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Mandel & al. (2019) provided a fully resolved backbone phylogeny of the family Asteraceae, based on a phylogenomic dataset with 935 nuclear loci and a total of 256 species from 13 subfamilies, c. 45 tribes and 207 genera from across the family and three outgroup species. An important finding reveals the subfamily Cichorioideae. The previous, already narrowed circumscription of this subfamily by Funk & Chan (2009), including the seven tribes Arctotideae, Cichorieae, Eremothamneae, Liabeae, Moquinieae, Platycarpheae and Vernonieae, is not resolved as monophyletic. Instead, the Cichorieae are resolved as a lineage separate from the other six tribes (Mandel & al. 2019: fig. 3). This necessitates a much more narrowly defined subfamily Cichorioideae, consisting of the Cichorieae only. The other six tribes together are monophyletic and need to be recognized as a separate subfamily Vernonioideae.A,B


A. Funk V. A. & Chan R. - Introduction to Cichorioideae in Funk V. A., Susanna A., Stuessy T. & al., Systematics, evolution and biogeography of Compositae. 2009
B. Mandel J. R., Dikow R. B., Siniscalchi C. M. & al., A fully resolved backbone phylogeny reveals numerous dispersals and explosive diversifications throughout the history of Asteraceae in Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 116: 14083–14088. 2019