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The Hieraciinae in the present circumscription represent the subtribe as in Lack (2006) but two genera were excluded following Gemeinholzer & al. (in Kilian & al. 2009): (1) Tolpis clusters with Cichorium as part of the Cichoriinae, and (2) Hololeion is part of the Heteracia-Soroseris subclade of the Crepidinae. Hololeion, with a basic chromosome number of x = 8, was odd within the Hieraciinae because all its other taxa have a basic chromosome number of x = 9, which is now characteristic for the subtribe. The Hieraciinae sensu Bremer (1994) also included Arnoseris, a genus that Lack (2006) placed into the Hypochaeridinae, but which clusters according to Gemeinholzer & al. (in Kilian & al. 2009) with Cichorium, too.

The systematics of the subtribe has been clarified through molecular phylogenetic analyses by Fehrer & al. (2007, 2009) and Krak & al. (2013). The analyses of these authors revealed a sister-group relationship between Pilosella and Hispidella. These two genera form a joint clade with Hieracium (H. subg. Hieracium and H. subg. Chionoracium [= Stenotheca]), to which Andryala is the sister-group. Hieracium intybaceum, which is restricted to the siliceous Alps, finally forms the sister-group to all four genera.

The molecular phylogenetic analyses thus provide evidence for the separation of Hieracium and Pilosella, and moreover, necessitate the re-establishment of Schlagintweitia as a segregate of Hieracium.

Intergeneric hybridization within the Hieraciinae resulting in cytoplasmic inheritance occurs and affected already the earliest stages of the evolution of the subtribe (Krak & al. 2013). It is known from Hieracium subg. Chionoracium to Pilosella and from the introgressed Pilosella lineage to Andryala (Fehrer & al. 2007), as well as between Schlagintweitia and Hieracium. In general, the nuclear ribosomal DNA markers (in particular ETS) provide the best approximation to the species tree and is in accordance with morphological and other evidence (Krak & al. 2013).

For tackling Hieracium and Pilosella we anticipate, in close cooperation with their specialists, a feasible and systematically sound two-level-taxonomy solution, differentiating between a set of taxa relevant and manageable for a wide range of purposes and users, and a second set of taxa below the first one displaying the microcosmos of actual diversity. In Hieracium, the principal taxonomic level may largely correspond to the "Haupt- und Zwischenarten" of Zahn and many of the sections, subsections and series as well as groups accepted by Russian, Baltic, Skandinavian and British authors. They have been named and treated as species "groups" ["aggregates" or "swarms"], to each of which, at the second level, the corresponding microspecies (or subspecies) may be subordinated depending on the preferred approach and available data of modern revisions. Taxa which can not be assigned to these "groups" are to be found in an additional collective group of micro-taxa.

For the time being, the Cichorieae Portal offers two alternative taxonomic treatments of Hieracium and Pilosella:
(1) In this "Standard Classification" we have incorporated the treatment provided in the Euro+Med Plantbase – Compositae (Greuter 2005-07) and supplemented it for the areas beyond Europe and the Mediterranean. For further details about this approach see under the respective genera. This treatment holds all incorporated distribution and other data.
(2) In the "Alternative Classification" (to be selected from the drop down menu heading the taxon tree) a consequent step-wise micro-species concept is successively being built up, in which the main (or basic) and intermediate species sensu Zahn are transformed to rankless "species groups" (SG). For further details about this approach see under the respective genera. The alternative classification provides the classification proper and does not hold further data.


Bremer K. 1994: Asteraceae. Cladistics and classification. – Portland: Timber.

Fehrer J., Krak K. & Chrtek J. 2009: Intra-individual polymorphism in diploid and apomictic polyploid hawkweeds (Hieracium, Lactuceae, Asteraceae): disentangling phylogenetic signal, reticulation, and noise. – BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 239-261 // ➪ // .

Fehrer J., Gemeinholzer B., Chrtek J. & Bräutigam S. 2007: Incongruent plastid and nuclear DNA phylogenies reveal ancient intergeneric hybridization in Pilosella hawkweeds (Hieracium, Cichorieae, Asteraceae). – Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 42: 347–361. // ➪ //

Greuter W. 2005-07: Compositae. – In: Greuter W. & Raab-Straube E. von (ed.), The Euro+Med Plantbase, the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. – // ➪ //

Kilian N., Gemeinholzer B. & Lack H. W. 2009: Tribe Cichorieae. – In: Funk V. A., Susanna A., Stuessy T. & Bayer R. (ed.), Systematics, evolution, and biogeography of the Compositae. – Vienna: IAPT.

Krak K., Caklová P., Chrtek J. & Fehrer J. 2013: Reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in a highly reticulate group with deep coalescence and recent speciation (Hieracium, Asteraceae). – Heredity 110: 138–151. // ➪ //

Lack H. W. 2006: Tribe Cichorieae Lam. & DC. – Pp. 180-199 in: Kadereit J. W. & Jeffrey C. (volume ed.), The families and genera of vascular plants 8. – Berlin: Springer.


Africa: Algerianative; Azoresnative; Canary Is.native; Libyanative; Madeiranative; Morocconative (Morocconative); Tunisianative Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative; Altaynative; Buryatiyanative; China North-Central (Hebeinative, Shaanxinative, Shandongnative, Shanxinative); China South-Central (Guizhounative, Hubeinative, Sichuannative, Yunnannative); China Southeast (Guangxinative, Henannative, Hunannative, Jiangxinative); Chitanative; East Aegean Is.native; Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongolnative); Irannative; Iraqnative; Irkutsknative; Japan (Honshunative, Shikokunative); Kazakhstannative; Kirgizistannative; Koreanative; Krasnoyarsknative; Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); Manchuria (Heilongjiangnative, Liaoningnative); Mongolianative; North Caucasusnative (Chechnyanative, Dagestannative, Kabardino-Balkariyanative, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiyanative, Krasnodarnative, Severo-Osetiyanative, Stavropolnative); Palestine (Israelnative: reported in error); Taiwannative; Tibetnative; Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkeynative; Turkmenistannative; Tuvanative; Uzbekistannative; West Siberianative; Xinjiangnative; Yakutskiyanative Asia-Tropical: East Himalaya (Bhutannative); India (Uttar Pradeshnative); Nepalnative; Pakistannative; West Himalayanative (Himachal Pradeshnative, Jammu-Kashmirnative) Australasia: New South Wales (Australian Capital Territoryintroduced, New South Walesintroduced); New Zealand Northintroduced; New Zealand Southintroduced; Tasmaniaintroduced; Victoriaintroduced Europe: Albanianative; Austrianative (Austrianative, Liechtensteinnative); Balearesnative; Baltic Statesnative (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarusnative; Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgarianative; Central European Russianative; Corsenative; Czechoslovakianative (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmarknative; East European Russianative; Finlandnative; Francenative (Channel Is.native, Francenative); Føroyarnative; Germanynative; Great Britainnative; Greecenative; Hungarynative; Icelandnative; Irelandnative (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative (Italynative); Kritinative; Krymnative; Netherlandsnative; North European Russianative; Northwest European Russianative; Norwaynative; Polandnative; Portugalnative; Romanianative; Sardegnanative; Sicilynative (Maltanative, Sicilynative); South European Russianative; Spainnative (Andorranative, Gibraltarnative, Spainnative); Swedennative; Switzerlandnative; Turkey-in-Europenative; Ukrainenative (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavianative (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: Alabamanative; Alaskanative; Albertanative; Arizonanative; Arkansasnative; British Columbianative; Californianative; Coloradonative; Connecticutnative; Delawarenative; District of Columbianative; Floridanative; Georgia, U.S.A.native; Greenlandnative; Idahonative; Illinoisnative; Indiananative; Iowanative; Kansasnative; Kentuckynative; Labradornative; Louisiananative; Mainenative; Manitobanative; Marylandnative; Massachusettsnative; Mexico Central (Mexico Distrito Federalnative, Morelosnative, México Statenative, Pueblanative, Tlaxcalanative); Mexico Gulf (Veracruznative); Mexico Northeast (Aguascalientesnative, Chihuahuanative, Coahuilanative, Durangonative, Guanajuatonative, Hidalgonative, Nuevo Leónnative, Querétaronative, San Luis Potosínative, Tamaulipasnative, Zacatecasnative); Mexico Northwest (Baja Californianative, Baja California Surnative, Sinaloanative, Sonoranative); Mexico Southeast (Chiapasnative); Mexico Southwest (Colimanative, Guerreronative, Jalisconative, Michoacánnative, Nayaritnative, Oaxacanative); Michigannative; Minnesotanative; Mississippinative; Missourinative; Montananative; Nebraskanative; Nevadanative; New Brunswicknative; New Hampshirenative; New Jerseynative; New Mexiconative; New Yorknative; Newfoundland (Newfoundlandnative, St.Pierre-Miquelonintroduced); North Carolinanative; North Dakotanative; Northwest Territoriesnative; Nova Scotianative; Ohionative; Oklahomanative; Ontarionative; Oregonnative; Pennsylvanianative; Prince Edward I.native; Québecnative; Rhode I.native; Saskatchewannative; South Carolinanative; South Dakotanative; Tennesseenative; Texasnative; Utahnative; Vermontnative; Virginianative; Washingtonnative; West Virginianative; Wisconsinnative; Wyomingnative; Yukonnative Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Buenos Airesnative, Corrientesnative, Córdobanative, Entre Ríosnative, La Pampanative, Misionesnative); Argentina Northwest (Catamarcanative, Jujuynative, La Riojanative, Mendozanative, Saltanative, San Juannative, San Luisnative, Tucumannative); Argentina South (Chubutnative, Neuquénnative, Rio Negronative, Santa Cruznative, Santa Fénative, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)native); Belizenative; Bolivianative; Brazil Northeast (Bahianative); Brazil South (Paranánative, Rio Grande do Sulnative, Santa Catarinanative); Brazil Southeast (Minas Geraisnative, Rio de Janeironative, São Paulonative); Chile Central (Biobíonative, La Araucanianative, Maulenative, Santiagonative); Chile South (Aisénnative, Los Lagosnative, Magellanesnative); Colombianative; Costa Ricanative; Dominican Republicnative; Ecuadornative; El Salvadornative; Guatemalanative; Haiti (Haitinative); Hondurasnative; Nicaraguanative; Panamánative; Paraguaynative; Perunative; Uruguaynative; Venezuelanative