Taraxacum

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Taraxacum

Description

Herbs, rosulate, perennial, with a taproot, root head sometimes with a tunic (covered with dry brown remnants of petioles from previous years). Stems 1 to sometimes several, hollow, leafless (scape), unbranched, rarely with 1–3 branches. Plant indumentum consisting of arachnoid hairs; leaf and scape hairs sometimes on low protuberances or ridges; hairs on floret tube often straight and simple. Leaves entire or variously lobed, runcinate to pinnatisect. Capitulum pointing upward or downward after anthesis. Involucre with two distinct series of phyllaries. Some of phyllaries often corniculate or horned at apex; outer phyllaries variable in length and shape (imbricate) or almost uniform (not imbricate), usually substantially shorter than inner ones, appressed to reflexed, glabrous to ciliate or with arachnoid surfaces, unbordered to variously pale to whitish bordered. Receptacle naked, glabrous or sparsely arachnoid. Florets yellow, white, whitish yellow, pale or deep pink, orange, brownish orange, or reddish brown; ligules flat, involute, or tubular, adaxial epidermal cell cuticle ± domed and transversely striate. Achene whitish, straw-brown, ochraceous, reddish, reddish brown, deep brown, or ± black, usually composed of a body, which includes a narrowed but equally colored cone, and apically with a beak but cone sometimes indistinct or not developed; body spinulose and/or squamulose in upper part (below cone), often tuberculate below or completely or almost smooth, or spinulose and tuberculate throughout, abruptly or gradually narrowing into cone (when cone developed); beak usually longer than achene body including cone or short, sometimes not developed at all, thin or thick. Pappus with numerous scabrid bristles, white, yellowish, or light reddish brown. Plants with agamospermous reproduction or sexual, self-incompatible or rarely self-compatible. Chromosome base number x = 8 (diploids to dodecaploids). Diploids always sexual, tetraploids usually agamospermous [three tetraploid sexual species known in Taraxacum sect. Piesis], other polyploids agamospermous.

from: Ge X., Kirschner J. & Štěpánek J. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 270–271. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Chromosome numbers

Diploids, triploids and tetraploids, more rarely pentaploids, hexaploids, septemploids, octoploids, and higher levels(?), x = 8.A

Distribution

Africa: Algeria (Algerianative); Azores (Açôresnative); Burundi (Burundiintroduced); Cameroon (Cameroonintroduced); Canary Is. (Canary Is.native); Cape Provinces (Eastern Cape Provinceintroduced, Western Cape Provinceintroduced); Egypt (Egypt); Eritrea (Eritreaintroduced); Ethiopia (Ethiopiaintroduced); Free State (Free Stateintroduced); Kenya (Kenyaintroduced); KwaZulu-Natal (KwaZulu-Natalintroduced); Lesotho (Lesothointroduced); Libya (LibyaB); Madagascar (Madagascarintroduced); Madeira (Madeiranative); Mauritius (Mauritiusintroduced); Morocconative; Mozambique (Mozambiqueintroduced); Namibia (Namibiaintroduced); Northern Provinces (Gautengintroduced, Mpumalangaintroduced, North-West Provinceintroduced); Rodrigues (Rodriguesintroduced); Rwanda (Rwandaintroduced); Réunion (Réunionintroduced); Swaziland (Swazilandintroduced); Tanzania (Tanzaniaintroduced); Tunisia (Tunisia); Zaire (Zaireintroduced); Zambia (Zambiaintroduced); Zimbabwe (Zimbabweintroduced) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative; Altay (Altaynative); Amurnative; China South-Central (Yunnannative); Cyprus (Cyprusintroduced: naturalized); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.native); Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongolnative); Irannative (Irannative); Iraqnative (Iraqnative); Kamchatkanative (Kamchatkanative); Kazakhstan (Kazakhstannative); Khabarovsknative (Khabarovsknative); Kirgizistan (Kirgizistannative); Korea (North Koreanative, South Koreanative); Kuril Is.native (Kuril Is.native); Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); Magadannative (Magadannative); Manchuria (Jilinnative); Mongolianative (Mongolianative); North Caucasusnative (Chechnyanative, Dagestannative, Kabardino-Balkariyanative, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiyanative, Krasnodarnative, Severo-Osetiyanative, Stavropolnative); Palestine (Israelnative, Jordannative); Primoryenative (Primoryenative); Sakhalinnative (Sakhalinnative); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkey (Turkeynative); Turkmenistannative; Uzbekistan (Uzbekistannative); West Siberia (West Siberianative); Xinjiang (Xinjiangnative); Yemenintroduced Asia-Tropical: Assam (Meghalayanative); East Himalaya (Darjilingintroduced); India (Punjabnative, Uttar Pradeshnative, West Bengalintroduced); Jawa (Jawaintroduced); Malaya (Peninsular Malaysiaintroduced); Nepal (Nepalnative); Pakistannative (Pakistannative); Philippines (Philippinesintroduced); Vietnam (Vietnamintroduced); West Himalaya (Himachal Pradeshnative, Jammu-Kashmirnative) Australasia: Chatham Is. (Chatham Is.introduced); Kermadec Is. (Kermadec Is.introduced); New South Wales (New South Walesintroduced); New Zealand North (New Zealand Northintroduced); New Zealand South (New Zealand Southintroduced); South Australia (South Australiaintroduced); Tasmania (Tasmaniaintroduced); Victoria (Victoriaintroduced) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Austrianative (Austrianative, Liechtensteinnative); Baleares (Balearesnative); Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarus (Belarusnative); Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European Russianative); Corse (Corsenative); Czechoslovakia (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmark (Denmarknative); East European Russia (East European Russianative); Finland (Finlandnative); France (Channel Is.native, Francenative); Føroyar (Føroyarnative); Germany (Germanynative); Great Britain (Great Britainnative); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (Hungarynative); Iceland (Icelandnative); Irelandnative (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative; Kriti (Kritinative); Krym (Krymnative); Netherlands (Netherlandsnative); North European Russia (North European Russianative); Northwest European Russia (Northwest European Russianative); Norway (Norwaynative); Poland (Polandnative); Portugal (Portugalnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative); Sicilynative (Maltacultivated, Sicilynative); South European Russia (South European Russianative); Spainnative (Andorranative, Spainnative); Svalbard (Svalbardnative); Sweden (Swedennative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative); Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: Alaska (Alaskanative); Alberta (Albertanative); British Columbia (British Columbianative); Greenland (Greenlandnative); Labrador (Labradornative); Manitoba (Manitobanative); New Brunswick (New Brunswickintroduced); Newfoundland (Newfoundlandnative, St.Pierre-Miquelonintroduced); Northwest Territories (Northwest Territoriesnative); Nova Scotia (Nova Scotiaintroduced); Nunavut (Nunavutnative); Ontario (Ontarionative); Prince Edward I. (Prince Edward I.introduced); Québec (Québecnative); Saskatchewan (Saskatchewannative); Yukon (Yukonnative) Pacific: Fiji (Fijiintroduced); New Caledonia (New Caledoniaintroduced) Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Argentina Distrito Federalintroduced, Buenos Airesintroduced, Corrientesintroduced, Córdobaintroduced, Entre Ríosintroduced, Formosaintroduced, La Pampaintroduced, Misionesintroduced); Argentina Northwest (Catamarcaintroduced, Jujuyintroduced, La Riojaintroduced, Mendozaintroduced, Saltaintroduced, San Juanintroduced, San Luisintroduced, Santiago del Esterointroduced, Tucumanintroduced); Argentina South (Chubutintroduced, Neuquénintroduced, Rio Negrointroduced, Santa Cruzintroduced, Santa Féintroduced, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)introduced); Brazil South (Rio Grande do Sulintroduced, Santa Catarinaintroduced); Chile Centralnative (Biobíointroduced, Coquimbointroduced, La Araucaniaintroduced, Mauleintroduced, O'Higginsintroduced, Santiagonative, Valparaísointroduced); Chile North (Antofagastaintroduced, Atacamaintroduced); Chile South (Aisénintroduced, Los Lagosintroduced, Magellanesnative); Colombia (Colombiaintroduced); Ecuadorintroduced; Guatemala (Guatemalaintroduced); Paraguay (Paraguayintroduced); Peruintroduced (Perunative); Uruguay (Uruguayintroduced); Venezuela (Venezuelaintroduced)

Common names

Albanian (Albania): LuleshurdheC; Arabic (Lebanon): طَرَخْشَقونD,1; Arabic (Syria): طَرَخْشَقونE,1; Armenian (Armenia): ԽատուտիկF,1; Basque (Spain): AitañililiG, GalkideaG; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): ГлухарчеH,1, РадикаH,2; Catalan; Valencian (Baleares): ApagallumsG; Catalan; Valencian (Spain): Cama-rojaG, Dent del lleóG, XicoiraG; Chinese (China): 蒲公英属 pu gong ying shuI; French (Belgium): PissenlitJ,1; French (Corse): PissenlitK,1; French (France): PissenlitL,1; Galician (Spain): LeitarugaG, MexacánG, PaciporcasG; German (Germany): KuhblumeM,1, LöwenzahnM,1; Italian (Italy): TarassacoN,1; Portuguese (Portugal): Dente de leãoG, TaráxacoG; Romanian (Moldova): ПэпэдиеO,1; Russian (Armenia): ОдуванчикF,1; Spanish; Castilian (Spain): AbuelitosG, AlmirónG, AmargónG, CarnerolesG, ChicoriaG, Diente del leónG, TaraxacónG, Yerba de leónG; Turkish (Turkey): KarahındıbaP; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Bồ công anh lùnQ
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Bibliography

A. Watanabe K., Index to chromosome numbers in Asteraceae.
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C. Vangjeli, J., Flora e Shqipërisë 4. 1999
D. Nehmé, M., Dictionnaire Etymologique de la Flore du Liban. 2000
E. Nehmé, M., Etymological Dictionary of Syrian Flora. 2008
F. Flora of Armenia 9. 1995
G. Talavera S. & al. (ed.), Flora iberica 16(2). Compositae (partim). 2017
H. Andreev, N., Ančev, M., Kožuharov, S. I., Markova, M., Peev, D. & Petrova, A., Opredelitel na visšite rastenija v Bălgarija. 1992
I. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
J. Mauhin, F., Les noms français des plantes vasculaires de Belgique et des Régions voisines . 2007
K. Jeanmonod D. & Gamisans J., Flora Corsica. 2007
L. Tela Botanica, Le réseau de la botanique francophone . 2006
M. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4: Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 10. 2005
N. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982
O. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986
P. Güner A. (ed.), Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). 2012
Q. Lê Kim Biên, Thục-vât-chí-Viêt-Nam / Flora of Vietnam 7. Họ cúc / Asteraceae. 2007