Sonchus oleraceus

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Sonchus oleraceus

https://pictures.bgbm.org/digilib/Scaler?fn=Cichorieae/Sonchus_oleraceus_Bb_01.jpg&mo=file

Common names

(Australia): ThalaakA; (Mexico): achicoria dulceB, borrajaB, cardoB, cerrajaB, endiviaB, falos diente de léonB, lechuguillaB, mitihuaracaB, muela de caballoB, verdolaga de puercoB; Acoli (Uganda): LapukuC; Albanian (Albania): Rrëshyell perimeD,1; Arabic (Lebanon): بَقْلَة يَهودِيَّةE,1, تِفاف بَقْليE,1, لِبَّيْـنE,1; Arabic (Saudi Arabia): HawwaF, KhuwaishF, KhuwwayshG; Arabic (Syria): بَقْلَة يَهودِيَّةH,1, تِفاف بَقْليH,1, لِبَّيْـنH,1; Arabic (United Arab Emirates): adheedI, dalaweenI, galaweinI, hawaI, khas al wazI, khuwayshI, odeidI; Armenian (Armenia): Կաթնբեկ բանջարանոցայինJ,1; Basque (Spain): AstaurrazaK, GardugueraK, KardaberaK, KardueK; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Градински кострецL,1; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): AlextóK, LlacsonsK, LletsóK, LliscóK; Chinese (China): 苦苣菜 ku ju caiM; Corsican (Corse): Cardu mansuN,1, CicerbitaN,1, LattaghjonuN,1, LattaroneN,1; Danish (Denmark): Almindelig SvinemælkO,1; Dutch; Flemish (South Africa): SydisselP; English (Australia): Common SowthistleA,Q,R,S,T,U,V,W,X, Milk ThistleA, Sow ThistleY, annual SowthistleA, milk thistleT; English (Bahamas): Sow ThistleZ; English (Caribbean): Sow thistleZ; English (Cyprus): Sow ThistleAA; English (Great Britain): Smooth Sow-thistleAB,1; English (Indian Subcontinent): milk weedAC; English (Jamaica): Sow-thistleZ; English (New Zealand): Sow ThistleAD, Sow thistleAE, Sow-thistleAF; English (Northern America): Common sow-thistleAG; English (South Africa): Sow thistleP; English (United Arab Emirates): smooth sow thistleI, wild lettuceI; Estonian (Estonia): Harilik piimohakasAH,1; Finnish (Finland): KaalivalvattiO,1; French (Belgium): Laiteron maraîcherAI,1; French (Corse): Laiteron maraîcherN,1; French (France): Laiteron lisseAJ,2, Laiteron maraîcherAJ,1, Laiteron potagerAJ,1; French (Haiti): Chicorée; French (Mascarene Islands): LastronAK,AL, Lastron douxAL, Lastron tendreAL; French (Northern America): Laiteron potagerAG; French (Réunion): Lastron douxAM, Lastron tendreAM; French (Switzerland): Laiteron maraîcherAN,1; Galician (Spain): Cardo molarK, CerraxaK, SerrallaK; Ganda (Uganda): KakovuC; German (Germany): Kohl-GänsedistelAO,1; German (Switzerland): Gemeine GänsedistelAN,1; Hebrew (Israel): מְרוֹר הַגִּנּוֹתAP,1, מרור הגינותAP,1; Hindi (India): Dodak, Dudhi, Pili dudhiAQ; Hindi (Indian Subcontinent): DudhiAC; Ibanag (Philippines): GagatangAR; Icelandic (Iceland): GyltufífillAS; Italian (Italy): CicerbitaAT,2, CrespignoAT,2, Grespino comuneAT,1, LattaroloAT,2; Italian (Switzerland): Grespino comuneAN,1; Kilur (Central and East Africa): ArchakAU; Kinyarwanda (Central and East Africa): IkigembegembeAU, RururiraAU, RuvugamahomvuAU; Kinyarwanda (Rwanda): IkigembegembeAV, RururiraAV; Korean (Korea): bang-ga-ji-tongAW; Lango (Uganda) (Uganda): ApurukuC; Latvian (Latvia): Dārza mīkstpieneAH,1; Makhuwa (Mozambique): nlumi-inyotoAX; Maori (New Zealand): PororuaAF, RaurikiAD,AF; Marathi (Indian Subcontinent): PathariAC; Nilo-Saharan (Other) (Central and East Africa): ZapeAU; Norwegian (Norway): HaredylleO,1; Nyankole (Uganda): EkijwamateC, EkinyamateC, OrunyamateC; Nyoro (Uganda): EkinyahwaC; Nyungwe (Mozambique): chiru ma ngombeAX; Oromo (East Africa): aramà; Panjabi; Punjabi (Indian Subcontinent): DodakAC; Polish (Poland): Mlecz warzywnyAY,2, Mlecz zwyczajnyAY,1; Portuguese (Portugal): LeitarugaK, SerralhaK; Purepecha (Mexico): tsktsuk chekamitiB; Romanian (Moldova): Сусай де-грэдинэAZ,1; Ronga (Mozambique): cimboAX, ilhaviAX; Russian (Armenia): Осот огородныйJ,1; Sinhala; Sinhalese (Sri Lanka): Gal-potu-kolaBA; Spanish; Castilian (Cuba): AlgodoncilloZ, CerlechosaZ, CerrajaZ; Spanish; Castilian (Dominican Republic): AchicoriaZ, BorrajaZ, Borraja moradaZ, ChicoriaZ, LechuguillaZ, LechuguilloZ; Spanish; Castilian (Puerto Rico): AchicoriaZ, Achicoria silvestreZ, ChicoriaZ; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): AcerrajaK, AchicoriasK, AlborrajaK, CardenchaK, Cardo molarK, LecheraK, SerrajaK; Swedish (Sweden): KålmjölktistelO,2, KålmolkeBB,1, MjölktistelO,2; Telugu (Indian Subcontinent): RatrinataAC; Tsonga (Mozambique): hlaveAX, hlaviAX, inhlaviAX, sudeAX; Turkish (Cyprus): SütleğenAA; Turkish (Turkey): KuzugevreğiBC; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Diếp dạiBD, Rau cúc sữaBD, Rau diếp đắngBD, Rau nhũ cúcBD, Tục đoạn rauBD,BE
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Systematics

Sonchus oleraceus is considered to have evolved through natural crossing of S. tenerrimus (x = 7, 2n = 14) and S. asper (n=9, 2n=18).BF,BG

Description

Herb, annual or biennial, 10-150 cm high, with taproot. Flowering stems erect, sulcate, hollow, often glaucous and tinged red or purple, glabrous or sometimes glandular at the uppermost nodes, unbranched or weakly branched. Lower cauline leaves oblong or narrowly obovate, 6.0-30.0 cm long, 2.0-12.0 cm wide, usually pinnatisect, pinnatipartite or entire, spinose or entire, petiole-like attenuate with a winged petiole; terminal lobe deltoid or nearly circular; lateral lobes 4-6, oblong, obtuse or acute. Middle and upper cauline leaves amplexicaul and auriculate with acute or obtuse, entire or denticulate auricles, glabrous, glaucous on both surfaces. Synflorescence paniculiform or corymbiform, with 5-15 heads. Peduncle 0.5-2.5 cm long, glandular, floccose or glabrous. Heads with more than 100 flowers. Involucre at flowering campanulate, 8.0-12.0 mm long, at flowering 6.0-10.0 mm in diameter; involucral bracts glandular or glabrous, margin scarious; outer involucral bracts narrowly deltoid, 3.0-5.0 mm long, 1.5-2.0 mm wide; inner involucral bracts linear-ovate, up to 12.0 mm long, 2.0 mm wide. Corolla ligulate, yellow or less often white; tube c. 7.0 mm long, thinly woolly towards apex; ligule c. 6.0 mm long, 1.0 mm wide. Anthertube c. 2.5 mm long; apical appendages obtuse. Style c. 12.0 mm long; branches c. 1.2 mm long. Achenes narrowly obovoid in outline, strongly compressed, c. 3.0 mm long, 1.0 mm wide, scabridulous, wrinkled transversely, pale brown, with 3 longitudinal ribs on each face. Pappus white, up to 7.0 mm long, flexible, remotely scabridulous or barbellate.

Based on: Jeffrey, C. & Beentje, H. J. 2000: Cichorieae . – Pp. 63-108 in: Beentje, H. J. & Smith, S. A. L. (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae (Part 1). – Kew; Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. – Kew; Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae , Tribe Cichorieae . – Enfield; Pope, G. V. 1992: Flora Zambesiaca 6, part 1. – London; Tadesse, M. 2004: 25. Sonchus - Pp. 65-70 in: Hedberg, I., Friis, I., Edwards, S. Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. – Uppsala; Yatskievych, G. 2006: 49. Tragopogon L. (goat’s beard) – Pp. 390-393 in: Yatskievych, G. (ed.), Flora of Missouri 2, revised Edition. – St. Louis.

Chromosome numbers

The chomosome number of 2n = 32 has been explained as allotetraploid, resulting from hybridisation between x = 7 (S. tenerrimus) and x = 9 (S. asper) progenitors.
BF,BG

Distribution

Africa: Algeria nativenativeBH,BI,BJ; Angola introducedBK; Azores nativeBL,BM,BN,BO; Burkina introducedBP; Cameroon introducedAU,BQ,BR,BS,BT; Canary Is. introducedBM; Cape Verde introducedBU; Chad introducedBV; Egypt nativeBW,BX; Gulf of Guinea Is. (Bioko introducedBY,BZ, São Tomé introducedCA); Kenya introducedAU; Libya nativeCB,CC,CD,CE; Madeira introducedBM; Morocco nativeCF,CG,CH,CI; Nigeria introducedAU,BR,BS,CJ; Selvagens introducedBM; Somalia introducedCK; Sudan introducedCL,CM; Tanzania introducedCM; Tunisia nativeCN,CO; Uganda introducedAU,BR,BS; Zaire introducedAU,BR; Zimbabwe introducedCM Antarctic: Falkland Is. introducedCP Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan nativeCQ,CR; Altay nativeCS; Amur nativeCT; Buryatiya nativeCS; China North-Central (Gansu introducedCU,M, Hebei introducedCU,M, Shaanxi introducedCU,M, Shandong introducedCU,M, Shanxi introducedCU,M); China South-Central (Guizhou introducedCU,M, Hubei introducedCU,M, Sichuan introducedCU,M, Yunnan introducedCU,M); China Southeast (Anhui introducedCU,M, Fujian introducedCU,M, Guangdong introducedCU, Guangxi introducedCU,M, Henan introducedCU,M, Hunan introducedCU,M, Jiangsu introducedCU,M, Jiangxi introducedCU,M, Zhejiang introducedCU,M); Chita nativeCS; Cyprus nativeCV,CW,CX; East Aegean Is. nativeCY,CZ,DA; Gulf States (Qatar introducedDB, United Arab Emirates introducedDC); Hainan introducedM; Inner Mongolia (Ningxia introducedM); Iran nativeCR,DD; Iraq nativeCR,DE; Irkutsk nativeCS; Japan introducedDF; Kazakhstan nativeDG; Khabarovsk nativeCT; Kirgizistan nativeDH,DI; Korea introducedAW,DJ,DK; Krasnoyarsk nativeCS; Lebanon-Syria (Lebanon nativeDL,DM, Syria nativeDL,DN); Manchuria (Liaoning introducedCU,M); Mongolia native: doubtfully nativeDO; North Caucasus nativeDP,DQ,DR (Dagestan nativeDS, Kabardino-Balkariya nativeDS, Krasnodar nativenativeDS, Stavropol nativeDS); Ogasawara-shoto introducedDT; Oman introducedDU; Palestine (Israel nativeDM,DN,DV,DW, Jordan nativeDM,DN,DX,DY); Primorye nativeCT; Qinghai introducedCU,M; Sakhalin nativeCT; Saudi Arabia introducedDZ; Sinai nativeBX,DM,EA; Tadzhikistan nativeEB; Taiwan introducedCU,M; Tibet introducedCU,M; Transcaucasus (Abkhaziya nativeDQ,DR,DS,EC,ED, Adzhariya nativeEE, Armenia nativeDQ,DS,J, Azerbaijan nativeDQ,DR,DS,EF, Georgia nativeDS,EC, Nakhichevan nativeDQ); Turkey nativeBC,CY,EG; Turkmenistan nativeCR,EH; Uzbekistan nativeEI; West Siberia nativeCS; Xinjiang introducedCU,M; Yakutskiya nativeCS Asia-Tropical: Bangladesh introduced; Borneo (Sabah introducedEJ,Z); India introducedAC; Nepal introducedEK; New Guinea (Irian Jaya introducedEL, Papua New Guinea introducedEL); Pakistan native: doubtfully nativeCR,EM; Philippines introducedAR; Thailand introducedEN,EO; Vietnam introducedBE Australasia: Antipodean Is. introducedAE; Chatham Is. introducedAE,AF; Kermadec Is. introducedAE,AF; New South Wales (Australian Capital Territory introducedEP,S,T,V,Y, New South Wales introducedA,EP,R,T,V,X,Y); New Zealand North introducedAE,AF; New Zealand South introducedAE,AF; Northern Territory introducedEP,T,V,X,Y; Queensland (Queensland introducedEP,T,V,W,X,Y); South Australia introducedEP,T,V,X,Y; Tasmania introducedA,EP,S,T,V,X,Y; Victoria introducedEP,T,V,X,Y; Western Australia (Ashmore-Cartier Is. introducedA, Western Australia introducedEP,EQ,Q,T,U,V,X,Y) Europe: Albania nativeBO,ER,ES,ET; Austria nativeBO (Austria nativeEU, Liechtenstein nativeEV); Baleares nativeBO,EW,EX,EY,EZ,FA,FB,K; Baltic States (Estonia nativeFC, Kaliningrad nativeFD, Latvia nativeFC, Lithuania nativeFC); Belarus nativeFE; Belgium (Belgium nativenativeBO,FF, Luxembourg nativeFG); Bulgaria nativeBO,FH,FI,FJ,L; Central European Russia nativeFE; Corse nativeBO,FK,FL,FM; Czechoslovakia nativeBO (Czech Republic nativeFN,FO,FP,FQ, Slovakia nativeFN,FO,FR); Denmark nativeBO,FS,FT; East European Russia nativeFE; Finland nativenativeBO,FT,FU; France nativeBO,EX,FV,FW,FX; Germany nativeBO,FY,FZ,GA; Great Britain nativeBO; Greece nativeBO,BW,CZ,DA,FI,GB,GC; Hungary nativeBO,GD,GE; Iceland introducedAS; Ireland nativeBO (Ireland nativeGF,GG, Northern Ireland nativeGF); Italy nativeAT,BO,GH,GI,GJ,GK,GL,GM,GN; Kriti nativeBO,CZ,DA,FI,GC,GO; Krym nativeBO,FE,GP,GQ,GR,GS; Netherlands nativeBO,GT; North European Russia nativeFE,GU; Northwest European Russia nativeFE; Norway nativeBO,FT; Poland nativenativeAY,BO,GV; Portugal nativeBL,BO,GW,GX,GY,GZ,K; Romania nativeBO,FI,HA,HB; Sardegna nativeAT,BO,GH,GM; Sicily nativeBO (Malta nativeHC,HD,HE, Sicily nativeAT,GH,GK,GM); South European Russia nativeFE; Spain (Andorra nativeHF,K, Gibraltar nativeHG,K, Spain nativenativeBO,EW,EX,HH,HI,HJ,HK,K); Sweden nativeBO,FT,HL,HM; Switzerland nativeBO,HN,HO; Turkey-in-Europe nativeBO,CY,HP; Ukraine (Moldova nativeFE,GP, Ukraine nativeFE,GQ); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina nativeFI, Croatia nativeFI,HQ, Macedonia nativeFI, Montenegro nativeFI, Serbia nativeFI,HR, Slovenia nativeHS,HT) Northern America: Alabama introducedHU; Alaska introducedHU; Alberta introducedAG,HU; Arizona introducedHU,HV; Arkansas introducedHU; British Columbia introducedAG,HU; California introducedHU,HV; Colorado introducedHU; Connecticut introducedHU; Delaware introducedHU; District of Columbia introducedHU; Florida introducedHU; Georgia, U.S.A. introducedHU; Greenland introducedAG; Idaho introducedHU; Illinois introducedHU; Indiana introducedHU; Iowa introducedHU; Kansas introducedHU; Kentucky introducedHU; Labrador introducedHU; Louisiana introducedHU; Maine introducedHU; Manitoba introducedAG,HU; Maryland introducedHU; Massachusetts introducedHU; Mexican Pacific Is. (Guadalupe I. introducedHW); Mexico Central (Mexico Distrito Federal introducedB,HX,Z, Morelos introducedB, México State introducedB, Puebla introducedB, Tlaxcala introducedB); Mexico Gulf (Veracruz introducedB); Mexico Northeast (Chihuahua introducedB,HY, Coahuila introducedB, Guanajuato introducedB, Hidalgo introducedB, Nuevo León introducedB, Querétaro introducedB, San Luis Potosí introducedB, Tamaulipas introducedB, Zacatecas introducedB); Mexico Northwest (Baja California introducedB,HZ, Baja California Sur introducedB, Sinaloa introducedB, Sonora introducedB,HV,HY); Mexico Southeast (Campeche introducedB, Chiapas introducedB, Quintana Roo introducedB, Yucatán introducedB); Mexico Southwest (Colima introducedB, Guerrero introducedB, Jalisco introducedB, Michoacán introducedB, Oaxaca introducedB); Michigan introducedHU; Minnesota introducedHU; Mississippi introducedHU; Missouri introducedHU; Montana introducedHU; Nebraska introducedHU; Nevada introducedHU; New Brunswick introducedAG,HU; New Hampshire introducedHU; New Jersey introducedHU; New Mexico introducedHU; New York introducedHU; Newfoundland (Newfoundland introducedAG,HU, St.Pierre-Miquelon introducedAG); North Dakota introducedHU; Northwest Territories introducedAG,HU; Nova Scotia introducedAG,HU; Ohio introducedHU; Oklahoma introducedHU; Ontario introducedAG,HU; Oregon introducedHU; Pennsylvania introducedHU; Prince Edward I. introducedAG,HU; Québec introducedAG,HU; Rhode I. introducedHU; Saskatchewan introducedAG,HU; South Carolina introducedHU; South Dakota introducedHU; Tennessee introducedHU; Texas introducedHU; Utah introducedHU; Vermont introducedHU; Virginia introducedHU; Washington introducedHU; West Virginia introducedHU; Wisconsin introducedHU; Wyoming introducedHU Pacific: Cook Is. introducedIA; Fiji introducedIB; New Caledonia introducedIC Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Argentina Distrito Federal introducedID, Buenos Aires introducedID,IE, Chaco introducedID,IE, Corrientes introducedID,IE, Córdoba introducedID,IF, Formosa introducedID,IE, La Pampa introducedID,IE, Misiones introducedID,IE); Argentina Northwest (Catamarca introducedID,IE, Jujuy introducedID,IF, La Rioja introducedID,IE, Mendoza introducedID,IE, San Juan introducedID,IE,IG, San Luis introducedID,IE, Santiago del Estero introducedID,IE); Argentina South (Chubut introducedID,IE, Neuquén introducedID,IE, Rio Negro introducedID,IE, Santa Cruz introducedID,IE, Santa Fé introducedID,IE, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) introducedID,IE); Bahamas introducedIH,Z; Bolivia introducedII,IJ; Brazil Northeast (Bahia introducedIK); Brazil South (Paraná introducedID, Rio Grande do Sul introducedID, Santa Catarina introducedID); Brazil Southeast (Trindade introducedZ); Chile Central (Biobío introducedID, Coquimbo introducedID, La Araucania introducedID, Maule introducedID, O'Higgins introducedID, Valparaíso introducedID); Chile North (Antofagasta introducedID, Atacama introduced, Tarapaca introducedID); Chile South (Los Lagos introducedID); Colombia introducedIL; Cuba introducedIM,IN,Z; Dominican Republic introducedIO,Z; Guatemala introducedIP; Haiti (Haiti introducedIO,Z); Jamaica introducedZ; Leeward Is. (Anguilla introducedIQ,Z, Antigua-Barbuda introducedIQ,Z, Guadeloupe introducedHZ,IQ,Z, Montserrat introducedIQ,Z, Netherlands Leeward Is. introducedintroducedIQ,Z, St.Martin-St.Barthélémy introducedIQ,Z); Panamá introducedIP; Paraguay introducedID; Puerto Rico introducedIR,Z; Trinidad-Tobago introducedZ; Turks-Caicos Is. introducedIH; Uruguay introducedID; Venezuela introducedIF,IS; Venezuelan Antilles introducedIT; Windward Is. (Barbados introducedIQ,Z, Dominica introducedIQ,Z, Grenada introducedIQ,Z, Martinique introducedIQ,Z, St.Lucia introducedIQ,Z, St.Vincent introducedIQ,Z)

Uses

Sonchus oleraceus is used as salad or vegetable, the young leaves and shoots of wild-growing plants being eaten raw, cooked or slightly steamed, and also as a medicinal plant.IU

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