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Common names

Albanian (Albania): KëmashënA,1; Arabic (Lebanon): حَشيشَة الغُرابB,1, صَقْرِيَّةB,1; Arabic (Syria): حَشيشَة الغُرابC,1, صَقْرِيَّةC,1; Armenian (Armenia): ՃուռակախոտD,1; Chinese (China): 山柳菊属 shan liu ju shuE; Dutch; Flemish (Netherlands): HavikskruidF,1; English (Great Britain): HawkweedG,2; Estonian (Estonia): HunditubakasH,1; French (Corse): ÉpervièreI,1; German (Germany): HabichtskrautJ,1; Italian (Italy): SparviereK,1; Italian (Switzerland): SparviereL,1; Latvian (Latvia): MauragaH,1; Lithuanian (Lithuania): VanagėH,1; Romanian (Moldova): ВултурикэM,1; Russian (The Russian Federation): ЯстребинкаN,1; Swedish (Sweden): HökfibblorO,1; Turkish (Turkey): ŞahınotuP; Ukrainian (Ukraine & Crimea): НечуйвiтерQ,1
1. recommended, 2. unassessed


Hieracium, after segregation of Pilosella and Schlagintweitia based on the result of molecular phylogenetic analyses (Fehrer & al. 2007, 2009; and Krak & al. 2013; see also Hieraciinae: Systematics), comprises two fairly different and seemingly monophyletic entities (Fehrer 2007; Gaskin & Wilson 2007; Fehrer & Chrtek 2011), which are best classified as subgenera: the Eurasian H. subg. Hieracium and the American H. subg. Chionoracium (= Stenotheca).

The subgenera differ in their mode of reproduction: species of H. subg. Chionoracium are, so far known, all diploid sexuals, species of H. subg. Hieracium) are either polyploid obligate apomicts (the vast majority) or diploid sexuals (a small minority). Also morphologically the subgenera show clear differences: H. subg. Chionoracium has an involucre differentiated into short outer series and distinctly longer inner series of phyllaries (versus undifferentiated imbricate of gradually longer phyllaries in H. subg. Hieracium) and an uniseriate pappus (versus biseriate in H. subg. Hieracium) (Zahn 1921-22: 32).

Taxonomy of Hieracium subg. Hieracium with its thousands of apomicts poses particular problems. They have been summarised several times, recently by, e.g., Greuter (2007) who states regarding European taxa: “The treatment of Hieracium […] poses problems that are almost impossible to resolve. Taxonomy in itself is a nightmare, and achieving a synthesis on a Euro-Mediterranean scale is further hampered by the existence of competing, irreconcilable schools of thought regarding the basic principles of classification. There are two main ideologies: One is following the Zahn tradition, according to which the (axiomatic) main species and (postulated) hybridogenous intermediate species derived from them are subdivided into often numerous subspecies corresponding to their (usually apomictic and ‘true-breeding’) variants; and the ‘Nordic school’, by which each distinguishable apomictic strain is treated as a species, and only a small number of sections are recognised between genus and species. The latter approach is perhaps more defensible from a phylogenetic point of view, but has the major drawback of being inapplicable, according to the present state of knowledge, in large areas where the major diversity of morphotypes is encountered. Yet it is unrealistic to expect that any of the Nordic hawkweed specialists might be convinced to revert to a classification based on Zahn’s principles.”

Gottschlich (2009: 24) summarised the requirements regarding future revisions: taxa should be characterized by morphological discontinuities, geographical, ecological and/or phenological separation. They can easily be transferred from classical Zahn-inspired systems into micro-species classifications.

The Cichorieae Portal offers two alternative taxonomic treatments for Hieracium subg. Hieracium:

(1) Taxonomy based on the Euro+Med Plantbase – Compositae (Greuter 2005-07) and Med-Checklist 2 (Greuter & Raab-Straube 2008, see also Greuter 2007) with the data supplemented for the areas beyond Europe and the Mediterranean. This treatment is the current one selected as "Standard View".

(2) A consequent step-wise micro-species concept. In the "Alternative Classification" (to be selected from the drop down menu heading the taxon tree) a consequent step-wise micro-species concept is successively being built up, in which the main (or basic) and intermediate species sensu Zahn are transformed to rankless "species groups" (SG). For further details consult the Systematics section of the Alternative Classification.R,S,T,U,V,W,X,Y,Z

Chromosome numbers

Diploids, triploids, tetraploids, pentaploids; x = 9.AA


Africa: Algerianative; Morocconative Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative; Altaynative; Buryatiyanative; China North-Central (Hebeinative, Shaanxinative, Shandongnative, Shanxinative); China South-Central (Guizhounative, Hubeinative, Sichuannative, Yunnannative); China Southeast (Guangxinative, Henannative, Hunannative, Jiangxinative); Chitanative; Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongolnative); Irannative; Irkutsknative; Japan (Honshunative, Shikokunative); Kazakhstannative; Kirgizistannative; Koreanative; Krasnoyarsknative; Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative); Manchuria (Heilongjiangnative, Liaoningnative); Mongolianative; North Caucasusnative (Chechnyanative, Dagestannative, Kabardino-Balkariyanative, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiyanative, Krasnodarnative, Severo-Osetiyanative, Stavropolnative); Taiwannative; Tibetnative; Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkeynative; Tuvanative; Uzbekistannative; West Siberianative; Xinjiangnative; Yakutskiyanative Asia-Tropical: East Himalaya (Bhutannative); India (Uttar Pradeshnative); Nepalnative; Pakistannative; West Himalayanative (Himachal Pradeshnative, Jammu-Kashmirnative) Australasia: New South Wales (New South Walesintroduced); New Zealand Northintroduced; New Zealand Southintroduced Europe: Albanianative; Austrianative (Austrianative, Liechtensteinnative); Balearesnative; Baltic Statesnative (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarusnative; Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgarianative; Central European Russianative; Corsenative; Czechoslovakianative (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmarknative; East European Russianative; Finlandnative; Francenative (Channel Is.native, Francenative); Føroyarnative; Germanynative; Great Britainnative; Greecenative; Hungarynative; Icelandnative; Irelandnative (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative (Italynative); Kritinative; Krymnative; Netherlandsnative; North European Russianative; Northwest European Russianative; Norwaynative; Polandnative; Portugalnative; Romanianative; Sardegnanative; Sicilynative (Sicilynative); South European Russianative; Spainnative (Andorranative, Spainnative); Swedennative; Switzerlandnative; Turkey-in-Europenative; Ukrainenative (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavianative (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: Alabamanative; Alaskanative; Albertanative; Arizonanative; Arkansasnative; British Columbianative; Californianative; Coloradonative; Connecticutnative; Delawarenative; District of Columbianative; Floridanative; Georgia, U.S.A.native; Greenlandnative; Idahonative; Illinoisnative; Indiananative; Iowanative; Kansasnative; Kentuckynative; Labradornative; Louisiananative; Mainenative; Manitobanative; Marylandnative; Massachusettsnative; Mexico Central (Mexico Distrito Federalnative, Morelosnative, México Statenative, Pueblanative, Tlaxcalanative); Mexico Gulf (Veracruznative); Mexico Northeast (Aguascalientesnative, Chihuahuanative, Coahuilanative, Durangonative, Guanajuatonative, Hidalgonative, Nuevo Leónnative, Querétaronative, San Luis Potosínative, Tamaulipasnative, Zacatecasnative); Mexico Northwest (Baja Californianative, Baja California Surnative, Sinaloanative, Sonoranative); Mexico Southeast (Chiapasnative); Mexico Southwest (Colimanative, Guerreronative, Jalisconative, Michoacánnative, Nayaritnative, Oaxacanative); Michigannative; Minnesotanative; Mississippinative; Missourinative; Montananative; Nebraskanative; Nevadanative; New Brunswicknative; New Hampshirenative; New Jerseynative; New Mexiconative; New Yorknative; Newfoundland (Newfoundlandnative, St.Pierre-Miquelondoubtfully present); North Carolinanative; North Dakotanative; Northwest Territoriesnative; Nova Scotianative; Ohionative; Oklahomanative; Ontarionative; Oregonnative; Pennsylvanianative; Prince Edward I.native; Québecnative; Rhode I.native; Saskatchewannative; South Carolinanative; South Dakotanative; Tennesseenative; Texasnative; Utahnative; Vermontnative; Virginianative; Washingtonnative; West Virginianative; Wisconsinnative; Wyomingnative; Yukonnative Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Buenos Airesnative, Corrientesnative, Córdobanative, Entre Ríosnative, La Pampanative, Misionesnative); Argentina Northwest (Catamarcanative, Jujuynative, La Riojanative, Mendozanative, Saltanative, San Juannative, San Luisnative, Tucumannative); Argentina South (Chubutnative, Neuquénnative, Rio Negronative, Santa Cruznative, Santa Fénative, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)native); Belizenative; Bolivianative; Brazil Northeast (Bahianative); Brazil South (Paranánative, Rio Grande do Sulnative, Santa Catarinanative); Brazil Southeast (Minas Geraisnative, Rio de Janeironative, São Paulonative); Chile Central (Biobíonative, La Araucanianative, Maulenative, Santiagonative); Chile South (Aisénnative, Los Lagosnative, Magellanesnative); Colombianative; Costa Ricanative; Dominican Republicnative; Ecuadornative; El Salvadornative; Guatemalanative; Haiti (Haitinative); Hondurasnative; Nicaraguanative; Panamánative; Paraguaynative; Perunative; Uruguaynative; Venezuelanative


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