Lactuca quercina

Primary tabs

no image available

Description

Annual or biennial herbs. Stem up to 200 cm high, with simple or branched tuberous root, stem erect, branched in upper part, glabrous. Leaves glabrous, margin denticulate, apex acute; lower cauline leaves lyrate-pinnatisect, obovate-elliptic, petiolate; middle cauline leaves 5.5–9 × 1–5.5 cm, obovate-elliptic, entire or lyrately pinnatisect with 2–9 pairs of entire or irregularly denticulate lobes, sessile with sagittate-auriculate base. Synflorescence corymbiform or rarely paniculiform, with more than 50 capitula, rarely less. Capitula with 16–22 flowers, with peduncles to 3 cm or sessile. Involucre cylindrical, at fruiting 12–16 × 2–3 mm; phyllaries 15–17, often with anthocyanin spots, margin very narrowly whitish hyaline; outer phyllaries 1.2–3.3 × 0.8–1.2 mm, ovate, acute; inner phyllaries 9–13 × 1.3–2.4 mm, linear-lanceolate, obtuse. Flowers with yellow corolla, tube 3.4–3.7 mm long, hairy in upper part, ligule 5.7–6.9 × 0.8–1.8 mm; anther tube yellowish, 2.6–3.8 mm long; fertile part 2.2–2.4 mm long, apical appendages 0.2–0.3 mm long, basal appendages 0.2–0.3 mm long; style 6–9.5 mm long, style branches 1–1.5 mm long. Achenes beaked, 5.9–9.1 × 1.1–1.4 mm, corpus oblong-ellipsoid in outline, compressed, muricate, black, with 5–6 prominent ribs on each face, base truncate, with completely annular carpopodium, apex attenuate into a concolorous beak 1.5–3.9 mm long, c. 1/3– >1/2 as long as the corpus. Pappus simple, white, 4.3–6.7 mm long, deciduous, bristles scabridulous, most of them with 4–5 cells in diameter at the base.

adapted from Feráková (1977) and Güzel & al. (2018).A,B

Distribution

Asia-Temperate: Iran (Irannative); North Caucasusnative: presence questionable (Chechnyanative, DagestannativeC, Kabardino-BalkariyanativeC,D, Karacheyevo-CherkessiyanativeC, KrasnodarnativeC,D, Severo-OsetiyanativeC,D, StavropolnativeC,D); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkey (TurkeynativeE,F,G,H) Asia-Tropical: West Himalaya (Jammu-KashmirnativeI) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); AustrianativeJ (AustrianativeK); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European RussianativeL); CzechoslovakiaJ (Czech RepublicnativeM,N,O,P, SlovakianativeM,N,Q); East European Russia (East European RussianativeL); FrancenativeJ,R,S,T,U,V,W,X; Germany (GermanynativeAA,J,Y,Z); Greece (GreecenativeAB,J); Hungary (HungarynativeAC,AD,J); ItalynativeAE,AF,AG,AH,AI,AJ,J; Krym (Krymnative); Romania (Romanianative); South European Russia (South European RussianativeL); Sweden (SwedennativeAK,AL,J); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative: presence questionable); Ukraine (MoldovanativeAM,L, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-HerzegovinanativeAN, CroatianativeAN,AO, Macedonianative: presence questionableAN, Montenegronative, SerbianativeAN,AP, SlovenianativeAQ,AR,AS,AT)

Common names

Albanian (Albania): Marule dushkoreAU,1; Armenian (Armenia): Կաթնուկ ՇեիAV,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Праволистна салатаAW,1; Czech (Czech Republic): Locika dubováAX,1; Danish (Denmark): Kalk-SalatAY,1; French (France): Laitue de ChaixAZ,1, Laitue à feuilles de ChêneAZ,1; German (Germany): Eichen-LattichBA,1; Italian (Italy): Lattuga saettonaBB,1; Norwegian (Norway): KarlsösalatAY,1; Romanian (Moldova): Лэптучь де-думбравэBC,1, Лэптучь сажитацьBD,1; Russian (Armenia): Латук ШэAV,1; Swedish (Sweden): KarlsösallatBE,1; Turkish (Turkey): Meşe maruluH
1. recommended

Uses

In France the species was formerly cultivated for the medicinal use of the dried latex (lactarium).BF

Bibliography

A. Feráková V., The genus Lactuca L. in Europe. 1977
B. Güzel M. E., Kilian N., Gültepe M. & al., Contributions to the taxonomy of Lactuca (Asteraceae) in Turkey in Turk. J. Bot. 42: 197–207. 2018
C. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Konspekt flory Kavkaza / Conspectus Florae Caucasi 3(1), 2008 (as Lactuca chaixii Vill.)
D. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Konspekt flory Kavkaza / Conspectus Florae Caucasi 3(1), 2008
E. Boissier, E., Flora Orientalis 3. 1875 (as Lactuca sagittata)
F. Boissier, E., Flora Orientalis 3. 1875 (as Lactuca stricta var. armena)
G. Davis P. H., Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 5. 1975 (as Mulgedium quercinum)
H. Güner A. (ed.), Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). 2012
I. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995
J. Tutin, T. G. & al., Flora Europaea. 1964-1993 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
K. Adler, W. , Oswald, K. & Fischer, R., Exkursionsflora von Österreich. 1994
L. Fedorov, A. A., Flora evropejskoj časti SSSR 8 [Cvelev, N. N.]. 1989
M. Dostál, J., Nová kvetena CSSR 2. 1989 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
N. Dostál, J., Vel’ký kl’úc na určovanie vyšších rastlín 2. 1992 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
O. Kubát, K., Klíč ke květeně České republiky. 2002
P. Slavík, B. & Štěpánková, J., Květena České Republiky 7. 2004
Q. Marhold, K. & Hindák, F., Zoznam nižších a vyšších rastlín Slovenska. 1998 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
R. Coste, H., Flore descriptive et illustree de la France 2. 1902-1903 (as Lactuca chaixii)
S. Coste, H., Flore descriptive et illustrée de la France. Supplément 3. 1975 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. chaixii)
T. Coste, H., Flore descriptive et illustrée de la France. Supplément 3. 1975 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
U. Fournier, P., Les quatre flores de la France, Corse comprise. 1934-1940
V. Fournier, P., Les quatre flores de la France, Corse comprise. 1934-1940 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. chaixii)
W. Fournier, P., Les quatre flores de la France, Corse comprise. 1934-1940 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. stricta)
X. Guinochet, M. & Vilmorin, R. de, Flore de France 4. 1982
Y. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 3. Gefäßpflanzen: Atlasband, ed. 10. 2000
Z. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4. Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 8. 1994 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
AA. Wisskirchen, R. & Haeupler, H., Standardliste der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands. 1998
AB. Halácsy, E. de, Conspectus florae graecae 2. 1902 (as Lactuca chaixii)
AC. Horváth, F. , Dobolyi, Z. K. , Morschhauser, T, Lőkös, L. , Karas, L. & Szerdahelyi, T., Flóra adatbázis 1.2. Taxon-lista és attribútum allomány. 1995
AD. Simon, T., A magyarországi edényes flóra határozója. Harasztok - virágos növények.. 1992
AE. Conti, F., Abbate, G., Alessandrini, A., Blasi, C. (eds.), An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora. 2005 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
AF. Fiori, A., Nuova flora analitica d’Italia 2. 1925-1929 (as Lactuca quercina var. chaixii)
AG. Fiori, A., Nuova flora analitica d’Italia 2. 1925-1929 (as Lactuca quercina var. quercina)
AH. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
AI. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1. 1976 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
AJ. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1. 1976 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. sagittata)
AK. Karlsson, T. , Förteckning över svenska kärlväxter in Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 91(5). 1998 (as Mulgedium quercinum)
AL. Krok, T. O. B. N. & Almquist, S., Svensk Flora: Fanerogamer och ormbunksvaxter 27, ed. 27. 1994
AM. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
AN. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928-1931
AO. Nikolić, T., Flora Croatica. Index florae Croaticae, 3 in Nat. Croat. 9, suppl. 1. 2000 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
AP. Josifović, M. & al., Flora SR Srbije 7. 1975 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
AQ. Martinčič, A. & Sušnik, F., Mala flora Slovenije. 1969 (as Lactuca sagittata)
AR. Martinčič, A., Mala flora Slovenije, ed. 3. 1999
AS. Trpin, D. & Vreš, B., Register flore Slovenije. Praprotnice in cvetnice. 1995 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. chaixii)
AT. Trpin, D. & Vreš, B., Register flore Slovenije. Praprotnice in cvetnice. 1995 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
AU. Vangjeli, J., Flora e Shqipërisë 4. 1999
AV. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Flora Armenii 9. 1995 (as Lactuca chaixii Vill.)
AW. Andreev, N. & Kozucharov, S. I., Opredelitel na vissite rastenija v Balgarija. 1992
AX. Jindřich Chrtek, Seznam vyšších rostlin květeny České republiky
AY. Anderberg, A. A. & Anderberg, A.-L., Den virtuella floran (as Mulgedium quercinum (L.) C. Jeffrey)
AZ. Anonymous [Association Tela Botanica], Tela Botanica, le réseau de la botanique francophone. Flores en ligne, France métropolitaine
BA. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4: Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 10. 2005
BB. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982
BC. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986
BD. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986 (as Lactuca sagittata Waldst. & Kit.)
BE. Karlsson, T., Checklista över Nordens kärlväxter . 2004 (as Mulgedium quercinum (L.) C. Jeffrey)
BF. Jeffrey C. - Compositae (Asteraceae) in Hanelt P. (ed.), Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (except ornamentals) 4. 2001: 2062 (as Lactucopsis quercina (L.) Vis. & Pančić)