Scorzonera ensifolia

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Scorzonera ensifolia

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Description

Herbs usually 20–40 cm tall, perennial, sparsely rosulate. Rootstock cylindric. Caudex with entire hardened adaxially abundantly reddish brown lanate leaf sheath residues. Stems solitary or few, ± erect, sparsely branched apically, ± pubescent or rarely glabrous, densely leafy. Rosette leaves linear-lanceolate to linear, to 20 × 0.3–0.8 cm, rather rigid, apex filiform acuminate. Stem leaves many, similar to rosette leaves, sparsely pubescent or glabrous. Synflorescence corymbiform, usually with 2–4 capitula. Involucre cylindric, to 2.5 × 1–1.5 cm. Phyllaries abaxially arachnoid hairy; outermost phyllaries lanceolate, apex acuminate and bent. Florets yellow, ca. 1.5 × as long as involucre. Achene cylindric, usually 7–8 mm, densely villous. Pappus pale brownish, 2–2.5 cm. Fl. and fr. May–Aug. 2n = 12.

from: Shih C. & Kilian N. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 205. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.


Perennial. Root vertical, cylindrical; root collar sometimes covered with indurescent sheaths of basal leaves, densely velutinous from long rusty hairs. Stems 20-55 cm high, few, less often solitary, slightly flexuous, weakly sulcate, pubescent (often floccose in leaf axils), less often glabrous, densely leafy throughout, usually branched, less often simple. Leaves linear-lanceolate or linear, 6-25 cm long and 2-6(10) mm wide, apex attenuate into subulate bent cusps, hard, with many veins (rather distinct). Capitula solitary or two to four, terminal. Involucre more or less lanate-velutinous (sometimes pubescence forms white collar around involucre - var. pilosior O. Ktze.); involucral bracts lanceolate, long-acuminate; outer bracts reduced, with bent cusp. Ligulate florets yellow, one and one-half times as long as involucre. Achenes lanate; pappus dirty yellow or rusty, its bristles plumose from base, two to two and one-half times as long as achenes.

from: Bobrov, E. G. & Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae, Tribe Cichorieae. – Enfield.

Distribution

Asia-Temperate: Altay (AltaynativeA); Kazakhstan (KazakhstannativeB,C); West Siberia (West SiberianativeA); Xinjiang (XinjiangnativeC,D) Europe: Central European Russia (Central European RussianativeC,E); East European Russia (East European RussianativeC,E); Krym (KrymnativeF); South European Russia (South European RussianativeC,E); Ukraine (MoldovanativeE,G, UkrainenativeE,H)

Common names

Chinese (China): 剑叶鸦葱 jian ye ya congC; Romanian (Moldova): Скорцонерэ ензифолиеG,1
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Bibliography

A. Lomonosova M. N. - 74. Cichorium L. - 87. Lapsana L. in Krasnoborov I. M., Flora of Siberia 13. 2007
B. Pavlov N. V., Flora Kazachstana 9. 1966
C. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
D. C. Shih, Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 80(1). 1997
E. Fedorov, A. A., Flora evropejskoj časti SSSR 8 [Cvelev, N. N.]. 1989
F. Mosyakin, S. L. & Fedoronchuk, M. M. , Vascular plants of Ukraine. A nomenclatural checklist. 1999
G. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986
H. Prokudin, J. N. (ed.), Opredelitel’ vysših rastenij Ukrainy. 1987