Scorzonera

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Common names

Albanian (Albania): SkorzonerëA,1; Arabic (Lebanon): دَبَحB,1, قِشْرَة سَوْداءB,1; Arabic (Syria): دَبَحC,1, قِشْرَة سَوْداءC,1; Armenian (Armenia): ԹախտաջյանիանթաD,1, ԽինձE,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): КокешF,1; Chinese (China): 鸦葱属 ya cong shuG; Czech (Czech Republic): Hadí mordH,1; Estonian (Estonia): MustjuurI,1; French (Corse): ScorzonèreJ,1; German (Germany): SchwarzwurzelK,1; Hebrew (Israel): הַרְדֻּפְנִיןL,1, הרדפניןL,1; Italian (Italy): ScorzoneraM,1; Latvian (Latvia): RaudupeI,1; Lithuanian (Lithuania): GelteklėI,1; Polish (Poland): WężymordN,1; Romanian (Moldova): СкорцонерэO,1; Russian (Armenia): КозелецE,1, ТахтаджаниантаD,1; Swedish (Sweden): SvinrotP,1; Turkish (Turkey): TekesakalıQ
1. recommended

Description

Herbs, perennial [or annual], rarely subshrubs, often with woody caudex and rosulate. Leaves usually linear to linear-elliptic or lanceolate, more rarely also ovate, with parallel veins, not divided, base with semiamplexicaul usually persistent sheath, margin entire, flat, or sometimes undulate. Involucre cylindric to campanulate, usually very conspicuously prolonged toward fruiting. Phyllaries in few to several series, imbricate, often (especially inner phyllaries) with scarious margin; longest outer phyllaries usually to more than 1/2 as long as and often ± approaching inner phyllaries in length; inner phyllaries lanceolate to linear-lanceolate. Receptacle naked. Florets yellow (and often pinkish on drying) or rarely orange or pale purple, 1.1–2 × as long as involucre. Achene ± cylindric to columnar, with numerous smooth or tuberculate longitudinal ribs, glabrous, puberulent, or villous along entire length or apically only, apex truncate or more rarely attenuate. Pappus of strong bristles, persistent or caducous, a few often distinctly longer than remainder; bristles softly fimbriately plumose for most of length and apically scabrid.

from: Shih C. & Kilian N. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20&ndash21: 198. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Systematics

Scorzonera in its traditional wide sense is polyphyletic (Mavrodiev & al. 2004). This is still true after exclusion from Scorzonera of Podospermum and Epilasia, which are here recognised as separate genera. For Scorzonera to become monophyletic, at least also Takhtajaniantha and Lasiospora would need to be recognised as separate genera, but their circumscription is, however, not clear at all. For pragmatic reasons, Scorzonera is therefore treated here in a wider sense, still including these two genera until a more detailed phylogenetic study and revision is available.

References


Mavrodiev E. V., Edwards C. E., Albach D. E., Gitzendanner M. A., Soltis P. S. & Soltis D. E. 2004: Phylogenetic relationships in subtribe Scorzonerinae (Asteraceae: Cichorioideae: Cichorieae) based on ITS sequence data. – Taxon 53: 699–712.

Distribution

Africa: Algeria (Algerianative); Egypt (Egyptnative); Libya (Libyanative); Morocconative; Tunisia (Tunisianative); Zaire (Zairecultivated) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative (Afghanistannative); Altay (Altaynative); Amur (Amurnative); Buryatiya (Buryatiyanative); China North-Central (Gansunative, Hebeinative, Shaanxinative, Shandongnative, Shanxinative); China South-Central (Guizhounative, Hubeinative, Sichuannative: presence questionable); China Southeast (Anhuinative, Henannative, Jiangsunative); Chita (Chitanative); Cyprus (Cyprusnative); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.native); Gulf States (United Arab Emiratesnative); Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongolnative, Ningxianative); Iran (Irannative); Iraq (Iraqnative); Irkutsk (Irkutsknative); Kazakhstan (Kazakhstannative); Khabarovsk (Khabarovsknative); Kirgizistannative (Kirgizistannative); Korea (North Koreanative, South Koreanative); Krasnoyarsk (Krasnoyarsknative); Kuwait (Kuwaitnative); Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); Manchuria (Heilongjiangnative, Jilinnative, Liaoningnative); Mongolia (Mongolianative); North Caucasusnative (Chechnyanative, Dagestannative, Kabardino-Balkariyanative, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiyanative, Krasnodarnative, Severo-Osetiyanative, Stavropolnative); Oman (Omannative); Palestine (Israelnative, Jordannative); Primorye (Primoryenative); Qinghai (Qinghainative); Sakhalin (Sakhalinnative); Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabianative); Sinai (Sinainative); Tadzhikistannative (Tadzhikistannative); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkey (Turkeynative); Turkmenistannative (Turkmenistannative); Tuva (Tuvanative); Uzbekistannative (Uzbekistannative); West Siberia (West Siberianative); Xinjiang (Xinjiangnative); Yakutskiya (Yakutskiyanative); Yemen (North Yemennative, South Yemennative) Asia-Tropical: Jawa (Jawaintroduced); Pakistan (Pakistannative); West Himalaya (Himachal Pradeshnative, Jammu-Kashmirnative) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Austrianative (Austrianative, Liechtensteinnative); Baleares (Balearesnative); Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarus (Belarusnative); Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European Russianative); Czechoslovakia (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmark (Denmarknative); East European Russia (East European Russianative); Finland (Finlandnative); Francenative; Germany (Germanynative); Great Britain (Great Britainnative: doubtfully native); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (Hungarynative); Italynative; Kriti (Kritinative); Krym (Krymnative); Netherlands (Netherlandsnative); North European Russia (North European Russianative); Northwest European Russia (Northwest European Russianative); Norway (Norwaynative); Poland (Polandnative); Portugal (Portugalnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative); Sicilynative (Sicilynative); South European Russia (South European Russianative); Spainnative (Spainnative); Sweden (Swedennative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative); Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: California (Californiaintroduced) Southern America: Dominican Republic (Dominican Republicintroduced); Haiti (Haitiintroduced); Puerto Rico (Puerto Ricointroduced)

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