Lactuca quercina

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Lactuca quercina

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Common names

Albanian (Albania): Marule dushkoreA,1; Armenian (Armenia): Կաթնուկ ՇեիB,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Праволистна салатаC,1; Czech (Czech Republic): Locika dubováD,1; Danish (Denmark): Kalk-SalatE,1; French (France): Laitue de ChaixF,1, Laitue à feuilles de ChêneF,1; German (Germany): Eichen-LattichG,1; Italian (Italy): Lattuga saettonaH,1; Norwegian (Norway): KarlsösalatE,1; Romanian (Moldova): Лэптучь де-думбравэI,1, Лэптучь сажитацьJ,1; Russian (Armenia): Латук ШэB,1; Swedish (Sweden): KarlsösallatK,1; Turkish (Turkey): Meşe maruluL
1. recommended

Description

Annual or biennial herbs. Stem up to 200 cm high, with simple or branched tuberous root, stem erect, branched in upper part, glabrous. Leaves glabrous, margin denticulate, apex acute; lower cauline leaves lyrate-pinnatisect, obovate-elliptic, petiolate; middle cauline leaves 5.5–9 × 1–5.5 cm, obovate-elliptic, entire or lyrately pinnatisect with 2–9 pairs of entire or irregularly denticulate lobes, sessile with sagittate-auriculate base. Synflorescence corymbiform or rarely paniculiform, with more than 50 capitula, rarely less. Capitula with 16–22 flowers, with peduncles to 3 cm or sessile. Involucre cylindrical, at fruiting 12–16 × 2–3 mm; phyllaries 15–17, often with anthocyanin spots, margin very narrowly whitish hyaline; outer phyllaries 1.2–3.3 × 0.8–1.2 mm, ovate, acute; inner phyllaries 9–13 × 1.3–2.4 mm, linear-lanceolate, obtuse. Flowers with yellow corolla, tube 3.4–3.7 mm long, hairy in upper part, ligule 5.7–6.9 × 0.8–1.8 mm; anther tube yellowish, 2.6–3.8 mm long; fertile part 2.2–2.4 mm long, apical appendages 0.2–0.3 mm long, basal appendages 0.2–0.3 mm long; style 6–9.5 mm long, style branches 1–1.5 mm long. Achenes beaked, 5.9–9.1 × 1.1–1.4 mm, corpus oblong-ellipsoid in outline, compressed, muricate, black, with 5–6 prominent ribs on each face, base truncate, with completely annular carpopodium, apex attenuate into a concolorous beak 1.5–3.9 mm long, c. 1/3– >1/2 as long as the corpus. Pappus simple, white, 4.3–6.7 mm long, deciduous, bristles scabridulous, most of them with 4–5 cells in diameter at the base.

adapted from Feráková (1977) and Güzel & al. (2018).M,N

Distribution

Asia-Temperate: Iran (Irannative); North Caucasusnative: presence questionable (Chechnyanative, DagestannativeO, Kabardino-BalkariyanativeO,P, Karacheyevo-CherkessiyanativeO, KrasnodarnativeO,P, Severo-OsetiyanativeO,P, StavropolnativeO,P); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkey (TurkeynativeL,Q,R,S) Asia-Tropical: West Himalaya (Jammu-KashmirnativeT) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); AustrianativeU (AustrianativeV); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European RussianativeW); CzechoslovakiaU (Czech RepublicnativeAA,X,Y,Z, SlovakianativeAB,X,Y); East European Russia (East European RussianativeW); FrancenativeAC,AD,AE,AF,AG,AH,AI,U; Germany (GermanynativeAJ,AK,AL,U); Greece (GreecenativeAM,U); Hungary (HungarynativeAN,AO,U); ItalynativeAP,AQ,AR,AS,AT,AU,U; Krym (Krymnative); Romania (Romanianative); South European Russia (South European RussianativeW); Sweden (SwedennativeAV,AW,U); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative: presence questionable); Ukraine (MoldovanativeAX,W, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-HerzegovinanativeAY, CroatianativeAY,AZ, Macedonianative: presence questionableAY, Montenegronative, SerbianativeAY,BA, SlovenianativeBB,BC,BD,BE)

Uses

In France the species was formerly cultivated for the medicinal use of the dried latex (lactarium).BF

Bibliography

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C. Andreev, N. & Kozucharov, S. I., Opredelitel na vissite rastenija v Balgarija. 1992
D. Jindřich Chrtek, Seznam vyšších rostlin květeny České republiky
E. Anderberg, A. A. & Anderberg, A.-L., Den virtuella floran (as Mulgedium quercinum (L.) C. Jeffrey)
F. Anonymous [Association Tela Botanica], Tela Botanica, le réseau de la botanique francophone. Flores en ligne, France métropolitaine
G. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4: Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 10. 2005
H. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982
I. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986
J. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986 (as Lactuca sagittata Waldst. & Kit.)
K. Karlsson, T., Checklista över Nordens kärlväxter . 2004 (as Mulgedium quercinum (L.) C. Jeffrey)
L. Güner A. (ed.), Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). 2012
M. Feráková V., The genus Lactuca L. in Europe. 1977
N. Güzel M. E., Kilian N., Gültepe M. & al., Contributions to the taxonomy of Lactuca (Asteraceae) in Turkey in Turk. J. Bot. 42: 197–207. 2018
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P. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Konspekt flory Kavkaza / Conspectus Florae Caucasi 3(1), 2008
Q. Boissier, E., Flora Orientalis 3. 1875 (as Lactuca sagittata)
R. Boissier, E., Flora Orientalis 3. 1875 (as Lactuca stricta var. armena)
S. Davis P. H., Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 5. 1975 (as Mulgedium quercinum)
T. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995
U. Tutin, T. G. & al., Flora Europaea. 1964-1993 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
V. Adler, W. , Oswald, K. & Fischer, R., Exkursionsflora von Österreich. 1994
W. Fedorov, A. A., Flora evropejskoj časti SSSR 8 [Cvelev, N. N.]. 1989
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Y. Dostál, J., Vel’ký kl’úc na určovanie vyšších rastlín 2. 1992 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
Z. Kubát, K., Klíč ke květeně České republiky. 2002
AA. Slavík, B. & Štěpánková, J., Květena České Republiky 7. 2004
AB. Marhold, K. & Hindák, F., Zoznam nižších a vyšších rastlín Slovenska. 1998 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
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AD. Coste, H., Flore descriptive et illustrée de la France. Supplément 3. 1975 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. chaixii)
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AG. Fournier, P., Les quatre flores de la France, Corse comprise. 1934-1940 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. chaixii)
AH. Fournier, P., Les quatre flores de la France, Corse comprise. 1934-1940 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. stricta)
AI. Guinochet, M. & Vilmorin, R. de, Flore de France 4. 1982
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AK. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4. Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 8. 1994 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
AL. Wisskirchen, R. & Haeupler, H., Standardliste der Farn- und Blütenpflanzen Deutschlands. 1998
AM. Halácsy, E. de, Conspectus florae graecae 2. 1902 (as Lactuca chaixii)
AN. Horváth, F. , Dobolyi, Z. K. , Morschhauser, T, Lőkös, L. , Karas, L. & Szerdahelyi, T., Flóra adatbázis 1.2. Taxon-lista és attribútum allomány. 1995
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AR. Fiori, A., Nuova flora analitica d’Italia 2. 1925-1929 (as Lactuca quercina var. quercina)
AS. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
AT. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1. 1976 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
AU. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1. 1976 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. sagittata)
AV. Karlsson, T. , Förteckning över svenska kärlväxter in Svensk Bot. Tidskr. 91(5). 1998 (as Mulgedium quercinum)
AW. Krok, T. O. B. N. & Almquist, S., Svensk Flora: Fanerogamer och ormbunksvaxter 27, ed. 27. 1994
AX. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
AY. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928-1931
AZ. Nikolić, T., Flora Croatica. Index florae Croaticae, 3 in Nat. Croat. 9, suppl. 1. 2000 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
BA. Josifović, M. & al., Flora SR Srbije 7. 1975 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
BB. Martinčič, A. & Sušnik, F., Mala flora Slovenije. 1969 (as Lactuca sagittata)
BC. Martinčič, A., Mala flora Slovenije, ed. 3. 1999
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BE. Trpin, D. & Vreš, B., Register flore Slovenije. Praprotnice in cvetnice. 1995 (as Lactuca quercina subsp. quercina)
BF. Jeffrey C. - Compositae (Asteraceae) in Hanelt P. (ed.), Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (except ornamentals) 4. 2001: 2062 (as Lactucopsis quercina (L.) Vis. & Pančić)