Sonchus palustris

Primary tabs

Sonchus palustris

http://media.bgbm.org/erez/erez?src=EditWP6/photos/Sonchus_palustris_Bb_07.jpg

Common names

Abkhazian: ; Armenian (Armenia): Կաթնբեկ ճահճայինA,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Блатен кострецB,1; Chinese (China): 沼生苦苣菜 zhao sheng ku ju caiC; Danish (Denmark): Kær-SvinemælkD,1; English (Great Britain): Marsh Sow-thistleE,1; English (Northern America): Marsh sow-thistleF; French (Belgium): Laiteron des maraisG,1; French (France): Laiteron des maraisH,1; French (Northern America): Laiteron des maraisF; French (Switzerland): Laiteron des maraisI,1; German (Germany): Sumpf-GänsedistelJ,1; German (Switzerland): Sumpf-GänsedistelI,1; Italian (Italy): Grespino di paludeK,1; Italian (Switzerland): Grespino di paludeI,1; Norwegian (Norway): SumpdylleD,1; Polish (Poland): Mlecz błotnyL,1, Mlecz nadwodnyL,2; Romanian (Moldova): Сусай де-балтэM,1; Russian (Armenia): Осот болотныйA,1; Swedish (Sweden): StrandmolkeN,1, StrandtistelD,2; Turkish (Turkey): ZohoO
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Description

Herbs to 1.8 m tall, perennial. Rhizome short, 4–5 cm thick. Stems stout, base ca. 3 cm in diam., branched apically. Lower stem leaves sessile, oblanceolate to lanceolate, 15–35 × 5–20 cm, undivided to pinnatipartite, glabrous, base sagittately clasping, margin denticulate, apex acuminate; lateral lobes if present 1–3 pairs, lanceolate, apex acute; terminal lobe triangular to triangular-lanceolate. Middle and upper stem leaves lanceolate; uppermost stem leaves reduced, linear-lanceolate to linear. Synflorescence corymbiform to paniculately corymbiform, with many capitula. Capitula with many (usually 70–90) florets; peduncle slender, densely glandular hairy. Involucre campanulate, to 1.5 cm. Phyllaries abaxially glandular hairy, apex acute to acuminate; outer phyllaries linear-lanceolate, 1–2 mm wide; inner phyllaries linear-lanceolate. Corolla ca. 1.2 cm. Achene narrowly ellipsoid, ca. 4 mm, weakly compressed, ± quadrangular in cross section, weakly rugose, between lateral ribs usually with 1 very strongly prominent main rib and several secondary ribs on either face. Pappus 7–8 mm, caducous ± as a unit. Fl. and fr. Jun–Sep. 2n = 18.

from: Shih C. & Kilian N. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 241. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.


Perennial. Rhizome short, thick (up to 4-5 cm), producing string-like roots, Stems (30)80-200 cm high (according to published reports up to 425 cm), at base 1.5-3 cm thick, fistular, hard, sulcate, glabrous below, with numerous long glandular hairs above, including peduncles (only very rarely more or less glabrous). Leaves sessile, sagittate at base, spinose-toothed along margin; lower leaves large (15-35 cm long and 5-20 cm wide), pinnatipartite or runcinate, with few lateral triangular lobes and large (attenuate) apical triangular or lanceolate lobe; middle cauline leaves shorter than lower, lanceolate long-acuminate, undivided, spinulose-toothed or almost entire, uppermost leaves linear-lanceolate or linear, small, entire. Flowering shoots hard, usually long, slightly thickened below, bearing more or less large number of -compact peduncles of variable length, usually umbellate. Capitula in corymbose or corymbose-paniculate inflorescence, numerous, each well-developed capitulum comprising about 75 florets. Involucre narrowly or broadly campanulate, 10-15 mm long; involucral bracts two- or three-rowed, dirty-dark green, lanceolate, densely covered on outer side (like peduncles and flowering shoots) with long glandular hairs. Corolla yellow. Achenes light yellow or brownish, 4-5 mm long and about 1 mm wide, almost tetrahedral (prismatic), slightly compressed, weakly finely-rugose transversely, with four relatively thick lateral ribs and two or three not so distinct longitudinal ribs between them; achenes apically truncate with flat, level, quadrangular or roundish-rectangular disk with weakly raised (under high magnification!) reddish margins, slightly narrowed toward base; pappus of white or sometimes yellowish-white, very thin, soft, somewhat barbed (under high magnification!) rather fragile bristles, about two times as long as achene.

from: Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae, Tribe Cichorieae. – Enfield.

Distribution

Asia-Temperate: Altay (AltaynativeP,Q); Iran (IrannativeR,S); Kazakhstan (KazakhstannativeC,T); Kirgizistan (KirgizistannativeC,U,V); North CaucasusnativeW,X,Y,Z (ChechnyanativeAA, Karacheyevo-CherkessiyanativeAA, KrasnodarnativeAA, StavropolnativeAA); Tadzhikistan (TadzhikistannativeAB,C); Transcaucasus (AbkhaziyanativeAC,AD,W,Y,Z, Adzhariyanative, ArmenianativeAE,Y, AzerbaijannativeAA,AF,Y,Z, GeorgianativeAC); Turkey (TurkeynativeAG,O,Y); Turkmenistan (TurkmenistannativeAH,C,R); Uzbekistan (UzbekistannativeAI,C); West Siberia (West SiberianativeQ); Xinjiang (XinjiangnativeAJ,C) Europe: AustrianativeAK (AustrianativeAL); Baltic States (KaliningradnativeAM, Latvianative: presence questionableAN, Lithuanianative: presence questionableAN,AO); BelgiumnativeAK (BelgiumnativeAP); Bulgaria (BulgarianativeAK,AQ,AR,B); Central European Russia (Central European RussianativeAO); Corse (CorseAS,AT,AU); CzechoslovakiaAK (Czech RepublicnativeAV,AW,AX,AY, SlovakianativeAV,AW); Denmark (DenmarknativeAK,AZ,BA); East European Russia (East European RussianativeAO); FrancenativeAK,AS,BB,BC; Germany (GermanynativeAK,BD,BE); Great Britain (Great BritainnativeAK); Greece (Greecenative: reported in errorAK,BF,BG,W); Hungary (HungarynativeAK,BH,BI); ItalynativeAK,BJ,BK,BL,K; Krym (KrymnativeAK,AO,BM,BN,BO,Z); Netherlands (NetherlandsnativeAK,BP); North European Russia (North European RussianativeAO); Norway (NorwaynativeAK,BA); Poland (PolandnativeAK,BQ,L); Romania (RomanianativeAK,BG,BR,BS); Sardegna (Sardegnareported in errorAK,BL,K); South European Russia (South European RussianativeAO); Spain (Spainreported in errorBT,BU,BV); Sweden (SwedennativeAK,BA,BW,BX); Ukraine (MoldovanativeM, UkrainenativeAO,BN); Yugoslavia (CroatianativeBY, SerbianativeBG,BZ) Northern America: Ontario (OntariointroducedCA,F)

Credits

Werner Kreisch 2011: Images (1 added).

Bibliography

A. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Flora Armenii 9. 1995
B. Andreev, N. & Kozucharov, S. I., Opredelitel na vissite rastenija v Balgarija. 1992
C. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
D. Anderberg, A. A. & Anderberg, A.-L., Den virtuella floran
E. Dony, J. G. , Jury, S. L. & Perring, F. H., English Names of Wild Flowers, a list recommended by the Botanical Society of the British Isles, ed. 2. 1986
F. Brouillet L., Coursol F., Favreau M. & Anions M., VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada
G. Mauhin, F., Les noms français des plantes vasculaires de Belgique et des Régions voisines . 2007
H. Anonymous [Association Tela Botanica], Tela Botanica, le réseau de la botanique francophone. Flores en ligne, France métropolitaine
I. Aeschimann, D. & Heitz, C., Index synonymique de la flore de Suisse et territoires limitrophes (ISFS). 1996
J. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4: Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 10. 2005
K. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982
L. Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkova, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M., in Biodivers. Poland 1. 2002
M. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986
N. Karlsson, T., Checklista över Nordens kärlväxter . 2004
O. Güner A. (ed.), Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). 2012
P. Krasnoborov I. M., Opredelitel' rastenij Respubliki Altaj. 2012: 462 (as Sonchus palustris)
Q. Lomonosova M. N. - 74. Cichorium L. - 87. Lapsana L. in Krasnoborov I. M., Flora of Siberia 13. 2007
R. Rechinger K. H., 14. Garhadiolus - 18. Reichardia in Fl. Iran. 122. 1977
S. Safavi S. R. & al. - 77. Asteraceae tribe Cichorieae in Assadi M. & al., Flora of Iran. 2013
T. Pavlov N. V., Flora Kazachstana 9. 1966
U. Akademija Nauk Kirgizskoj SSR, Institut Botaniki, Laboratorija Sistematiki Vysšich Rastenij, Flora Kirgizskoj SSR : opredelitel' rastenij Kirgizskoj SSR. 1965
V. Lazkov G. A. & Sultanova B. A., Kadastr flory Kyrgyzstana: sosudistye rasteniya / Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan. – Norrlinia 24. 2011
W. Boissier, E., Flora Orientalis 3. 1875
X. Galuško, A. I., Flora severnogo Kavkaza 3. 1980
Y. Grossgejm, A. A., Flora kavkaza 4. 1934
Z. Komarov, Fl. URSS 29. 1964
AA. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Konspekt flory Kavkaza / Conspectus Florae Caucasi 3(1), 2008
AB. Akademija Nauk Tadžikskoj SSR, Botaničeskij Institut, Flora Tadžikskoj SSR 10. 1991
AC. Gagnidze, R., Flora Gruzii, ed. 2, 14. 2003
AD. Kechoveli, N. N., Flora Gruzii 8. 1952
AE. Tahtažan, A. L., Flora Armenii 9. 1995
AF. Karjagin, I. I., Flora azerbajdžana 8. 1961
AG. Davis P. H., Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 5. 1975
AH. Schischkin B. K. & Nikitin V. V., Flora Turkmenia VII. 1960
AI. Kovalevsk. - in Vvedensky, Fl. Uzbekistan. 6. 1962
AJ. C. Shih, Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 80(1). 1997
AK. Tutin, T. G. & al., Flora Europaea. 1964-1993
AL. Adler, W. , Oswald, K. & Fischer, R., Exkursionsflora von Österreich. 1994
AM. Dedkov, V. P. (ed. ), Konspekt sosudistyh rastenij Kaliningradskoj Oblasti. 1999
AN. Kuusk, V. , Tabaka, L. & Jankjavičene, R., Flora baltijskih republik. Svodka sosudistyh rastenij 3. 2003
AO. Fedorov, A. A., Flora evropejskoj časti SSSR 8 [Cvelev, N. N.]. 1989
AP. Van Rompaey, E. & Delvosalle, L., Atlas van de Belgische en Luxemburgse flora – Pteridofyten en Spermatofyten.. 1972
AQ. As’ov, B., Dimitrov, D., Vasilev, R. & Petrova, A., Konspekt na visšata flora na Bălgarija, ed. 2. 2002
AR. Stojanov, N., Stefanov, B. & Kitanov, B, Flora na Bălgarija, ed. 4, 2. 1967
AS. Fournier, P., Les quatre flores de la France, Corse comprise. 1934-1940
AT. Jeanmonod D. & Schlüssel A., Compléments au Prodrome de la Flore Corse. Asteraceae III. 2012 (as Sonchus palustris)
AU. Jeanmonod, D. & Burdet, H. M., Catalogue des plantes vasculaires de la Corse, ed. 2. 1993
AV. Dostál, J., Nová kvetena CSSR 2. 1989
AW. Dostál, J., Vel’ký kl’úc na určovanie vyšších rastlín 2. 1992
AX. Kubát, K., Klíč ke květeně České republiky. 2002
AY. Slavík, B. & Štěpánková, J., Květena České Republiky 7. 2004
AZ. Hansen, K., Dansk feltflora. 1993
BA. Lid, J. & Lid, D. T., Norsk Flora, ed. 6. 1994
BB. Coste, H., Flore descriptive et illustree de la France 2. 1902-1903
BC. Guinochet, M. & Vilmorin, R. de, Flore de France 4. 1982
BD. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 3. Gefäßpflanzen: Atlasband, ed. 10. 2000
BE. Wisskirchen, R. & Haeupler, H., Standardliste der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands. 1998
BF. Halácsy, E. de, Conspectus florae graecae 2. 1902
BG. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928-1931
BH. Horváth, F. , Dobolyi, Z. K. , Morschhauser, T, Lőkös, L. , Karas, L. & Szerdahelyi, T., Flóra adatbázis 1.2. Taxon-lista és attribútum allomány. 1995
BI. Simon, T., A magyarországi edényes flóra határozója. Harasztok - virágos növények.. 1992
BJ. Conti, F., Abbate, G., Alessandrini, A., Blasi, C. (eds.), An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora. 2005
BK. Fiori, A., Nuova flora analitica d’Italia 2. 1925-1929
BL. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1. 1976
BM. Mosyakin, S. L. & Fedoronchuk, M. M. , Vascular plants of Ukraine. A nomenclatural checklist. 1999
BN. Prokudin, J. N. (ed.), Opredelitel’ vysših rastenij Ukrainy. 1987
BO. Vul’f, E. V., Flora Kryma/Flora Taurica 3(2). 1966
BP. Meijden, R. van der, Heukels' Flora van Nederland, ed. 21. 1990
BQ. Mirek, Z., Vascular plants of Poland. A Checklist. in Polish Bot. Stud., Guideb. Ser. 15. 1995
BR. Ciocârlan, V., Flora ilustrata a României 2. 1990
BS. Popescu, A. & Sanda, V., Conspectul florei cormofitelor spontane din România in Acta Bot. Horti Bucurest. [suppl.]. 1998
BT. Smythies, B. E., Flora of Spain and the Balearic Islands. Checklist of vascular plants, 1 in Englera 3. 1984
BU. Talavera S. & al. (ed.), Flora iberica 16(2). Compositae (partim). 2017
BV. Willkomm, M. & Lange J., Prodromus florae hispanicae 2. 1865-1870
BW. Karlsson, T. , Förteckning över svenska kärlväxter in Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 91(5). 1998
BX. Krok, T. O. B. N. & Almquist, S., Svensk Flora: Fanerogamer och ormbunksvaxter 27, ed. 27. 1994
BY. Nikolić, T., Flora Croatica. Index florae Croaticae, 3 in Nat. Croat. 9, suppl. 1. 2000
BZ. Josifović, M. & al., Flora SR Srbije 7. 1975
CA. Strother J. L. - 51. Hieracium in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.), Flora of North America. North of Mexico 19. 2006