately corymbiform, with many capitula. Capitula with many (usually 70–90) florets; peduncle slender, densely glandular hairy. Involucre campanulate, to 1.5 cm. Phyllaries abaxially glandular hairy, apex acute to acuminate; outer phyllaries linear-lanceolate, 1–2 mm wide; inner phyllaries linear-lanceolate. Corolla ca. 1.2 cm. Achene narrowly ellipsoid, ca. 4 mm, weakly compressed, ± quadrangular in cross section, weakly rugose, between lateral ribs usually with 1 very strongly prominent main rib and several secondary ribs on either face. Pappus 7–8 mm, caducous ± as a unit. Fl. and fr. Jun–Sep. 2n = 18.

from: Shih C. & Kilian N. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 241. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.


Perennial. Rhizome short, thick (up to 4-5 cm), producing string-like roots, Stems (30)80-200 cm high (according to published reports up to 425 cm), at base 1.5-3 cm thick, fistular, hard, sulcate, glabrous below, with numerous long glandular hairs above, including peduncles (only very rarely more or less glabrous). Leaves sessile, sagittate at base, spinose-toothed along margin; lower leaves large (15-35 cm long and 5-20 cm wide), pinnatipartite or runcinate, with few lateral triangular lobes and large (attenuate) apical triangular or lanceolate lobe; middle cauline leaves shorter than lower, lanceolate long-acuminate, undivided, spinulose-toothed or almost entire, uppermost leaves linear-lanceolate or linear, small, entire. Flowering shoots hard, usually long, slightly thickened below, bearing more or less large number of -compact peduncles of variable length, usually umbellate. Capitula in corymbose or corymbose-paniculate inflorescence, numerous, each well-developed capitulum comprising about 75 florets. Involucre narrowly or broadly campanulate, 10-15 mm long; involucral bracts two- or three-rowed, dirty-dark green, lanceolate, densely covered on outer side (like peduncles and flowering shoots) with long glandular hairs. Corolla yellow. Achenes light yellow or brownish, 4-5 mm long and about 1 mm wide, almost tetrahedral (prismatic), slightly compressed, weakly finely-rugose transversely, with four relatively thick lateral ribs and two or three not so distinct longitudinal ribs between them; achenes apically truncate with flat, level, quadrangular or roundish-rectangular disk with weakly raised (under high magnification!) reddish margins, slightly narrowed toward base; pappus of white or sometimes yellowish-white, very thin, soft, somewhat barbed (under high magnification!) rather fragile bristles, about two times as long as achene.

from: Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae, Tribe Cichorieae. – Enfield.

Distribution

Asia-Temperate: Altay (AltaynativeA,B); Iran (IrannativeC,D); Kazakhstan (KazakhstannativeE,F); Kirgizistan (KirgizistannativeF,G,H); North CaucasusnativeI,J,K,L (ChechnyanativeM, Karacheyevo-CherkessiyanativeM, KrasnodarnativeM, StavropolnativeM); Tadzhikistan (TadzhikistannativeF,N); Transcaucasus (AbkhaziyanativeI,K,L,O,P, Adzhariyanative, ArmenianativeK,Q, AzerbaijannativeK,L,M,R, GeorgianativeO); Turkey (TurkeynativeK,S,T); Turkmenistan (TurkmenistannativeC,F,U); Uzbekistan (UzbekistannativeF,V); West Siberia (West SiberianativeB); Xinjiang (XinjiangnativeF,W) Europe: AustrianativeX (AustrianativeY); Baltic States (KaliningradnativeZ, Latvianative: presence questionableAA, Lithuanianative: presence questionableAA,AB); BelgiumnativeX (BelgiumnativeAC); Bulgaria (BulgarianativeAD,AE,AF,X); Central European Russia (Central European RussianativeAB); Corse (CorseAG,AH,AI); CzechoslovakiaX (Czech RepublicnativeAJ,AK,AL,AM, SlovakianativeAJ,AK); Denmark (DenmarknativeAN,AO,X); East European Russia (East European RussianativeAB); FrancenativeAG,AP,AQ,X; Germany (GermanynativeAR,AS,X); Great Britain (Great BritainnativeX); Greece (Greecenative: reported in errorAT,AU,I,X); Hungary (HungarynativeAV,AW,X); ItalynativeAX,AY,AZ,BA,X; Krym (KrymnativeAB,BB,BC,BD,L,X); Netherlands (NetherlandsnativeBE,X); North European Russia (North European RussianativeAB); Norway (NorwaynativeAO,X); Poland (PolandnativeBF,BG,X); Romania (RomanianativeAU,BH,BI,X); Sardegna (Sardegnanative: reported in errorAZ,BA,X); South European Russia (South European RussianativeAB); Spain (SpainBJ,BK); Sweden (SwedennativeAO,BL,BM,X); Ukraine (MoldovanativeBN, UkrainenativeAB,BC); Yugoslavia (CroatianativeBO, SerbianativeAU,BP) Northern America: Ontario (OntariointroducedBQ,BR)

Credits

Werner Kreisch 2011: Images (1 added).

Common names

Abkhazian: ; Armenian (Armenia): Կաթնբեկ ճահճայինBS,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Блатен кострецAD,1; Chinese (China): 沼生苦苣菜 zhao sheng ku ju caiF; Danish (Denmark): Kær-SvinemælkBT,1; English (Great Britain): Marsh Sow-thistleBU,1; English (Northern America): Marsh sow-thistleBQ; French (Belgium): Laiteron des maraisBV,1; French (France): Laiteron des maraisBW,1; French (Northern America): Laiteron des maraisBQ; French (Switzerland): Laiteron des maraisBX,1; German (Germany): Sumpf-GänsedistelBY,1; German (Switzerland): Sumpf-GänsedistelBX,1; Italian (Italy): Grespino di paludeAZ,1; Italian (Switzerland): Grespino di paludeBX,1; Norwegian (Norway): SumpdylleBT,1; Polish (Poland): Mlecz błotnyBF,1, Mlecz nadwodnyBF,2; Romanian (Moldova): Сусай де-балтэBN,1; Russian (Armenia): Осот болотныйBS,1; Swedish (Sweden): StrandmolkeBZ,1, StrandtistelBT,2; Turkish (Turkey): ZohoT
1. recommended, 2. synonym

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