Taraxacum

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Taraxacum

Common names

Albanian (Albania): LuleshurdheA; Arabic (Lebanon): طَرَخْشَقونB,1; Arabic (Syria): طَرَخْشَقونC,1; Armenian (Armenia): ԽատուտիկD,1; Basque (Spain): AitañililiE, GalkideaE; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): ГлухарчеF,1, РадикаF,2; Catalan; Valencian (Baleares): ApagallumsE; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): Cama-rojaE, Dent del lleóE, XicoiraE; Chinese (China): 蒲公英属 pu gong ying shuG; French (Belgium): PissenlitH,1; French (Corse): PissenlitI,1; French (France): PissenlitJ,1; Galician (Spain): LeitarugaE, MexacánE, PaciporcasE; German (Germany): KuhblumeK,1, LöwenzahnK,1; Italian (Italy): TarassacoL,1; Portuguese (Portugal): Dente de leãoE, TaráxacoE; Romanian (Moldova): ПэпэдиеM,1; Russian (Armenia): ОдуванчикD,1; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): AbuelitosE, AlmirónE, AmargónE, CarnerolesE, ChicoriaE, Diente del leónE, TaraxacónE, Yerba de leónE; Turkish (Turkey): KarahındıbaN; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Bồ công anh lùnO
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Description

Herbs, rosulate, perennial, with a taproot, root head sometimes with a tunic (covered with dry brown remnants of petioles from previous years). Stems 1 to sometimes several, hollow, leafless (scape), unbranched, rarely with 1–3 branches. Plant indumentum consisting of arachnoid hairs; leaf and scape hairs sometimes on low protuberances or ridges; hairs on floret tube often straight and simple. Leaves entire or variously lobed, runcinate to pinnatisect. Capitulum pointing upward or downward after anthesis. Involucre with two distinct series of phyllaries. Some of phyllaries often corniculate or horned at apex; outer phyllaries variable in length and shape (imbricate) or almost uniform (not imbricate), usually substantially shorter than inner ones, appressed to reflexed, glabrous to ciliate or with arachnoid surfaces, unbordered to variously pale to whitish bordered. Receptacle naked, glabrous or sparsely arachnoid. Florets yellow, white, whitish yellow, pale or deep pink, orange, brownish orange, or reddish brown; ligules flat, involute, or tubular, adaxial epidermal cell cuticle ± domed and transversely striate. Achene whitish, straw-brown, ochraceous, reddish, reddish brown, deep brown, or ± black, usually composed of a body, which includes a narrowed but equally colored cone, and apically with a beak but cone sometimes indistinct or not developed; body spinulose and/or squamulose in upper part (below cone), often tuberculate below or completely or almost smooth, or spinulose and tuberculate throughout, abruptly or gradually narrowing into cone (when cone developed); beak usually longer than achene body including cone or short, sometimes not developed at all, thin or thick. Pappus with numerous scabrid bristles, white, yellowish, or light reddish brown. Plants with agamospermous reproduction or sexual, self-incompatible or rarely self-compatible. Chromosome base number x = 8 (diploids to dodecaploids). Diploids always sexual, tetraploids usually agamospermous [three tetraploid sexual species known in Taraxacum sect. Piesis], other polyploids agamospermous.

from: Ge X., Kirschner J. & Štěpánek J. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 270–271. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Chromosome numbers

Diploids, triploids and tetraploids, more rarely pentaploids, hexaploids, septemploids, octoploids, and higher levels(?), x = 8.P

Distribution

Africa: Algerianative; Azoresnative; Burundiintroduced; Cameroonintroduced; Canary Is.native; Cape Provinces (Eastern Cape Provinceintroduced, Northern Cape Provinceintroduced, Western Cape Provinceintroduced); Egyptnative; Eritreaintroduced; Ethiopiaintroduced; Free Stateintroduced; Kenyaintroduced; KwaZulu-Natalintroduced; Lesothointroduced; Libyanative; Madagascarintroduced; Madeiranative; Mauritiusintroduced; Morocconative (Morocconative); Mozambiqueintroduced; Namibiaintroduced; Northern Provinces (Gautengintroduced, Mpumalangaintroduced, North-West Provinceintroduced); Rodriguesintroduced; Rwandaintroduced; Réunionintroduced; Swazilandintroduced; Tanzaniaintroduced; Tunisianative; Zaireintroduced; Zambiaintroduced; Zimbabweintroduced Antarctic: Falkland Is.native Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative; Altaynative; Amurnative; Buryatiyanative; China North-Central (Beijingnative, Gansunative, Hebeinative, Shaanxinative, Shandongnative, Shanxinative); China South-Central (Guizhounative, Hubeinative, Sichuannative, Yunnannative); China Southeast (Anhuinative, Fujiannative, Guangdongnative, Henannative, Hunannative, Jiangsunative, Zhejiangnative); Chitanative; Cyprusnative; East Aegean Is.native; Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongolnative, Ningxianative); Irannative; Iraqnative; Irkutsknative; Japanreported in error (Hokkaidonative, Honshunative, Kyushunative, Shikokunative); Kamchatkanative; Kazakhstannative; Khabarovsknative; Kirgizistannative; Koreanative (North Koreanative, South Koreanative); Kuril Is.native; Lebanon-Syrianative (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); Magadannative; Manchuria (Heilongjiangnative, Jilinnative, Liaoningnative); Mongolianative; Nansei-shotonative; North Caucasusnative (Chechnyanative, Dagestannative, Kabardino-Balkariyanative, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiyanative, Krasnodarnative, Severo-Osetiyanative, Stavropolnative); Palestine (Israelnative, Jordannative); Primoryenative; Qinghainative; Sakhalinnative; Saudi Arabianative; Tadzhikistannative; Taiwannative; Tibetnative; Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkeynative; Turkmenistannative; Tuvanative; Uzbekistannative; West Siberianative; Xinjiangnative; Yemenintroduced Asia-Tropical: Assam (Assamnative, Meghalayanative); East Himalayanative (Bhutannative, Darjilingintroduced, Sikkimnative); India (Maharashtranative, Punjabnative, Tamil Nadunative, Uttar Pradeshnative, West Bengalintroduced); Jawanative; Malaya (Peninsular Malaysiaintroduced); Myanmarnative; Nepalnative; Pakistannative; Philippinesintroduced; Sri Lankanative: doubtfully native; Vietnamnative; West Himalayanative (Himachal Pradeshnative, Jammu-Kashmirnative, Uttaranchalnative) Australasia: Antipodean Is.native; Chatham Is.native; Kermadec Is.introduced; New South Wales (Australian Capital Territorynative, New South Walesnative); New Zealand Northnative; New Zealand Southnative; Northern Territoryintroduced; Queensland (Queenslandintroduced); South Australianative; Tasmanianative; Victorianative; Western Australia (Western Australianative) Europe: Albanianative; Austrianative (Austrianative, Liechtensteinnative); Balearesnative; Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarusnative; Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgarianative; Central European Russianative; Corsenative; Czechoslovakianative (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmarknative; East European Russianative; Finlandnative; Francenative (Channel Is.native, Francenative); Føroyarnative; Germanynative; Great Britainnative; Greecenative; Hungarynative; Icelandnative; Irelandnative (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative (Italynative); Kritinative; Krymnative; Netherlandsnative; North European Russianative; Northwest European Russianative; Norwaynative; Polandnative; Portugalnative; Romanianative; Sardegnanative; Sicilynative (Maltanative, Sicilynative); South European Russianative; Spainnative (Andorranative, Spainnative); Svalbardnative; Swedennative; Switzerlandnative; Turkey-in-Europenative; Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: Alaskanative; Albertanative; Aleutian Is.native; British Columbianative; Coloradonative; Greenlandnative; Labradornative; Manitobanative; Mexico Central (Mexico Distrito Federalnative, México Statenative, Pueblanative); Mexico Gulf (Veracruznative); Mexico Northeast (Coahuilanative, Durangonative, Hidalgonative, San Luis Potosínative, Tamaulipasnative); Mexico Southeast (Chiapasnative); Mexico Southwest (Michoacánintroduced, Oaxacanative); New Brunswickintroduced; Newfoundland (Newfoundlandnative, St.Pierre-Miquelonintroduced); Northwest Territoriesnative; Nova Scotiaintroduced; Nunavutnative; Ontarionative; Prince Edward I.introduced; Québecnative; Saskatchewannative; Wyomingnative; Yukonnative Pacific: Cook Is.introduced; Fijiintroduced; New Caledoniaintroduced South Africa, Republic of: introduced Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Argentina Distrito Federalintroduced, Buenos Airesintroduced, Corrientesintroduced, Córdobaintroduced, Entre Ríosnative, Formosaintroduced, La Pampaintroduced, Misionesintroduced); Argentina Northwest (Catamarcaintroduced, Jujuyintroduced, La Riojanative, Mendozanative, Saltanative, San Juannative, San Luisintroduced, Santiago del Esterointroduced, Tucumanintroduced); Argentina South (Chubutnative, Neuquénnative, Rio Negronative, Santa Cruznative, Santa Féintroduced, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)native); Bermudanative; Boliviaintroduced; Brazil South (Paranánative, Rio Grande do Sulintroduced, Santa Catarinanative); Chile Centralnative (Biobíonative, Coquimbointroduced, La Araucaniaintroduced, Mauleintroduced, O'Higginsintroduced, Santiagonative, Valparaísointroduced); Chile North (Antofagastaintroduced, Atacamaintroduced); Chile South (Aisénintroduced, Los Lagosnative, Magellanesnative); Colombianative; Costa Ricanative; Cubaintroduced; Dominican Republicnative; Ecuadorintroduced; Guatemalanative; Haiti (Haitinative); Hondurasnative; Jamaicanative; Juan Fernández Is.native; Paraguayintroduced; Perunative; Uruguayintroduced; Venezuelanative

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