Taraxacum

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Taraxacum

Common names

Albanian (Albania): LuleshurdheA; Arabic (Lebanon): طَرَخْشَقونB,1; Arabic (Syria): طَرَخْشَقونC,1; Armenian (Armenia): ԽատուտիկD,1; Basque (Spain): AitañililiE, GalkideaE; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): ГлухарчеF,1, РадикаF,2; Catalan; Valencian (Baleares): ApagallumsE; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): Cama-rojaE, Dent del lleóE, XicoiraE; Chinese (China): 蒲公英属 pu gong ying shuG; French (Belgium): PissenlitH,1; French (Corse): PissenlitI,1; French (France): PissenlitJ,1; Galician (Spain): LeitarugaE, MexacánE, PaciporcasE; German (Germany): KuhblumeK,1, LöwenzahnK,1; Italian (Italy): TarassacoL,1; Portuguese (Portugal): Dente de leãoE, TaráxacoE; Romanian (Moldova): ПэпэдиеM,1; Russian (Armenia): ОдуванчикD,1; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): AbuelitosE, AlmirónE, AmargónE, CarnerolesE, ChicoriaE, Diente del leónE, TaraxacónE, Yerba de leónE; Turkish (Turkey): KarahındıbaN; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Bồ công anh lùnO
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Description

"Herbs, rosulate, perennial, with a taproot, root head sometimes with a tunic (covered with dry brown remnants of petioles from previous years). Stems (scapes) 1 to sometimes several, hollow, leafless (scape), unbranched, rarely with 1–3 branches (in T. sect. Sonchidium). Plant indumentum consisting of arachnoid hairs; leaf and scape hairs sometimes on low protuberances or ridges; hairs on floret tube often straight and simple. Leaves entire or variously lobed, runcinate to pinnatisect. Capitulum pointing upward or downward after anthesis. Involucre with two distinct series of phyllaries. Some of phyllaries often corniculate or horned at apex; outer phyllaries variable in length and shape (imbricate) or almost uniform (not imbricate), usually substantially shorter than inner ones, appressed to reflexed, glabrous to ciliate or with arachnoid surfaces, unbordered to variously pale to whitish bordered. Receptacle naked, glabrous or sparsely arachnoid (T. sect. Wendelboa). Florets yellow, white, whitish yellow, pale or deep pink, orange, brownish orange, or reddish brown; ligules flat, involute, or tubular, adaxial epidermal cells cuticle ± domed and transversely striate. Achene whitish, stramineous-brown, ochraceous, reddish, reddish brown, deep brown, or ± black, usually composed of a body, a narrowed but equally coloured cone, and apically with a beak, but cone sometimes indistinct or not developed; body spinulose and/or squamulose in upper part (below cone), often tuberculate below or completely or almost smooth, or spinulose and tuberculate throughout, abruptly or gradually narrowing into cone (when cone developed); beak usually longer than achene body including cone, or short, sometimes almost not developed, thin or thick. Pappus with numerous scabrid bristles, white, yellowish, or light reddish brown. Plants with agamospermous reproduction or sexual, self-incompatible or rarely self-compatible."

from Kirschner & al. (2020: 57-58).P

Chromosome numbers

Diploids, triploids and tetraploids, more rarely pentaploids, hexaploids, septemploids, octoploids, and higher levels(?), x = 8.Q

Distribution

Africa: Algeria native; Azores native; Burundi introduced; Cameroon introduced; Canary Is. nativenative; Cape Provinces (Eastern Cape Province introduced, Northern Cape Province introduced, Western Cape Province introduced); Egypt native; Eritrea introduced; Ethiopia introduced; Free State introduced; Kenya introduced; KwaZulu-Natal introduced; Lesotho introduced; Libya native; Madagascar introduced; Madeira native; Mauritius introduced; Morocco native (Morocco native); Mozambique introduced; Namibia introduced; Northern Provinces (Gauteng introduced, Mpumalanga introduced, North-West Province introduced); Rodrigues introduced; Rwanda introduced; Réunion introduced; Swaziland introduced; Tanzania introduced; Tunisia native; Zaire introduced; Zambia introduced; Zimbabwe introduced Antarctic: Falkland Is. native Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan nativenative; Altay nativenative; Amur nativenative; Buryatiya native; China North-Central (Beijing native, Gansu native, Hebei native, Shaanxi native, Shandong native, Shanxi native); China South-Central (Guizhou native, Hubei native, Sichuan native, Yunnan native); China Southeast (Anhui native, Fujian native, Guangdong native, Henan native, Hunan native, Jiangsu native, Zhejiang native); Chita native; Cyprus native; East Aegean Is. native; Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol native, Ningxia native); Iran nativenative; Iraq nativenative; Irkutsk native; Japan reported in error (Hokkaido native, Honshu native, Kyushu native, Shikoku native); Kamchatka nativenative; Kazakhstan native; Khabarovsk nativenative; Kirgizistan native; Korea native (North Korea native, South Korea native); Kuril Is. nativenative; Lebanon-Syria native (Lebanon native, Syria native); Magadan nativenative; Manchuria (Heilongjiang native, Jilin native, Liaoning native); Mongolia nativenative; Nansei-shoto native; North Caucasus native (Chechnya native, Dagestan native, Kabardino-Balkariya native, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiya native, Krasnodar native, Severo-Osetiya native, Stavropol native); Palestine (Israel native, Jordan native); Primorye nativenative; Qinghai native; Sakhalin nativenative; Saudi Arabia native; Tadzhikistan nativenative; Taiwan native; Tibet native; Transcaucasus (Abkhaziya native, Adzhariya native, Armenia native, Azerbaijan native, Georgia native, Nakhichevan native); Turkey nativenative; Turkmenistan nativenative; Tuva native; Uzbekistan nativenative; West Siberia native; Xinjiang native; Yemen introduced Asia-Tropical: Assam (Assam native, Meghalaya native); East Himalaya native (Bhutan native, Darjiling introduced, Sikkim native); India (Maharashtra native, Punjab native, Tamil Nadu native, Uttar Pradesh native, West Bengal introduced); Jawa native; Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia introduced); Myanmar native; Nepal native; Pakistan nativenative; Philippines introduced; Sri Lanka native: doubtfully native; Vietnam native; West Himalaya native (Himachal Pradesh native, Jammu-Kashmir native, Uttaranchal native) Australasia: Antipodean Is. native; Chatham Is. native; Kermadec Is. introduced; New South Wales (Australian Capital Territory native, New South Wales native); New Zealand North native; New Zealand South native; Northern Territory introduced; Queensland (Queensland introduced); South Australia native; Tasmania native; Victoria native; Western Australia (Western Australia native) Europe: Albania native; Austria native (Austria native, Liechtenstein native); Baleares native; Baltic States (Estonia native, Kaliningrad native, Latvia native, Lithuania native); Belarus native; Belgium native (Belgium native, Luxembourg native); Bulgaria native; Central European Russia native; Corse native; Czechoslovakia native (Czech Republic native, Slovakia native); Denmark native; East European Russia native; Finland native; France native (Channel Is. native, France native); Føroyar native; Germany native; Great Britain nativenative; Greece native; Hungary native; Iceland native; Ireland native (Ireland native, Northern Ireland native); Italy native (Italy native); Kriti native; Krym native; Netherlands native; North European Russia native; Northwest European Russia native; Norway native; Poland native; Portugal native; Romania native; Sardegna native; Sicily native (Malta native, Sicily native); South European Russia native; Spain native (Andorra native, Spain native); Svalbard native; Sweden native; Switzerland native; Turkey-in-Europe native; Ukraine (Moldova native, Ukraine native); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina native, Croatia native, Macedonia native, Montenegro native, Serbia native, Slovenia native) Northern America: Alaska native; Alberta native; Aleutian Is. nativenative; British Columbia native; Colorado native; Greenland native; Labrador native; Manitoba native; Mexico Central (Mexico Distrito Federal native, México State native, Puebla native); Mexico Gulf (Veracruz native); Mexico Northeast (Coahuila native, Durango native, Hidalgo native, San Luis Potosí native, Tamaulipas native); Mexico Southeast (Chiapas native); Mexico Southwest (Michoacán introduced, Oaxaca native); New Brunswick introduced; Newfoundland (Newfoundland native, St.Pierre-Miquelon introduced); Northwest Territories native; Nova Scotia introduced; Nunavut native; Ontario native; Prince Edward I. introduced; Québec native; Saskatchewan native; Wyoming native; Yukon native Pacific: Cook Is. introduced; Fiji introduced; New Caledonia introduced South Africa, Republic of: introduced Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Argentina Distrito Federal introduced, Buenos Aires introduced, Corrientes introduced, Córdoba introduced, Entre Ríos native, Formosa introduced, La Pampa introduced, Misiones introduced); Argentina Northwest (Catamarca introduced, Jujuy introduced, La Rioja native, Mendoza native, Salta native, San Juan native, San Luis introduced, Santiago del Estero introduced, Tucuman introduced); Argentina South (Chubut native, Neuquén native, Rio Negro native, Santa Cruz native, Santa Fé introduced, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) native); Bermuda native; Bolivia introduced; Brazil South (Paraná native, Rio Grande do Sul introduced, Santa Catarina native); Chile Central native (Biobío native, Coquimbo introduced, La Araucania introduced, Maule introduced, O'Higgins introduced, Santiago native, Valparaíso introduced); Chile North (Antofagasta introduced, Atacama introduced); Chile South (Aisén introduced, Los Lagos native, Magellanes native); Colombia native; Costa Rica native; Cuba introduced; Dominican Republic native; Ecuador introduced; Guatemala native; Haiti (Haiti native); Honduras native; Jamaica native; Juan Fernández Is. native; Paraguay introduced; Peru native; Uruguay introduced; Venezuela native

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