Sonchus oleraceus

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Sonchus oleraceus

http://media.bgbm.org/erez/erez?src=EditWP6/photos/Sonchus_oleraceus_Bb_01.jpg

Description

Herb, annual or biennial, 10-150 cm high, with taproot. Flowering stems erect, sulcate, hollow, often glaucous and tinged red or purple, glabrous or sometimes glandular at the uppermost nodes, unbranched or weakly branched. Lower cauline leaves oblong or narrowly obovate, 6.0-30.0 cm long, 2.0-12.0 cm wide, usually pinnatisect, pinnatipartite or entire, spinose or entire, petiole-like attenuate with a winged petiole; terminal lobe deltoid or nearly circular; lateral lobes 4-6, oblong, obtuse or acute. Middle and upper cauline leaves amplexicaul and auriculate with acute or obtuse, entire or denticulate auricles, glabrous, glaucous on both surfaces. Synflorescence paniculiform or corymbiform, with 5-15 heads. Peduncle 0.5-2.5 cm long, glandular, floccose or glabrous. Heads with more than 100 flowers. Involucre at flowering campanulate, 8.0-12.0 mm long, at flowering 6.0-10.0 mm in diameter; involucral bracts glandular or glabrous, margin scarious; outer involucral bracts narrowly deltoid, 3.0-5.0 mm long, 1.5-2.0 mm wide; inner involucral bracts linear-ovate, up to 12.0 mm long, 2.0 mm wide. Corolla ligulate, yellow or less often white; tube c. 7.0 mm long, thinly woolly towards apex; ligule c. 6.0 mm long, 1.0 mm wide. Anthertube c. 2.5 mm long; apical appendages obtuse. Style c. 12.0 mm long; branches c. 1.2 mm long. Achenes narrowly obovoid in outline, strongly compressed, c. 3.0 mm long, 1.0 mm wide, scabridulous, wrinkled transversely, pale brown, with 3 longitudinal ribs on each face. Pappus white, up to 7.0 mm long, flexible, remotely scabridulous or barbellate.

Based on: Jeffrey, C. & Beentje, H. J. 2000: Cichorieae . – Pp. 63-108 in: Beentje, H. J. & Smith, S. A. L. (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae (Part 1). – Kew; Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. – Kew; Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae , Tribe Cichorieae . – Enfield; Pope, G. V. 1992: Flora Zambesiaca 6, part 1. – London; Tadesse, M. 2004: 25. Sonchus - Pp. 65-70 in: Hedberg, I., Friis, I., Edwards, S. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. – Uppsala; Yatskievych, G. 2006: 49. Tragopogon L. (goat’s beard) – Pp. 390-393 in: Yatskievych, G. (ed.), Flora of Missouri 2, revised Edition. – St. Louis.

Systematics

Sonchus oleraceus is considered to have evolved through natural crossing of S. tenerrimus (x = 7, 2n = 14) and S. asper (n=9, 2n=18).A,B

Chromosome numbers

The chomosome number of 2n = 32 has been explained as allotetraploid, resulting from hybridisation between x = 7 (S. tenerrimus) and x = 9 (S. asper) progenitors.
A,B

Distribution

Africa: Algerianative (AlgerianativeC,D,E); Angolaintroduced (AngolaintroducedF); Azoresnative (AçôresnativeG,H,I,J); Burkinaintroduced (BurkinaintroducedK); Cameroonintroduced (CameroonintroducedL,M,N,O,P); Canary Is.introduced (Canary Is.introducedH); Cape Verdeintroduced (Cape VerdeintroducedQ); Egyptnative (EgyptnativeR,S); Gulf of Guinea Is.introduced (BiokointroducedT,U, São ToméintroducedV); Kenyaintroduced (KenyaintroducedO); Libyanative (LibyanativeW,X,Y,Z); Madeiraintroduced (MadeiraintroducedH); MorocconativeAA,AB,AC,AD; Nigeriaintroduced (NigeriaintroducedAE,M,N,O); Selvagensintroduced (SelvagensintroducedH); Sudanintroduced (SudanintroducedAF,AG); Tanzaniaintroduced (TanzaniaintroducedAG); Tunisianative (TunisianativeAH,AI); Ugandaintroduced (UgandaintroducedM,N,O); Zaireintroduced (ZaireintroducedM,O); Zimbabweintroduced (ZimbabweintroducedAG) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative (AfghanistannativeAJ,AK); Altaynative (AltaynativeAL); Amurnative (AmurnativeAM); Buryatiyanative (BuryatiyanativeAL); China North-Centralintroduced (GansuintroducedAN,AO, HebeiintroducedAN,AO, ShaanxiintroducedAN,AO, ShandongintroducedAN,AO, ShanxiintroducedAN,AO); China South-Centralintroduced (GuizhouintroducedAN,AO, HubeiintroducedAN,AO, SichuanintroducedAN,AO, YunnanintroducedAN,AO); China Southeastintroduced (AnhuiintroducedAN,AO, FujianintroducedAN,AO, GuangdongintroducedAN, GuangxiintroducedAN,AO, HenanintroducedAN,AO, HunanintroducedAN,AO, JiangsuintroducedAN,AO, JiangxiintroducedAN,AO, ZhejiangintroducedAN,AO); Chitanative (ChitanativeAL); Cyprusnative (CyprusnativeAP,AQ,AR); East Aegean Is.native (East Aegean Is.nativeAS,AT,AU); Gulf Statesintroduced (QatarintroducedAV, United Arab EmiratesintroducedAW); Hainanintroduced (HainanintroducedAO); Inner Mongoliaintroduced (NingxiaintroducedAO); Irannative (IrannativeAK,AX); Iraqnative (IraqnativeAK); Irkutsknative (IrkutsknativeAL); JapanintroducedAY; Kazakhstannative (KazakhstannativeAZ); Khabarovsknative (KhabarovsknativeAM); Kirgizistannative (KirgizistannativeBA,BB); Koreaintroduced; Krasnoyarsknative (KrasnoyarsknativeAL); Lebanon-Syrianative (LebanonnativeBC,BD, SyrianativeBC,BE); Manchuriaintroduced (LiaoningintroducedAN,AO); Mongolianative: doubtfully native (Mongolianative: doubtfully nativeBF); North Caucasusnative (DagestannativeBG, Kabardino-BalkariyanativeBG, KrasnodarnativeBG, StavropolnativeBG); Ogasawara-shotointroduced (Ogasawara-shotointroducedBH); Oman (OmanintroducedBI); Palestinenative (IsraelnativeBD,BE,BJ,BK, JordannativeBD,BE,BL,BM); Primoryenative (PrimoryenativeAM); Qinghaiintroduced (QinghaiintroducedAN,AO); Sakhalinnative (SakhalinnativeAM); Saudi Arabiaintroduced (Saudi ArabiaintroducedBN); Sinainative (SinainativeBD,BO,S); Tadzhikistannative (TadzhikistannativeBP); Taiwanintroduced (TaiwanintroducedAN,AO); Tibetintroduced (TibetintroducedAN,AO); Transcaucasusnative (AbkhaziyanativeBG,BQ,BR,BS,BT, AdzhariyanativeBU, ArmenianativeBG,BR,BV, AzerbaijannativeBG,BR,BT,BW, GeorgianativeBG,BQ, NakhichevannativeBR); Turkeynative (TurkeynativeAS,BX,BY); Turkmenistannative (TurkmenistannativeAK,BZ); Uzbekistannative (UzbekistannativeCA); West Siberianative (West SiberianativeAL); Xinjiangintroduced (XinjiangintroducedAN,AO); Yakutskiyanative (YakutskiyanativeAL) Asia-Tropical: Bangladeshintroduced (Bangladeshintroduced); Borneointroduced (SabahintroducedCB,CC); IndiaintroducedCD; Nepal (NepalintroducedCE); New Guineaintroduced (Irian JayaintroducedCF, Papua New GuineaintroducedCF); Pakistannative: doubtfully native (Pakistannative: doubtfully nativeAK,CG); Philippinesintroduced (PhilippinesintroducedCH); Thailand (ThailandintroducedCI,CJ); Vietnamintroduced (VietnamintroducedCK) Australasia: Antipodean Is.introduced (Antipodean Is.introducedCL); Chatham Is.introduced (Chatham Is.introducedCL,CM); Kermadec Is.introduced (Kermadec Is.introducedCL,CM); New South Walesintroduced (Australian Capital TerritoryintroducedCN,CO,CP,CQ,CR, New South WalesintroducedCO,CP,CQ,CR,CS,CT,CU); New Zealand Northintroduced (New Zealand NorthintroducedCL,CM); New Zealand Southintroduced (New Zealand SouthintroducedCL,CM); Northern Territoryintroduced (Northern TerritoryintroducedCO,CP,CQ,CR,CU); Queenslandintroduced (QueenslandintroducedCO,CP,CQ,CR,CU,CV); South Australiaintroduced (South AustraliaintroducedCO,CP,CQ,CR,CU); Tasmaniaintroduced (TasmaniaintroducedCN,CO,CP,CQ,CR,CT,CU); Victoriaintroduced (VictoriaintroducedCO,CP,CQ,CR,CU); Western Australiaintroduced (Ashmore-Cartier Is.introducedCT, Western AustraliaintroducedCO,CP,CQ,CR,CU,CW,CX,CY) Europe: Albanianative (AlbanianativeCZ,DA,DB,J); Austrianative (AustrianativeDC, LiechtensteinnativeDD); Balearesnative (BalearesnativeDE,DF,DG,DH,DI,DJ,DK,J); Baltic Statesnative (EstonianativeDL, KaliningradnativeDM, LatvianativeDL, LithuanianativeDL); Belarusnative (BelarusnativeDN); Belgiumnative (BelgiumnativeDO,J, LuxembourgnativeDP); Bulgarianative (BulgarianativeDQ,DR,DS,DT,J); Central European Russianative (Central European RussianativeDN); Corsenative (CorsenativeDU,DV,DW,J); Czechoslovakianative (Czech RepublicnativeDX,DY,DZ,EA, SlovakianativeDX,DY,EB); Denmarknative (DenmarknativeEC,ED,J); East European Russianative (East European RussianativeDN); Finlandnative (FinlandnativeED,EE,J); FrancenativeDF,EF,EG,EH,J; Germanynative (GermanynativeEI,EJ,EK,J); Great Britainnative (Great BritainnativeJ); Greecenative (GreecenativeAT,AU,DS,EL,EM,J,R); Hungarynative (HungarynativeEN,EO,J); Icelandintroduced (IcelandintroducedEP); Irelandnative (IrelandnativeEQ,ER, Northern IrelandnativeEQ); ItalynativeES,ET,EU,EV,EW,EX,EY,EZ,J; Kritinative (KritinativeAT,AU,DS,EM,FA,J); Krymnative (KrymnativeDN,FB,FC,FD,FE,J); Netherlandsnative (NetherlandsnativeFF,J); North European Russianative (North European RussianativeDN,FG); Northwest European Russianative (Northwest European RussianativeDN); Norwaynative (NorwaynativeED,J); Polandnative (PolandnativeFH,FI,J); Portugalnative (PortugalnativeDK,FJ,FK,FL,FM,G,J); Romanianative (RomanianativeDS,FN,FO,J); Sardegnanative (SardegnanativeES,EX,EY,J); Sicilynative (MaltanativeFP,FQ,FR, SicilynativeES,EV,EX,EY); South European Russianative (South European RussianativeDN); Spainnative (AndorranativeDK,FS, GibraltarnativeDK,FT, SpainnativeDE,DF,DK,FU,FV,FW,FX,J); Swedennative (SwedennativeED,FY,FZ,J); Switzerlandnative (SwitzerlandnativeGA,GB,J); Turkey-in-Europenative (Turkey-in-EuropenativeAS,GC,J); Ukrainenative (MoldovanativeDN,FB, UkrainenativeDN,FC); Yugoslavianative (Bosnia-HerzegovinanativeDS, CroatianativeDS,GD, MacedonianativeDS, MontenegronativeDS, SerbianativeDS,GE, SlovenianativeGF,GG) Northern America: Alabamaintroduced (AlabamaintroducedGH); Alaskaintroduced (AlaskaintroducedGH); Albertaintroduced (AlbertaintroducedGH,GI); Arizonaintroduced (ArizonaintroducedGH,GJ); Arkansasintroduced (ArkansasintroducedGH); British Columbiaintroduced (British ColumbiaintroducedGH,GI); Californiaintroduced (CaliforniaintroducedGH,GJ); Coloradointroduced (ColoradointroducedGH); Connecticutintroduced (ConnecticutintroducedGH); Delawareintroduced (DelawareintroducedGH); District of Columbiaintroduced (District of ColumbiaintroducedGH); Floridaintroduced (FloridaintroducedGH); Georgia, U.S.A.introduced (Georgia, U.S.A.introducedGH); Greenlandintroduced (GreenlandintroducedGI); Idahointroduced (IdahointroducedGH); Illinoisintroduced (IllinoisintroducedGH); Indianaintroduced (IndianaintroducedGH); Iowaintroduced (IowaintroducedGH); Kansasintroduced (KansasintroducedGH); Kentuckyintroduced (KentuckyintroducedGH); Labradorintroduced (LabradorintroducedGH); Louisianaintroduced (LouisianaintroducedGH); Maineintroduced (MaineintroducedGH); Manitobaintroduced (ManitobaintroducedGH,GI); Marylandintroduced (MarylandintroducedGH); Massachusettsintroduced (MassachusettsintroducedGH); Mexican Pacific Is.introduced (Guadalupe I.introducedGK); Mexico Centralintroduced (Mexico Distrito FederalintroducedCB,GL,GM, MorelosintroducedGL, México StateintroducedGL, PueblaintroducedGL, TlaxcalaintroducedGL); Mexico Gulfintroduced (VeracruzintroducedGL); Mexico Northeastintroduced (ChihuahuaintroducedGL,GN, CoahuilaintroducedGL, GuanajuatointroducedGL, HidalgointroducedGL, Nuevo LeónintroducedGL, QuerétarointroducedGL, San Luis PotosíintroducedGL, TamaulipasintroducedGL, ZacatecasintroducedGL); Mexico Northwestintroduced (Baja CaliforniaintroducedGL,GO, Baja California SurintroducedGL, SinaloaintroducedGL, SonoraintroducedGJ,GL,GN); Mexico Southeastintroduced (CampecheintroducedGL, ChiapasintroducedGL, Quintana RoointroducedGL, YucatánintroducedGL); Mexico Southwestintroduced (ColimaintroducedGL, GuerrerointroducedGL, JaliscointroducedGL, MichoacánintroducedGL, OaxacaintroducedGL); Michiganintroduced (MichiganintroducedGH); Minnesotaintroduced (MinnesotaintroducedGH); Mississippiintroduced (MississippiintroducedGH); Missouriintroduced (MissouriintroducedGH); Montanaintroduced (MontanaintroducedGH); Nebraskaintroduced (NebraskaintroducedGH); Nevadaintroduced (NevadaintroducedGH); New Brunswickintroduced (New BrunswickintroducedGH,GI); New Hampshireintroduced (New HampshireintroducedGH); New Jerseyintroduced (New JerseyintroducedGH); New Mexicointroduced (New MexicointroducedGH); New Yorkintroduced (New YorkintroducedGH); Newfoundlandintroduced (NewfoundlandintroducedGH,GI, St.Pierre-MiquelonintroducedGI); North Dakotaintroduced (North DakotaintroducedGH); Northwest Territoriesintroduced (Northwest TerritoriesintroducedGH,GI); Nova Scotiaintroduced (Nova ScotiaintroducedGH,GI); Ohiointroduced (OhiointroducedGH); Oklahomaintroduced (OklahomaintroducedGH); Ontariointroduced (OntariointroducedGH,GI); Oregonintroduced (OregonintroducedGH); Pennsylvaniaintroduced (PennsylvaniaintroducedGH); Prince Edward I.introduced (Prince Edward I.introducedGH,GI); Québecintroduced (QuébecintroducedGH,GI); Rhode I.introduced (Rhode I.introducedGH); Saskatchewanintroduced (SaskatchewanintroducedGH,GI); South Carolinaintroduced (South CarolinaintroducedGH); South Dakotaintroduced (South DakotaintroducedGH); Tennesseeintroduced (TennesseeintroducedGH); Texasintroduced (TexasintroducedGH); Utahintroduced (UtahintroducedGH); Vermontintroduced (VermontintroducedGH); Virginiaintroduced (VirginiaintroducedGH); Washingtonintroduced (WashingtonintroducedGH); West Virginiaintroduced (West VirginiaintroducedGH); Wisconsinintroduced (WisconsinintroducedGH); Wyomingintroduced (WyomingintroducedGH) Pacific: Cook Is. (Cook Is.introducedGP); Fijiintroduced (FijiintroducedGQ); New Caledoniaintroduced (New CaledoniaintroducedGR) Southern America: Argentina Northeastintroduced (Argentina Distrito FederalintroducedGS, Buenos AiresintroducedGS,GT, ChacointroducedGS,GT, CorrientesintroducedGS,GT, CórdobaintroducedGS,GU, FormosaintroducedGS,GT, La PampaintroducedGS,GT, MisionesintroducedGS,GT); Argentina Northwestintroduced (CatamarcaintroducedGS,GT, JujuyintroducedGS,GU, La RiojaintroducedGS,GT, MendozaintroducedGS,GT, San JuanintroducedGS,GT,GV, San LuisintroducedGS,GT, Santiago del EsterointroducedGS,GT); Argentina Southintroduced (ChubutintroducedGS,GT, NeuquénintroducedGS,GT, Rio NegrointroducedGS,GT, Santa CruzintroducedGS,GT, Santa FéintroducedGS,GT, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)introducedGS,GT); Bahamasintroduced (BahamasintroducedCB,GW); Boliviaintroduced (BoliviaintroducedGX,GY); Brazil Northeastintroduced (BahiaintroducedGZ); Brazil Southintroduced (ParanáintroducedGS, Rio Grande do SulintroducedGS, Santa CatarinaintroducedGS); Brazil Southeastintroduced (TrindadeintroducedCB); Chile Centralintroduced (BiobíointroducedGS, CoquimbointroducedGS, La AraucaniaintroducedGS, MauleintroducedGS, O'HigginsintroducedGS, ValparaísointroducedGS); Chile Northintroduced (AntofagastaintroducedGS, Atacamaintroduced, TarapacaintroducedGS); Chile Southintroduced (Los LagosintroducedGS); Colombia (ColombiaintroducedHA); Cubaintroduced (CubaintroducedCB,HB,HC); Dominican Republicintroduced (Dominican RepublicintroducedCB,HD); Guatemalaintroduced (GuatemalaintroducedHE); Haitiintroduced (HaitiintroducedCB,HD); Jamaicaintroduced (JamaicaintroducedCB); Leeward Is.introduced (AnguillaintroducedCB,HF, Antigua-BarbudaintroducedCB,HF, GuadeloupeintroducedCB,GO,HF, MontserratintroducedCB,HF, Netherlands Leeward Is.introducedCB,HF, St.Martin-St.BarthélémyintroducedCB,HF); Panamáintroduced (PanamáintroducedHE); Paraguayintroduced (ParaguayintroducedGS); Puerto Ricointroduced (Puerto RicointroducedCB,HG); Trinidad-Tobagointroduced (Trinidad-TobagointroducedCB); Turks-Caicos Is.introduced (Turks-Caicos Is.introducedGW); Uruguayintroduced (UruguayintroducedGS); Venezuelaintroduced (VenezuelaintroducedGU,HH); Venezuelan Antillesintroduced (Venezuelan AntillesintroducedHI); Windward Is.introduced (BarbadosintroducedCB,HF, DominicaintroducedCB,HF, GrenadaintroducedCB,HF, MartiniqueintroducedCB,HF, St.LuciaintroducedCB,HF, St.VincentintroducedCB,HF)

Common names

(Australia): ThalaakCT; (Mexico): achicoria dulceGL, borrajaGL, cardoGL, cerrajaGL, endiviaGL, falos diente de léonGL, lechuguillaGL, mitihuaracaGL, muela de caballoGL, verdolaga de puercoGL; Acoli (Uganda): LapukuHJ; Albanian (Albania): Rrëshyell perimeHK,1; Arabic (Lebanon): بَقْلَة يَهودِيَّةHL,1, تِفاف بَقْليHL,1, لِبَّيْـنHL,1; Arabic (Saudi Arabia): HawwaHM, KhuwaishHM, KhuwwayshHN; Arabic (Syria): بَقْلَة يَهودِيَّةHO,1, تِفاف بَقْليHO,1, لِبَّيْـنHO,1; Arabic (United Arab Emirates): adheedHP, dalaweenHP, galaweinHP, hawaHP, khas al wazHP, khuwayshHP, odeidHP; Armenian (Armenia): Կաթնբեկ բանջարանոցայինHQ,1; Basque (Spain): AstaurrazaDK, GardugueraDK, KardaberaDK, KardueDK; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Градински кострецDQ,1; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): AlextóDK, LlacsonsDK, LletsóDK, LliscóDK; Chinese (China): 苦苣菜 ku ju caiAO; Corsican (Corse): Cardu mansuHR,1, CicerbitaHR,1, LattaghjonuHR,1, LattaroneHR,1; Danish (Denmark): Almindelig SvinemælkHS,1; Dutch; Flemish (South Africa): SydisselHT; English (Australia): Common SowthistleCN,CP,CQ,CS,CT,CU,CV,CW,CY, Milk ThistleCT, Sow ThistleCO, annual SowthistleCT, milk thistleCP; English (Bahamas): Sow ThistleCB; English (Caribbean): Sow thistleCB; English (Cyprus): Sow ThistleHU; English (Great Britain): Smooth Sow-thistleHV,1; English (Indian Subcontinent): milk weedCD; English (Jamaica): Sow-thistleCB; English (New Zealand): Sow ThistleHW, Sow thistleCL, Sow-thistleCM; English (Northern America): Common sow-thistleGI; English (South Africa): Sow thistleHT; English (United Arab Emirates): smooth sow thistleHP, wild lettuceHP; Estonian (Estonia): Harilik piimohakasHX,1; Finnish (Finland): KaalivalvattiHS,1; French (Belgium): Laiteron maraîcherHY,1; French (Corse): Laiteron maraîcherHR,1; French (France): Laiteron lisseHZ,2, Laiteron maraîcherHZ,1, Laiteron potagerHZ,1; French (Haiti): Chicorée; French (Mascarene Islands): LastronIA,IB, Lastron douxIB, Lastron tendreIB; French (Northern America): Laiteron potagerGI; French (Réunion): Lastron douxIC, Lastron tendreIC; French (Switzerland): Laiteron maraîcherID,1; Galician (Spain): Cardo molarDK, CerraxaDK, SerrallaDK; Ganda (Uganda): KakovuHJ; German (Germany): Kohl-GänsedistelIE,1; German (Switzerland): Gemeine GänsedistelID,1; Hebrew (Israel): מְרוֹר הַגִּנּוֹתIF,1, מרור הגינותIF,1; Hindi (India): Dodak, Dudhi, Pili dudhiIG; Hindi (Indian Subcontinent): DudhiCD; Ibanag (Philippines): GagatangCH; Icelandic (Iceland): GyltufífillEP; Italian (Italy): CicerbitaEX,2, CrespignoEX,2, Grespino comuneEX,1, LattaroloEX,2; Italian (Switzerland): Grespino comuneID,1; Kilur (Central and East Africa): ArchakO; Kinyarwanda (Central and East Africa): IkigembegembeO, RururiraO, RuvugamahomvuO; Kinyarwanda (Rwanda): IkigembegembeIH, RururiraIH; Korean (Korea): bang-ga-ji-tongII; Lango (Uganda) (Uganda): ApurukuHJ; Latvian (Latvia): Dārza mīkstpieneHX,1; Makhuwa (Mozambique): nlumi-inyotoIJ; Maori (New Zealand): PororuaCM, RaurikiCM,HW; Marathi (Indian Subcontinent): PathariCD; Nilo-Saharan (Other) (Central and East Africa): ZapeO; Norwegian (Norway): HaredylleHS,1; Nyankole (Uganda): EkijwamateHJ, EkinyamateHJ, OrunyamateHJ; Nyoro (Uganda): EkinyahwaHJ; Nyungwe (Mozambique): chiru ma ngombeIJ; Oromo (East Africa): aramà; Panjabi; Punjabi (Indian Subcontinent): DodakCD; Polish (Poland): Mlecz warzywnyFH,2, Mlecz zwyczajnyFH,1; Portuguese (Portugal): LeitarugaDK, SerralhaDK; Purepecha (Mexico): tsktsuk chekamitiGL; Romanian (Moldova): Сусай де-грэдинэIK,1; Ronga (Mozambique): cimboIJ, ilhaviIJ; Russian (Armenia): Осот огородныйHQ,1; Sinhala; Sinhalese (Sri Lanka): Gal-potu-kolaIL; Spanish; Castilian (Cuba): AlgodoncilloCB, CerlechosaCB, CerrajaCB; Spanish; Castilian (Dominican Republic): AchicoriaCB, BorrajaCB, Borraja moradaCB, ChicoriaCB, LechuguillaCB, LechuguilloCB; Spanish; Castilian (Puerto Rico): AchicoriaCB, Achicoria silvestreCB, ChicoriaCB; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): AcerrajaDK, AchicoriasDK, AlborrajaDK, CardenchaDK, Cardo molarDK, LecheraDK, SerrajaDK; Swedish (Sweden): KålmjölktistelHS,2, KålmolkeIM,1, MjölktistelHS,2; Telugu (Indian Subcontinent): RatrinataCD; Tsonga (Mozambique): hlaveIJ, hlaviIJ, inhlaviIJ, sudeIJ; Turkish (Cyprus): SütleğenHU; Turkish (Turkey): KuzugevreğiBX; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Diếp dạiIN, Rau cúc sữaIN, Rau diếp đắngIN, Rau nhũ cúcIN, Tục đoạn rauCK,IN
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Uses

Sonchus oleraceus is used as salad or vegetable, the young leaves and shoots of wild-growing plants being eaten raw, cooked or slightly steamed, and also as a medicinal plant.IO

Bibliography

A. Mejías J. A. & Andrés C., Karyological studies in Iberian Sonchus (Asteraceae: Lactuceae): S. oleraceus, S. microcephalus and S. asper and a general discussion. in Folia Geobot. 39: 275-291. 2004
B. Stebbins G. L. & al., Chromosomes and phylogeny in the Compositae, tribe Cichorieae in Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 26: 401-430. 1953
C. Ozenda, P., Flore du Sahara, ed. 2. 1977
D. Quézel, P. & Santa, S., Nouvelle flore de l'Algérie et des régions désertiques méridionales 2. 1963
E. Quézel, P. & Santa, S., Nouvelle flore de l'Algérie et des régions désertiques méridionales 2. 1963 (as Sonchus oleraceus var. lacerus)
F. Figueiredo E. & Smith G. F., Plants of Angola in Strelitzia 22. 2008
G. Franco, J. Do Amaral, Nova flora de Portugal (continente e Açores). 2. 1984
H. Hansen A. & Sunding P., Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4th revised edition in Sommerfeltia 17. 1994
I. Schäfer, H., Flora of the Azores. A field guide. 2002
J. Tutin, T. G. & al., Flora Europaea. 1964-1993
K. Thiombiano A. & al., Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso. 2012
L. Beentje H. J., Onana J.-M., Pollard B. J. & Hind D. J. N. - Compositae in Cheek M., Onana J.-M. & Pollard B. J. (ed.), The plants of Mount Oku and the Ijim Ridge, Cameroon. A conversation checklist. 2000
M. Boulos L., Révision Systématique du genre Sonchus L. s.l. - V. Sous-genre 3. Origosonchus in Bot. Not. 127. 1974 (as Sonchus angustissimus Hook. f.)
N. Jeffrey C., Notes on Compositae: 1. The Cichorieae In East Tropical Africa in Kew Bull. 18 (3). 1966
O. Lawalrée A., Dethier D. & Gilissen E., Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-Rwanda-Burundi). Spermatophytes, Compositae I. 1986
P. Oliver D. & Hiern W. P. - Compositae in Oliver D., Flora of Tropical Africa 3. 1877 (as Sonchus angustissimus Hook. f.)
Q. Kilian, N., Die Lactuceae (Compositae) der Kapverdischen Inseln (W-Afrika) in Willdenowia 18. 1988 (as Sonchus oleraceus)
R. Boissier, E., Flora Orientalis 3. 1875
S. Boulos, L., Flora of Egypt 3. 2002
T. Aedo C. & al., Bases documentales para la flora de Guinea ecuatorial. 1999 (as Sonchus oleraceus)
U. Velayos M. & al., Preliminary checklist of vascular plants of Bioko Island in Bot. Complut. 37. 2013
V. Figueiredo E. & al., Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe in Bothalia 41
W. Boulos, L., A check-list of the Libyan flora 3. Compositae (by C. Jeffrey). in Candollea 34. 1979
X. Jafri, S. M. H. & El-Gadi, A. , Flora of Libya 107. 1983
Y. Pampanini, R., Prodromo della flora cirenaica. 1931
Z. Pampanini, R., Prodromo della flora cirenaica. 1931 (as Sonchus oleraceus var. lacerus)
AA. Jahandiez, E. & Maire, R., Catalogue des plantes du Maroc 3. 1934
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