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The Hieraciinae in the present circumscription represent the subtribe as in Lack (2006) but two genera were excluded following Gemeinholzer & al. (in Kilian & al. 2009): (1) Tolpis clusters with Cichorium as part of the Cichoriinae, and (2) Hololeion is part of the Heteracia-Soroseris subclade of the Crepidinae. Hololeion, with a basic chromosome number of x = 8, was odd within the Hieraciinae because all its other taxa have a basic chromosome number of x = 9, which is now characteristic for the subtribe. The Hieraciinae sensu Bremer (1994) also included Arnoseris, a genus that Lack (2006) placed into the Hypochaeridinae, but which clusters according to Gemeinholzer & al. (in Kilian & al. 2009) with Cichorium, too.

The systematics of the subtribe has been clarified through molecular phylogenetic analyses by Fehrer & al. (2007, 2009) and Krak & al. (2013). The analyses of these authors revealed a sister-group relationship between Pilosella and Hispidella. These two genera form a joint clade with Hieracium (H. subg. Hieracium and H. subg. Chionoracium [= Stenotheca]), to which Andryala is the sister-group. Hieracium intybaceum, which is restricted to the siliceous Alps, finally forms the sister-group to all four genera.

The molecular phylogenetic analyses thus provide evidence for the separation of Hieracium and Pilosella, and moreover, necessitate the re-establishment of Schlagintweitia as a segregate of Hieracium.

Intergeneric hybridization within the Hieraciinae resulting in cytoplasmic inheritance occurs and affected already the earliest stages of the evolution of the subtribe (Krak & al. 2013). It is known from Hieracium subg. Chionoracium to Pilosella and from the introgressed Pilosella lineage to Andryala (Fehrer & al. 2007), as well as between Schlagintweitia and Hieracium. In general, the nuclear ribosomal DNA markers (in particular ETS) provide the best approximation to the species tree and is in accordance with morphological and other evidence (Krak & al. 2013).

For tackling Hieracium and Pilosella we anticipate, in close cooperation with their specialists, a feasible and systematically sound two-level-taxonomy solution, differentiating between a set of taxa relevant and manageable for a wide range of purposes and users, and a second set of taxa below the first one displaying the microcosmos of actual diversity. In Hieracium, the principal taxonomic level may largely correspond to the "Haupt- und Zwischenarten" of Zahn and many of the sections, subsections and series as well as groups accepted by Russian, Baltic, Skandinavian and British authors. They have been named and treated as species "groups" ["aggregates" or "swarms"], to each of which, at the second level, the corresponding microspecies (or subspecies) may be subordinated depending on the preferred approach and available data of modern revisions. Taxa which can not be assigned to these "groups" are to be found in an additional collective group of micro-taxa.

For the time being, the Cichorieae Portal offers two alternative taxonomic treatments of Hieracium and Pilosella:
(1) In this "Standard Classification" we have incorporated the treatment provided in the Euro+Med Plantbase – Compositae (Greuter 2005-07) and supplemented it for the areas beyond Europe and the Mediterranean. For further details about this approach see under the respective genera. This treatment holds all incorporated distribution and other data.
(2) In the "Alternative Classification" (to be selected from the drop down menu heading the taxon tree) a consequent step-wise micro-species concept is successively being built up, in which the main (or basic) and intermediate species sensu Zahn are transformed to rankless "species groups" (SG). For further details about this approach see under the respective genera. The alternative classification provides the classification proper and does not hold further data.


Bremer K. 1994: Asteraceae. Cladistics and classification. – Portland: Timber.

Fehrer J., Krak K. & Chrtek J. 2009: Intra-individual polymorphism in diploid and apomictic polyploid hawkweeds (Hieracium, Lactuceae, Asteraceae): disentangling phylogenetic signal, reticulation, and noise. – BMC Evolutionary Biology 9: 239-261 // ➪ // .

Fehrer J., Gemeinholzer B., Chrtek J. & Bräutigam S. 2007: Incongruent plastid and nuclear DNA phylogenies reveal ancient intergeneric hybridization in Pilosella hawkweeds (Hieracium, Cichorieae, Asteraceae). – Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 42: 347–361. // ➪ //

Greuter W. 2005-07: Compositae. – In: Greuter W. & Raab-Straube E. von (ed.), The Euro+Med Plantbase, the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity. – // ➪ //

Kilian N., Gemeinholzer B. & Lack H. W. 2009: Tribe Cichorieae. – In: Funk V. A., Susanna A., Stuessy T. & Bayer R. (ed.), Systematics, evolution, and biogeography of the Compositae. – Vienna: IAPT.

Krak K., Caklová P., Chrtek J. & Fehrer J. 2013: Reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships in a highly reticulate group with deep coalescence and recent speciation (Hieracium, Asteraceae). – Heredity 110: 138–151. // ➪ //

Lack H. W. 2006: Tribe Cichorieae Lam. & DC. – Pp. 180-199 in: Kadereit J. W. & Jeffrey C. (volume ed.), The families and genera of vascular plants 8. – Berlin: Springer.


Africa: Algeria nativenative; Azores native; Canary Is. native; Libya native; Madeira native; Morocco native (Morocco native); Tunisia native Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan native; Altay native; Buryatiya native; China North-Central (Hebei native, Shaanxi native, Shandong native, Shanxi native); China South-Central (Guizhou native, Hubei native, Sichuan native, Yunnan native); China Southeast (Guangxi native, Henan native, Hunan native, Jiangxi native); Chita native; East Aegean Is. native; Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol native); Iran nativenative; Iraq nativenative; Irkutsk native; Japan (Honshu native, Shikoku native); Kazakhstan native; Kirgizistan native; Korea native; Krasnoyarsk native; Lebanon-Syria (Lebanon native, Syria native); Manchuria (Heilongjiang native, Liaoning native); Mongolia nativenative; North Caucasus native (Chechnya native, Dagestan native, Kabardino-Balkariya native, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiya native, Krasnodar native, Severo-Osetiya native, Stavropol native); Palestine (Israel native: reported in error); Taiwan native; Tibet native; Transcaucasus (Abkhaziya native, Adzhariya native, Armenia native, Azerbaijan native, Georgia native, Nakhichevan native); Turkey native; Turkmenistan native; Tuva native; Uzbekistan native; West Siberia native; Xinjiang native; Yakutskiya native Asia-Tropical: East Himalaya (Bhutan native); India (Uttar Pradesh native); Nepal native; Pakistan native; West Himalaya native (Himachal Pradesh native, Jammu-Kashmir native) Australasia: New South Wales (Australian Capital Territory introduced, New South Wales introduced); New Zealand North introduced; New Zealand South introduced; Tasmania introduced; Victoria introduced Europe: Albania nativenative; Austria native (Austria native, Liechtenstein native); Baleares native; Baltic States native (Estonia native, Kaliningrad native, Latvia native, Lithuania native); Belarus native; Belgium native (Belgium native, Luxembourg native); Bulgaria nativenative; Central European Russia native; Corse nativenative; Czechoslovakia native (Czech Republic native, Slovakia native); Denmark nativenative; East European Russia native; Finland nativenative; France native (Channel Is. native, France native); Føroyar native; Germany nativenative; Great Britain nativenative; Greece nativenative; Hungary native; Iceland native; Ireland native (Ireland native, Northern Ireland native); Italy native (Italy native); Kriti native; Krym native; Netherlands nativenative; North European Russia native; Northwest European Russia native; Norway nativenative; Poland native; Portugal nativenative; Romania nativenative; Sardegna native; Sicily native (Malta native, Sicily native); South European Russia native; Spain native (Andorra native, Gibraltar native, Spain native); Sweden nativenative; Switzerland nativenative; Turkey-in-Europe native; Ukraine native (Moldova native, Ukraine native); Yugoslavia native (Bosnia-Herzegovina native, Croatia native, Macedonia native, Montenegro native, Serbia native, Slovenia native) Northern America: Alabama native; Alaska native; Alberta native; Arizona nativenative; Arkansas nativenative; British Columbia native; California native; Colorado native; Connecticut nativenative; Delaware nativenative; District of Columbia nativenative; Florida native; Georgia, U.S.A. nativenative; Greenland native; Idaho native; Illinois nativenative; Indiana nativenative; Iowa nativenative; Kansas native; Kentucky nativenative; Labrador native; Louisiana native; Maine nativenative; Manitoba native; Maryland nativenative; Massachusetts nativenative; Mexico Central (Mexico Distrito Federal native, Morelos native, México State native, Puebla native, Tlaxcala native); Mexico Gulf (Veracruz native); Mexico Northeast (Aguascalientes native, Chihuahua native, Coahuila native, Durango native, Guanajuato native, Hidalgo native, Nuevo León native, Querétaro native, San Luis Potosí native, Tamaulipas native, Zacatecas native); Mexico Northwest (Baja California native, Baja California Sur native, Sinaloa native, Sonora native); Mexico Southeast (Chiapas native); Mexico Southwest (Colima native, Guerrero native, Jalisco native, Michoacán native, Nayarit native, Oaxaca native); Michigan nativenative; Minnesota nativenative; Mississippi native; Missouri nativenative; Montana native; Nebraska native; Nevada native; New Brunswick nativenative; New Hampshire nativenative; New Jersey nativenative; New Mexico nativenative; New York nativenative; Newfoundland (Newfoundland native, St.Pierre-Miquelon introduced); North Carolina nativenative; North Dakota native; Northwest Territories native; Nova Scotia nativenative; Ohio nativenative; Oklahoma nativenative; Ontario nativenative; Oregon native; Pennsylvania nativenative; Prince Edward I. nativenative; Québec native; Rhode I. nativenative; Saskatchewan native; South Carolina nativenative; South Dakota native; Tennessee nativenative; Texas native; Utah native; Vermont nativenative; Virginia nativenative; Washington native; West Virginia nativenative; Wisconsin nativenative; Wyoming native; Yukon native Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Buenos Aires native, Corrientes native, Córdoba native, Entre Ríos native, La Pampa native, Misiones native); Argentina Northwest (Catamarca native, Jujuy native, La Rioja native, Mendoza native, Salta native, San Juan native, San Luis native, Tucuman native); Argentina South (Chubut native, Neuquén native, Rio Negro native, Santa Cruz native, Santa Fé native, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) native); Belize native; Bolivia native; Brazil Northeast (Bahia native); Brazil South (Paraná native, Rio Grande do Sul native, Santa Catarina native); Brazil Southeast (Minas Gerais native, Rio de Janeiro native, São Paulo native); Chile Central (Biobío native, La Araucania native, Maule native, Santiago native); Chile South (Aisén native, Los Lagos native, Magellanes native); Colombia native; Costa Rica native; Dominican Republic native; Ecuador native; El Salvador native; Guatemala native; Haiti (Haiti native); Honduras native; Nicaragua native; Panamá native; Paraguay native; Peru native; Uruguay native; Venezuela native