Sonchus oleraceus

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Sonchus oleraceus

http://media.bgbm.org/erez/erez?src=EditWP6/photos/Sonchus_oleraceus_Bb_01.jpg

Common names

(Australia): ThalaakA; (Mexico): achicoria dulceB, borrajaB, cardoB, cerrajaB, endiviaB, falos diente de léonB, lechuguillaB, mitihuaracaB, muela de caballoB, verdolaga de puercoB; Acoli (Uganda): LapukuC; Albanian (Albania): Rrëshyell perimeD,1; Arabic (Lebanon): بَقْلَة يَهودِيَّةE,1, تِفاف بَقْليE,1, لِبَّيْـنE,1; Arabic (Saudi Arabia): HawwaF, KhuwaishF, KhuwwayshG; Arabic (Syria): بَقْلَة يَهودِيَّةH,1, تِفاف بَقْليH,1, لِبَّيْـنH,1; Arabic (United Arab Emirates): adheedI, dalaweenI, galaweinI, hawaI, khas al wazI, khuwayshI, odeidI; Armenian (Armenia): Կաթնբեկ բանջարանոցայինJ,1; Basque (Spain): AstaurrazaK, GardugueraK, KardaberaK, KardueK; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Градински кострецL,1; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): AlextóK, LlacsonsK, LletsóK, LliscóK; Chinese (China): 苦苣菜 ku ju caiM; Corsican (Corse): Cardu mansuN,1, CicerbitaN,1, LattaghjonuN,1, LattaroneN,1; Danish (Denmark): Almindelig SvinemælkO,1; Dutch; Flemish (South Africa): SydisselP; English (Australia): Common SowthistleA,Q,R,S,T,U,V,W,X, Milk ThistleA, Sow ThistleY, annual SowthistleA, milk thistleT; English (Bahamas): Sow ThistleZ; English (Caribbean): Sow thistleZ; English (Cyprus): Sow ThistleAA; English (Great Britain): Smooth Sow-thistleAB,1; English (Indian Subcontinent): milk weedAC; English (Jamaica): Sow-thistleZ; English (New Zealand): Sow ThistleAD, Sow thistleAE, Sow-thistleAF; English (Northern America): Common sow-thistleAG; English (South Africa): Sow thistleP; English (United Arab Emirates): smooth sow thistleI, wild lettuceI; Estonian (Estonia): Harilik piimohakasAH,1; Finnish (Finland): KaalivalvattiO,1; French (Belgium): Laiteron maraîcherAI,1; French (Corse): Laiteron maraîcherN,1; French (France): Laiteron lisseAJ,2, Laiteron maraîcherAJ,1, Laiteron potagerAJ,1; French (Haiti): Chicorée; French (Mascarene Islands): LastronAK,AL, Lastron douxAL, Lastron tendreAL; French (Northern America): Laiteron potagerAG; French (Réunion): Lastron douxAM, Lastron tendreAM; French (Switzerland): Laiteron maraîcherAN,1; Galician (Spain): Cardo molarK, CerraxaK, SerrallaK; Ganda (Uganda): KakovuC; German (Germany): Kohl-GänsedistelAO,1; German (Switzerland): Gemeine GänsedistelAN,1; Hebrew (Israel): מְרוֹר הַגִּנּוֹתAP,1, מרור הגינותAP,1; Hindi (India): Dodak, Dudhi, Pili dudhiAQ; Hindi (Indian Subcontinent): DudhiAC; Ibanag (Philippines): GagatangAR; Icelandic (Iceland): GyltufífillAS; Italian (Italy): CicerbitaAT,2, CrespignoAT,2, Grespino comuneAT,1, LattaroloAT,2; Italian (Switzerland): Grespino comuneAN,1; Kilur (Central and East Africa): ArchakAU; Kinyarwanda (Central and East Africa): IkigembegembeAU, RururiraAU, RuvugamahomvuAU; Kinyarwanda (Rwanda): IkigembegembeAV, RururiraAV; Korean (Korea): bang-ga-ji-tongAW; Lango (Uganda) (Uganda): ApurukuC; Latvian (Latvia): Dārza mīkstpieneAH,1; Makhuwa (Mozambique): nlumi-inyotoAX; Maori (New Zealand): PororuaAF, RaurikiAD,AF; Marathi (Indian Subcontinent): PathariAC; Nilo-Saharan (Other) (Central and East Africa): ZapeAU; Norwegian (Norway): HaredylleO,1; Nyankole (Uganda): EkijwamateC, EkinyamateC, OrunyamateC; Nyoro (Uganda): EkinyahwaC; Nyungwe (Mozambique): chiru ma ngombeAX; Oromo (East Africa): aramà; Panjabi; Punjabi (Indian Subcontinent): DodakAC; Polish (Poland): Mlecz warzywnyAY,2, Mlecz zwyczajnyAY,1; Portuguese (Portugal): LeitarugaK, SerralhaK; Purepecha (Mexico): tsktsuk chekamitiB; Romanian (Moldova): Сусай де-грэдинэAZ,1; Ronga (Mozambique): cimboAX, ilhaviAX; Russian (Armenia): Осот огородныйJ,1; Sinhala; Sinhalese (Sri Lanka): Gal-potu-kolaBA; Spanish; Castilian (Cuba): AlgodoncilloZ, CerlechosaZ, CerrajaZ; Spanish; Castilian (Dominican Republic): AchicoriaZ, BorrajaZ, Borraja moradaZ, ChicoriaZ, LechuguillaZ, LechuguilloZ; Spanish; Castilian (Puerto Rico): AchicoriaZ, Achicoria silvestreZ, ChicoriaZ; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): AcerrajaK, AchicoriasK, AlborrajaK, CardenchaK, Cardo molarK, LecheraK, SerrajaK; Swedish (Sweden): KålmjölktistelO,2, KålmolkeBB,1, MjölktistelO,2; Telugu (Indian Subcontinent): RatrinataAC; Tsonga (Mozambique): hlaveAX, hlaviAX, inhlaviAX, sudeAX; Turkish (Cyprus): SütleğenAA; Turkish (Turkey): KuzugevreğiBC; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Diếp dạiBD, Rau cúc sữaBD, Rau diếp đắngBD, Rau nhũ cúcBD, Tục đoạn rauBD,BE
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Systematics

Sonchus oleraceus is considered to have evolved through natural crossing of S. tenerrimus (x = 7, 2n = 14) and S. asper (n=9, 2n=18).BF,BG

Description

Herb, annual or biennial, 10-150 cm high, with taproot. Flowering stems erect, sulcate, hollow, often glaucous and tinged red or purple, glabrous or sometimes glandular at the uppermost nodes, unbranched or weakly branched. Lower cauline leaves oblong or narrowly obovate, 6.0-30.0 cm long, 2.0-12.0 cm wide, usually pinnatisect, pinnatipartite or entire, spinose or entire, petiole-like attenuate with a winged petiole; terminal lobe deltoid or nearly circular; lateral lobes 4-6, oblong, obtuse or acute. Middle and upper cauline leaves amplexicaul and auriculate with acute or obtuse, entire or denticulate auricles, glabrous, glaucous on both surfaces. Synflorescence paniculiform or corymbiform, with 5-15 heads. Peduncle 0.5-2.5 cm long, glandular, floccose or glabrous. Heads with more than 100 flowers. Involucre at flowering campanulate, 8.0-12.0 mm long, at flowering 6.0-10.0 mm in diameter; involucral bracts glandular or glabrous, margin scarious; outer involucral bracts narrowly deltoid, 3.0-5.0 mm long, 1.5-2.0 mm wide; inner involucral bracts linear-ovate, up to 12.0 mm long, 2.0 mm wide. Corolla ligulate, yellow or less often white; tube c. 7.0 mm long, thinly woolly towards apex; ligule c. 6.0 mm long, 1.0 mm wide. Anthertube c. 2.5 mm long; apical appendages obtuse. Style c. 12.0 mm long; branches c. 1.2 mm long. Achenes narrowly obovoid in outline, strongly compressed, c. 3.0 mm long, 1.0 mm wide, scabridulous, wrinkled transversely, pale brown, with 3 longitudinal ribs on each face. Pappus white, up to 7.0 mm long, flexible, remotely scabridulous or barbellate.

Based on: Jeffrey, C. & Beentje, H. J. 2000: Cichorieae . – Pp. 63-108 in: Beentje, H. J. & Smith, S. A. L. (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae (Part 1). – Kew; Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. – Kew; Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae , Tribe Cichorieae . – Enfield; Pope, G. V. 1992: Flora Zambesiaca 6, part 1. – London; Tadesse, M. 2004: 25. Sonchus - Pp. 65-70 in: Hedberg, I., Friis, I., Edwards, S. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. – Uppsala; Yatskievych, G. 2006: 49. Tragopogon L. (goat’s beard) – Pp. 390-393 in: Yatskievych, G. (ed.), Flora of Missouri 2, revised Edition. – St. Louis.

Chromosome numbers

The chomosome number of 2n = 32 has been explained as allotetraploid, resulting from hybridisation between x = 7 (S. tenerrimus) and x = 9 (S. asper) progenitors.
BF,BG

Distribution

Africa: Algerianative (AlgerianativeBH,BI,BJ); Angolaintroduced (AngolaintroducedBK); Azoresnative (AçôresnativeBL,BM,BN,BO); Burkinaintroduced (BurkinaintroducedBP); Cameroonintroduced (CameroonintroducedAU,BQ,BR,BS,BT); Canary Is.introduced (Canary Is.introducedBM); Cape Verdeintroduced (Cape VerdeintroducedBU); Egyptnative (EgyptnativeBV,BW); Gulf of Guinea Is.introduced (BiokointroducedBX,BY, São ToméintroducedBZ); Kenyaintroduced (KenyaintroducedAU); Libyanative (LibyanativeCA,CB,CC,CD); Madeiraintroduced (MadeiraintroducedBM); MorocconativeCE,CF,CG,CH; Nigeriaintroduced (NigeriaintroducedAU,BR,BS,CI); Selvagensintroduced (SelvagensintroducedBM); Sudanintroduced (SudanintroducedCJ,CK); Tanzaniaintroduced (TanzaniaintroducedCK); Tunisianative (TunisianativeCL,CM); Ugandaintroduced (UgandaintroducedAU,BR,BS); Zaireintroduced (ZaireintroducedAU,BR); Zimbabweintroduced (ZimbabweintroducedCK) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative (AfghanistannativeCN,CO); Altaynative (AltaynativeCP); Amurnative (AmurnativeCQ); Buryatiyanative (BuryatiyanativeCP); China North-Centralintroduced (GansuintroducedCR,M, HebeiintroducedCR,M, ShaanxiintroducedCR,M, ShandongintroducedCR,M, ShanxiintroducedCR,M); China South-Centralintroduced (GuizhouintroducedCR,M, HubeiintroducedCR,M, SichuanintroducedCR,M, YunnanintroducedCR,M); China Southeastintroduced (AnhuiintroducedCR,M, FujianintroducedCR,M, GuangdongintroducedCR, GuangxiintroducedCR,M, HenanintroducedCR,M, HunanintroducedCR,M, JiangsuintroducedCR,M, JiangxiintroducedCR,M, ZhejiangintroducedCR,M); Chitanative (ChitanativeCP); Cyprusnative (CyprusnativeCS,CT,CU); East Aegean Is.native (East Aegean Is.nativeCV,CW,CX); Gulf Statesintroduced (QatarintroducedCY, United Arab EmiratesintroducedCZ); Hainanintroduced (HainanintroducedM); Inner Mongoliaintroduced (NingxiaintroducedM); Irannative (IrannativeCO,DA); Iraqnative (IraqnativeCO); Irkutsknative (IrkutsknativeCP); JapanintroducedDB; Kazakhstannative (KazakhstannativeDC); Khabarovsknative (KhabarovsknativeCQ); Kirgizistannative (KirgizistannativeDD,DE); Koreaintroduced; Krasnoyarsknative (KrasnoyarsknativeCP); Lebanon-Syrianative (LebanonnativeDF,DG, SyrianativeDF,DH); Manchuriaintroduced (LiaoningintroducedCR,M); Mongolianative: doubtfully native (Mongolianative: doubtfully nativeDI); North Caucasusnative (DagestannativeDJ, Kabardino-BalkariyanativeDJ, KrasnodarnativeDJ, StavropolnativeDJ); Ogasawara-shotointroduced (Ogasawara-shotointroducedDK); Oman (OmanintroducedDL); Palestinenative (IsraelnativeDG,DH,DM,DN, JordannativeDG,DH,DO,DP); Primoryenative (PrimoryenativeCQ); Qinghaiintroduced (QinghaiintroducedCR,M); Sakhalinnative (SakhalinnativeCQ); Saudi Arabiaintroduced (Saudi ArabiaintroducedDQ); Sinainative (SinainativeBW,DG,DR); Tadzhikistannative (TadzhikistannativeDS); Taiwanintroduced (TaiwanintroducedCR,M); Tibetintroduced (TibetintroducedCR,M); Transcaucasusnative (AbkhaziyanativeDJ,DT,DU,DV,DW, AdzhariyanativeDX, ArmenianativeDJ,DU,DY, AzerbaijannativeDJ,DU,DW,DZ, GeorgianativeDJ,DT, NakhichevannativeDU); Turkeynative (TurkeynativeBC,CV,EA); Turkmenistannative (TurkmenistannativeCO,EB); Uzbekistannative (UzbekistannativeEC); West Siberianative (West SiberianativeCP); Xinjiangintroduced (XinjiangintroducedCR,M); Yakutskiyanative (YakutskiyanativeCP) Asia-Tropical: Bangladeshintroduced (Bangladeshintroduced); Borneointroduced (SabahintroducedED,Z); IndiaintroducedAC; Nepal (NepalintroducedEE); New Guineaintroduced (Irian JayaintroducedEF, Papua New GuineaintroducedEF); Pakistannative: doubtfully native (Pakistannative: doubtfully nativeCO,EG); Philippinesintroduced (PhilippinesintroducedAR); Thailand (ThailandintroducedEH,EI); Vietnamintroduced (VietnamintroducedBE) Australasia: Antipodean Is.introduced (Antipodean Is.introducedAE); Chatham Is.introduced (Chatham Is.introducedAE,AF); Kermadec Is.introduced (Kermadec Is.introducedAE,AF); New South Walesintroduced (Australian Capital TerritoryintroducedEJ,S,T,V,Y, New South WalesintroducedA,EJ,R,T,V,X,Y); New Zealand Northintroduced (New Zealand NorthintroducedAE,AF); New Zealand Southintroduced (New Zealand SouthintroducedAE,AF); Northern Territoryintroduced (Northern TerritoryintroducedEJ,T,V,X,Y); Queenslandintroduced (QueenslandintroducedEJ,T,V,W,X,Y); South Australiaintroduced (South AustraliaintroducedEJ,T,V,X,Y); Tasmaniaintroduced (TasmaniaintroducedA,EJ,S,T,V,X,Y); Victoriaintroduced (VictoriaintroducedEJ,T,V,X,Y); Western Australiaintroduced (Ashmore-Cartier Is.introducedA, Western AustraliaintroducedEJ,EK,Q,T,U,V,X,Y) Europe: Albanianative (AlbanianativeBO,EL,EM,EN); Austrianative (AustrianativeEO, LiechtensteinnativeEP); Balearesnative (BalearesnativeBO,EQ,ER,ES,ET,EU,EV,K); Baltic Statesnative (EstonianativeEW, KaliningradnativeEX, LatvianativeEW, LithuanianativeEW); Belarusnative (BelarusnativeEY); Belgiumnative (BelgiumnativeBO,EZ, LuxembourgnativeFA); Bulgarianative (BulgarianativeBO,FB,FC,FD,L); Central European Russianative (Central European RussianativeEY); Corsenative (CorsenativeBO,FE,FF,FG); Czechoslovakianative (Czech RepublicnativeFH,FI,FJ,FK, SlovakianativeFH,FI,FL); Denmarknative (DenmarknativeBO,FM,FN); East European Russianative (East European RussianativeEY); Finlandnative (FinlandnativeBO,FN,FO); FrancenativeBO,ER,FP,FQ,FR; Germanynative (GermanynativeBO,FS,FT,FU); Great Britainnative (Great BritainnativeBO); Greecenative (GreecenativeBO,BV,CW,CX,FC,FV,FW); Hungarynative (HungarynativeBO,FX,FY); Icelandintroduced (IcelandintroducedAS); Irelandnative (IrelandnativeFZ,GA, Northern IrelandnativeFZ); ItalynativeAT,BO,GB,GC,GD,GE,GF,GG,GH; Kritinative (KritinativeBO,CW,CX,FC,FW,GI); Krymnative (KrymnativeBO,EY,GJ,GK,GL,GM); Netherlandsnative (NetherlandsnativeBO,GN); North European Russianative (North European RussianativeEY,GO); Northwest European Russianative (Northwest European RussianativeEY); Norwaynative (NorwaynativeBO,FN); Polandnative (PolandnativeAY,BO,GP); Portugalnative (PortugalnativeBL,BO,GQ,GR,GS,GT,K); Romanianative (RomanianativeBO,FC,GU,GV); Sardegnanative (SardegnanativeAT,BO,GB,GG); Sicilynative (MaltanativeGW,GX,GY, SicilynativeAT,GB,GE,GG); South European Russianative (South European RussianativeEY); Spainnative (AndorranativeGZ,K, GibraltarnativeHA,K, SpainnativeBO,EQ,ER,HB,HC,HD,HE,K); Swedennative (SwedennativeBO,FN,HF,HG); Switzerlandnative (SwitzerlandnativeBO,HH,HI); Turkey-in-Europenative (Turkey-in-EuropenativeBO,CV,HJ); Ukrainenative (MoldovanativeEY,GJ, UkrainenativeEY,GK); Yugoslavianative (Bosnia-HerzegovinanativeFC, CroatianativeFC,HK, MacedonianativeFC, MontenegronativeFC, SerbianativeFC,HL, SlovenianativeHM,HN) Northern America: Alabamaintroduced (AlabamaintroducedHO); Alaskaintroduced (AlaskaintroducedHO); Albertaintroduced (AlbertaintroducedAG,HO); Arizonaintroduced (ArizonaintroducedHO,HP); Arkansasintroduced (ArkansasintroducedHO); British Columbiaintroduced (British ColumbiaintroducedAG,HO); Californiaintroduced (CaliforniaintroducedHO,HP); Coloradointroduced (ColoradointroducedHO); Connecticutintroduced (ConnecticutintroducedHO); Delawareintroduced (DelawareintroducedHO); District of Columbiaintroduced (District of ColumbiaintroducedHO); Floridaintroduced (FloridaintroducedHO); Georgia, U.S.A.introduced (Georgia, U.S.A.introducedHO); Greenlandintroduced (GreenlandintroducedAG); Idahointroduced (IdahointroducedHO); Illinoisintroduced (IllinoisintroducedHO); Indianaintroduced (IndianaintroducedHO); Iowaintroduced (IowaintroducedHO); Kansasintroduced (KansasintroducedHO); Kentuckyintroduced (KentuckyintroducedHO); Labradorintroduced (LabradorintroducedHO); Louisianaintroduced (LouisianaintroducedHO); Maineintroduced (MaineintroducedHO); Manitobaintroduced (ManitobaintroducedAG,HO); Marylandintroduced (MarylandintroducedHO); Massachusettsintroduced (MassachusettsintroducedHO); Mexican Pacific Is.introduced (Guadalupe I.introducedHQ); Mexico Centralintroduced (Mexico Distrito FederalintroducedB,HR,Z, MorelosintroducedB, México StateintroducedB, PueblaintroducedB, TlaxcalaintroducedB); Mexico Gulfintroduced (VeracruzintroducedB); Mexico Northeastintroduced (ChihuahuaintroducedB,HS, CoahuilaintroducedB, GuanajuatointroducedB, HidalgointroducedB, Nuevo LeónintroducedB, QuerétarointroducedB, San Luis PotosíintroducedB, TamaulipasintroducedB, ZacatecasintroducedB); Mexico Northwestintroduced (Baja CaliforniaintroducedB,HT, Baja California SurintroducedB, SinaloaintroducedB, SonoraintroducedB,HP,HS); Mexico Southeastintroduced (CampecheintroducedB, ChiapasintroducedB, Quintana RoointroducedB, YucatánintroducedB); Mexico Southwestintroduced (ColimaintroducedB, GuerrerointroducedB, JaliscointroducedB, MichoacánintroducedB, OaxacaintroducedB); Michiganintroduced (MichiganintroducedHO); Minnesotaintroduced (MinnesotaintroducedHO); Mississippiintroduced (MississippiintroducedHO); Missouriintroduced (MissouriintroducedHO); Montanaintroduced (MontanaintroducedHO); Nebraskaintroduced (NebraskaintroducedHO); Nevadaintroduced (NevadaintroducedHO); New Brunswickintroduced (New BrunswickintroducedAG,HO); New Hampshireintroduced (New HampshireintroducedHO); New Jerseyintroduced (New JerseyintroducedHO); New Mexicointroduced (New MexicointroducedHO); New Yorkintroduced (New YorkintroducedHO); Newfoundlandintroduced (NewfoundlandintroducedAG,HO, St.Pierre-MiquelonintroducedAG); North Dakotaintroduced (North DakotaintroducedHO); Northwest Territoriesintroduced (Northwest TerritoriesintroducedAG,HO); Nova Scotiaintroduced (Nova ScotiaintroducedAG,HO); Ohiointroduced (OhiointroducedHO); Oklahomaintroduced (OklahomaintroducedHO); Ontariointroduced (OntariointroducedAG,HO); Oregonintroduced (OregonintroducedHO); Pennsylvaniaintroduced (PennsylvaniaintroducedHO); Prince Edward I.introduced (Prince Edward I.introducedAG,HO); Québecintroduced (QuébecintroducedAG,HO); Rhode I.introduced (Rhode I.introducedHO); Saskatchewanintroduced (SaskatchewanintroducedAG,HO); South Carolinaintroduced (South CarolinaintroducedHO); South Dakotaintroduced (South DakotaintroducedHO); Tennesseeintroduced (TennesseeintroducedHO); Texasintroduced (TexasintroducedHO); Utahintroduced (UtahintroducedHO); Vermontintroduced (VermontintroducedHO); Virginiaintroduced (VirginiaintroducedHO); Washingtonintroduced (WashingtonintroducedHO); West Virginiaintroduced (West VirginiaintroducedHO); Wisconsinintroduced (WisconsinintroducedHO); Wyomingintroduced (WyomingintroducedHO) Pacific: Cook Is. (Cook Is.introducedHU); Fijiintroduced (FijiintroducedHV); New Caledoniaintroduced (New CaledoniaintroducedHW) Southern America: Argentina Northeastintroduced (Argentina Distrito FederalintroducedHX, Buenos AiresintroducedHX,HY, ChacointroducedHX,HY, CorrientesintroducedHX,HY, CórdobaintroducedHX,HZ, FormosaintroducedHX,HY, La PampaintroducedHX,HY, MisionesintroducedHX,HY); Argentina Northwestintroduced (CatamarcaintroducedHX,HY, JujuyintroducedHX,HZ, La RiojaintroducedHX,HY, MendozaintroducedHX,HY, San JuanintroducedHX,HY,IA, San LuisintroducedHX,HY, Santiago del EsterointroducedHX,HY); Argentina Southintroduced (ChubutintroducedHX,HY, NeuquénintroducedHX,HY, Rio NegrointroducedHX,HY, Santa CruzintroducedHX,HY, Santa FéintroducedHX,HY, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)introducedHX,HY); Bahamasintroduced (BahamasintroducedIB,Z); Boliviaintroduced (BoliviaintroducedIC,ID); Brazil Northeastintroduced (BahiaintroducedIE); Brazil Southintroduced (ParanáintroducedHX, Rio Grande do SulintroducedHX, Santa CatarinaintroducedHX); Brazil Southeastintroduced (TrindadeintroducedZ); Chile Centralintroduced (BiobíointroducedHX, CoquimbointroducedHX, La AraucaniaintroducedHX, MauleintroducedHX, O'HigginsintroducedHX, ValparaísointroducedHX); Chile Northintroduced (AntofagastaintroducedHX, Atacamaintroduced, TarapacaintroducedHX); Chile Southintroduced (Los LagosintroducedHX); Colombia (ColombiaintroducedIF); Cubaintroduced (CubaintroducedIG,IH,Z); Dominican Republicintroduced (Dominican RepublicintroducedII,Z); Guatemalaintroduced (GuatemalaintroducedIJ); Haitiintroduced (HaitiintroducedII,Z); Jamaicaintroduced (JamaicaintroducedZ); Leeward Is.introduced (AnguillaintroducedIK,Z, Antigua-BarbudaintroducedIK,Z, GuadeloupeintroducedHT,IK,Z, MontserratintroducedIK,Z, Netherlands Leeward Is.introducedIK,Z, St.Martin-St.BarthélémyintroducedIK,Z); Panamáintroduced (PanamáintroducedIJ); Paraguayintroduced (ParaguayintroducedHX); Puerto Ricointroduced (Puerto RicointroducedIL,Z); Trinidad-Tobagointroduced (Trinidad-TobagointroducedZ); Turks-Caicos Is.introduced (Turks-Caicos Is.introducedIB); Uruguayintroduced (UruguayintroducedHX); Venezuelaintroduced (VenezuelaintroducedHZ,IM); Venezuelan Antillesintroduced (Venezuelan AntillesintroducedIN); Windward Is.introduced (BarbadosintroducedIK,Z, DominicaintroducedIK,Z, GrenadaintroducedIK,Z, MartiniqueintroducedIK,Z, St.LuciaintroducedIK,Z, St.VincentintroducedIK,Z)

Uses

Sonchus oleraceus is used as salad or vegetable, the young leaves and shoots of wild-growing plants being eaten raw, cooked or slightly steamed, and also as a medicinal plant.IO

Bibliography

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