Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum

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Distribution

Africa: Azores (Açôresnative: doubtfully native); Burundi (BurundiintroducedA); Cameroon (CameroonintroducedA); Canary Is. (Canary Is.native); Cape Provinces (Eastern Cape Provinceintroduced, Western Cape ProvinceintroducedB); Eritrea (EritreaintroducedC); Ethiopia (EthiopiaintroducedD); Free State (Free Stateintroduced); Kenya (KenyaintroducedA,E); KwaZulu-Natal (KwaZulu-Natalintroduced); Lesotho (Lesothointroduced); Madagascar (MadagascarintroducedF); Madeira (Madeiranative); Mauritius (MauritiusintroducedG); Morocconative; Mozambique (MozambiqueintroducedA); Namibia (NamibiaintroducedB); Northern Provinces (Gautengintroduced, MpumalangaintroducedB, North-West ProvinceintroducedB); Rodrigues (RodriguesintroducedG); Rwanda (RwandaintroducedA); Réunion (RéunionintroducedG); Swaziland (SwazilandintroducedB); Tanzania (TanzaniaintroducedA,H,I); Zaire (ZaireintroducedA); Zambia (ZambiaintroducedA); Zimbabwe (ZimbabweintroducedA) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative (AfghanistannativeJ); Altay (AltaynativeK); AmurnativeL; China South-Central (Yunnanintroduced); Cyprus (Cyprusintroduced: naturalizedM,N,O,P,Q); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.R); Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongolnative); Irannative (Irannative); KamchatkanativeS; KhabarovsknativeL; Kirgizistan (Kirgizistannative); KoreaintroducedT (North KoreaintroducedU, South KoreaintroducedV); Kuril Is.nativeL; Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); MongolianativeW; North Caucasusnative (ChechnyanativeX, DagestannativeX, Kabardino-BalkariyanativeX, Karacheyevo-CherkessiyanativeX, Krasnodarnative, Severo-Osetiyanative, StavropolnativeX); Palestine (JordanY,Z); PrimoryenativeS; SakhalinnativeS; Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkey (Turkeynative); Uzbekistan (Uzbekistannative); YemenintroducedAA Asia-Tropical: Assam (MeghalayanativeAB); East Himalaya (Darjilingintroduced); India (PunjabnativeAB, Uttar PradeshnativeAB, West Bengalintroduced); Jawa (Jawaintroduced); Malaya (Peninsular MalaysiaintroducedAC); Nepal (NepalnativeAD); Pakistannative; Philippines (PhilippinesintroducedAE,AF); Vietnam (VietnamintroducedAG,AH); West Himalaya (Himachal PradeshnativeAI, Jammu-Kashmirintroduced) Australasia: Chatham Is. (Chatham Is.introducedAJ); Kermadec Is. (Kermadec Is.introducedAK); New South Wales (Australian Capital TerritoryintroducedAL, New South WalesintroducedAL); New Zealand North (New Zealand NorthintroducedAK); New Zealand South (New Zealand SouthintroducedAK); Queensland (QueenslandintroducedAL); South Australia (South AustraliaintroducedAL,AM); Tasmania (TasmaniaintroducedAL); Victoria (VictoriaintroducedAL,AN) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Austrianative (Austrianative, LiechtensteinnativeAO); Baleares (Balearesnative); Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarus (Belarusnative); Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European Russianative); Corse (Corsenative); CzechoslovakiaAP (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmark (Denmarknative); East European Russia (East European Russianative); Finland (Finlandnative); France (Channel Is.native, Francenative); Føroyar (Føroyarnative); Germany (Germanynative); Great Britain (Great Britainnative); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (Hungarynative); Iceland (Icelandnative); Irelandnative (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative; Kriti (KritiAP,AQ,AR,AS,R); Krym (Krymnative); Netherlands (Netherlandsnative); North European Russia (North European Russianative); Northwest European Russia (Northwest European Russianative); Norway (Norwaynative); Poland (Polandnative); Portugal (Portugalnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative: presence questionableAP,AT,AU,AV,AW); SicilynativeAP (MaltacultivatedAX, SicilynativeAU,AV,AW,AY); South European Russia (South European Russianative); Spainnative (Spainnative); Svalbard (SvalbardintroducedAP); Sweden (Swedennative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-EuropenativeAP,AZ,M); Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, CroatianativeBA,BB, MacedonianativeBA,BC,BD,BE,BF,BG,BH,BI, Montenegronative, Serbianative, SlovenianativeBJ,BK,BL) Northern America: Alberta (AlbertaintroducedBM); British Columbia (British ColumbiaintroducedBM); Greenland (GreenlandintroducedBM); Labrador (LabradorintroducedBM); Manitoba (ManitobaintroducedBM); New Brunswick (New BrunswickintroducedBM); Newfoundland (Newfoundlandnative, St.Pierre-MiquelonintroducedBM); Northwest Territories (Northwest TerritoriesintroducedBM); Nova Scotia (Nova ScotiaintroducedBM); Nunavut (NunavutintroducedBM); Ontario (OntariointroducedBM); Prince Edward I. (Prince Edward I.introducedBM); Québec (Québecnative); Saskatchewan (SaskatchewanintroducedBM); Yukon (YukonintroducedBM) Pacific: Cook Is. (Cook Is.introducedBN); Fiji (FijiintroducedBO); New Caledonia (New CaledoniaintroducedBP) South Africa, Republic of: introduced Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Argentina Distrito FederalintroducedBQ, Buenos AiresintroducedBQ, CorrientesintroducedBR, CórdobaintroducedBR, Entre RíosintroducedBR, FormosaintroducedBQ, La PampaintroducedBQ, MisionesintroducedBR); Argentina Northwest (CatamarcaintroducedBQ, JujuyintroducedBR, La RiojaintroducedBR, MendozaintroducedBR, SaltaintroducedBR, San JuanintroducedBQ,BS, San LuisintroducedBR, Santiago del EsterointroducedBR, TucumanBQ,BT); Argentina South (ChubutintroducedBR, NeuquénintroducedBQ, Rio NegrointroducedBR, Santa CruzintroducedBQ, Santa FéintroducedBR, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)introducedBR); Bolivia (BoliviaintroducedBT,BU,BV); Brazil South (Rio Grande do SulintroducedBR, Santa CatarinaintroducedBQ); Chile Central (BiobíointroducedBQ, CoquimbointroducedBR, La AraucaniaintroducedBR, MauleintroducedBR, O'HigginsintroducedBR, Santiagointroduced, ValparaísointroducedBR,BT); Chile North (AntofagastaintroducedBQ, AtacamaintroducedBR); Chile South (AisénintroducedBR, Los LagosintroducedBQ, MagellanesintroducedBQ); Colombia (Colombiaintroduced); CubaintroducedBW; EcuadorintroducedBX; Guatemala (Guatemalaintroduced); Juan Fernández Is. (Juan Fernández Is.BT); Paraguay (ParaguayintroducedBR); PeruintroducedBY (PeruBT); Uruguay (UruguayintroducedBQ); Venezuela (VenezuelaintroducedBZ)

Description

Plants medium-sized or robust. Leaves numerous; petiole unwinged or winged; leaf blade usually broad (3–6 cm), deeply lobed to pinnatisect; lateral lobes variously triangular or deltoid, margin usually dentate or lobulate; interlobes evident, often spotted or bordered tan or brownish purple, margin usually dentate. Capitulum 3–7 cm wide. Involucre usually more than 1.2 cm wide, base rounded or flat. Outer phyllaries (12–)15–25(–28), usually mid-green to deep green and sometimes pruinose, variously arranged, broadly linear, linear-lanceolate, or less often lanceolate, usually 12–16 × 2.5–3.5 mm, usually irregularly patent to reflexed, unbordered or with inconspicuous narrow paler borders, apex usually flat but not infrequently callose or sometimes minutely corniculate. Ligules yellow; floret tube glabrous or sparsely arachnoid with variously curved soft thin hairs. Achene grayish straw-colored brown or light olivaceous brown, usually 3–4.5 mm; body densely spinulose in upper 1/4–1/3, ± abruptly narrowing into a conic to subcylindric 0.2–0.9 mm cone; beak usually 0.9–1.3 cm, thin. Pappus white to dirty white, usually 6–7 mm. Sexual or agamospermous.

from: Ge X., Kirschner J. & Štepánek J. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 324. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Common names

Arabic (Lebanon): طَرَخْشَقون مَخْزَنيCA,1; Arabic (Syria): طَرَخْشَقون مَخْزَنيCB,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Обикновено глухарчеCC,1; Chinese (China): 西洋蒲公英组 xi yang pu gong ying zuCD; English (Northern America): Common dandelionCE; French (Northern America): Pissenlit officinalCE; German (Germany): Wiesen-KuhblumeCF,1; Italian (Italy): Dente di LeoneCG,1, Piscia caneCG,1, PiscialettoCG,1, SoffioneCG,1, Tarassaco comuneCG,1; Romanian (Moldova): Пэпэдие медичиналэCH,1; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Bồ công anh lùnCI, bồ công anh trung quốcCJ
1. recommended

Uses

Taraxacum officinale is widely used as vegetable or salad. Plants are collected from the wild or cultivated. The green or blanched young leaves are used in salads, cooked in soups or prepared as spinach. The taproots are eaten raw or cooked as a vegetable. Moreover, the dried and roasted taproots provide a coffee substitute, flower heads in bud are sometimes used as capers. Leaves and roots are also used for making tonics and medicinally.CK

Systematics

The name and concept of Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum is synonymous with T. officinale F. H. Wigg. in its wide traditional sense for the entire group of agamospermous polyploid microspecies and the closely related sexually reproducing diploids generally known as "common dandelions", and the use of either name can be chosen as appropriate depending on the context. A lectotypification of Leontodon taraxacum (Taraxacum officinale) from 1985, which made this applicatication impossible, has been shown by Kirschner & Štěpánek (in Taxon 60: 216-220. 2011) to have no standing and has been superseded by these authors (for more details see Synonymy). These authors moreover deliberately refrained from a subsequent epitypification of that name with a particular one of the numerous microspecies included, to allow the use of the name T. officinale in its traditional wide sense.

Bibliography

A. Pope G. V., Flora Zambesiaca 6(1). 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
B. G. Germishuizen & N. L. Meyer, Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist 14. 2003 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
C. Tadesse M. - 16. Scolymus - 29. Tragopogon in Hedberg I. & Edwards S., Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 2004 (as Taraxacum officinale)
D. Tadesse M. - 16. Scolymus - 29. Tragopogon in Hedberg I. & Edwards S., Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 2004 (as Taraxacum officinale)
E. Beentje H. J. & Jeffrey C. - Cichorieae in Polhill R.M. (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae 1. 2000 (as Taraxacum officinale)
F. Humbert H., Composées. Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (189) 3. 1963 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. vulgare)
G. Scott A. J. - Lactuceae in Bosser J., Guého J. & Jeffrey C. (ed.), Flore des Mascareignes. La Réunion, Maurice, Rodrigues 109. 1993
H. Beentje H. J. & Jeffrey C. - Cichorieae in Polhill R.M. (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae 1. 2000 (as Taraxacum officinale)
I. Jeffrey C., Notes on Compositae: I. The Cichorieae in East Tropical Africa in Kew Bull. 18: 427-486. 1966 (as Taraxacum officinale)
J. Breckle S.-W. & al., Vascular plants of Afghanistan, an augmented checklist. 2013 (as Taraxacum officinale)
K. Krasnoborov I. M., Opredelitel' rastenij Respubliki Altaj. 2012: 469 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
L. Charkevič S. S., Sosudistye rastenija sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 6. 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale)
M. Boissier, E., Flora orientalis 3. 1875 (as Taraxacum officinale)
N. Della, A., The Cyprus flora in checklist format. 1999 (as Taraxacum officinale)
O. Georgiades, C., Ê epigenês hlôrida tês Kuprou, taxonomikê, hlôridikê, futogeôgrafikê, oikofusiologikê meletê. 1994 (as Taraxacum officinale)
P. Meikle, R. D., Flora of Cyprus 2. 1985 (as Taraxacum officinale)
Q. Wittzell, H., Miscellaneous Taraxacum notes from Cyprus in Taraxacum Newslett. 21. 1999
R. Rechinger, K. H., Flora aegaea. Flora der Inseln und Halbinseln des Ägäischen Meeres in Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 105(1) (as Taraxacum officinale)
S. Charkevič S. S., Sosudistye rastenija sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 6. 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale)
T. Chang C.-S. & al., Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea Peninsula Flora. 2014 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
U. Park C.-W., The Genera of Vascular Plants of Korea. 2007 (as Taraxacum officinale)
V. Park C.-W., The Genera of Vascular Plants of Korea. 2007 (as Taraxacum officinale)
W. Gubanov I. A., Konspekt flory vnešnej Mongolii (sosudistye rastenija). 1996
X. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Konspekt flory Kavkaza / Conspectus Florae Caucasi 3(1), 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
Y. Post, G. E. , Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai 2. 1933 (as Taraxacum officinale)
Z. Zohary, M. & Feinbrun-Dothan, N., Flora Palaestina 3 (Text) [Feinbrun-Dothan, N.]. 1978
AA. Wood J. R. I., A handbook of the Yemen flora. 1997 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AB. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995
AC. Ridley H. N., The flora of the Malay Peninsula 2. 1923 (as Taraxacum dens-leonis Desf.)
AD. Press J. R. & al., Annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Nepal; updated online version (as Taraxacum officinale)
AE. E. D. Merrill, An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3. 1923 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AF. Nickrent D. L. & al., Leonardo Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines, 2011 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AG. Lê Kim Biên, Thục-vât-chí-Viêt-Nam / Flora of Vietnam 7. Họ cúc / Asteraceae. 2007 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
AH. P.-h. Hô, An illustrated flora of Vietnam 3(1). 1993 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AI. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AJ. Garnock-Jones P. J. - Cichorioideae in Webb C. J., Sykes W. R. & Garnock-Jones P. J., Flora of New Zealand 4. 1988 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AK. Garnock-Jones P. J. - Cichorioideae in Webb C. J., Sykes W. R. & Garnock-Jones P. J., Flora of New Zealand 4. 1988 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AL. Scarlett N. H. - Taraxacum in Wilson A. (ed.), Flora of Australia 37. 2015
AM. Kellermann J. (ed.), Flora of South Australia, Asteraceae, ed. 5. 2014
AN. Scarlett N. H. - 17. Taraxacum in Walsh N. G. & Entwisle T. J., Flora of Victoria 4. 1999
AO. Seitter, H., Die Flora des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. 1977 (as Taraxacum sect. Vulgaria)
AP. Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A., Flora europaea 4 [Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A.]. 1976 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
AQ. Halácsy, E. de, Conspectus florae graecae 2. 1902 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AR. Halácsy, E. de, Supplementum conspectus florae graecae. 1908 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AS. Jahn, R. & Schönfelder, P., Exkursionsflora für Kreta. 1995
AT. Arrigoni, P. V., Note tassonomiche e corologiche sulla flora sarda in Parlatorea 8. 2006 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
AU. Conti, F., Abbate, G., Alessandrini, A., Blasi, C., An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora.. 2005 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
AV. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
AW. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1 (Testo). 1976 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AX. Haslam, S. M., Sell, P. D. & Wolsely, P. A., A Flora of the Maltese Islands. 1977 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AY. Giardina, G., Raimondo, F. M. & Spadaro, V., A catalogue of plants growing in Sicily in Bocconea 20. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AZ. Webb, D. A., The flora of European Turkey in Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., B 65/B/1. 1966 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BA. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928-1931 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. officinale)
BB. Nikolić, T., Flora Croatica. Index florae Croaticae, 3 in Nat. Croat. 9, Suppl. 1. 2000 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BC. Bornmüller, J., Beiträge zur Flora Mazedoniens. Sammlungen in den Kriegsjahren 1916-1918. II in Bot. Jahrb. Syst., Beibl. 136. 1926 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BD. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928-1931 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. erectum)
BE. Matevski, V., Florata na planinskiot masiv Dobra Voda. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BF. Matvejeva, J., Prilog poznavanju flore planine Zeden in Acta Mus. Maced. Sci. Nat. 10(2). 1965 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BG. Nikolovski, T. & Cirimotić, J., Karakteristika na krajbrežnite rastitelni grupacii po srednoto i dolnoto tečenie na r. Vardar (poteg Titov Veles-Gevgelija) in God. Šumarski Inst. (Skopje) 3. 1958 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BH. Stojanov, N., Thracische und macedonische Herbarmaterialen des verstorbenen Prof. Dr. Theodor Nikoloff in Spis. Bulg. Akad. Nauk. 37. 1928 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BI. Vandas, C., Reliquiae Formanekianae. 1909 (as Taraxacum vulgare)
BJ. Martinčič, A. & Sušnik, F., Mala flora Slovenije. 1969 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BK. Martinčič, A., Mala flora Slovenije, ed. 3. 1999 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BL. Trpin, D. & Vreš, B., Register flore Slovenije. Praprotnice in cvetnice. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BM. Brouillet L., Coursol F., Favreau M. & Anions M., VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
BN. Sykes W. R., Flora of the Cook Islands. 2016 (as Taraxacum officinale s.l.)
BO. A. C. Smith & G. D. Carr - Family 186. Asteraceae in A. C. Smith, Flora vitiensis nova 5. 1991 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BP. H. S. Mackee, Les plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. 1985 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BQ. Baeza C. M., Stuessy T. F., Tremetsberger K. & Urtubey E. - Lactucaceae in Zuloaga F. O., Morrone O. & Belgrano M. J. (eds.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentinia, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) 2. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BR. Baeza C. M., Stuessy T. F., Tremetsberger K. & Urtubey E. - Lactucaceae in Zuloaga F. O., Morrone O. & Belgrano M. J. (eds.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentinia, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) 2. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BS. Urtubey E. - Lactuceae in Kiesling R. (ed.), Flora de San Juan, Republica Argentina 3b. 2013 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
BT. Richards, A. J., An account of some neotropical Taraxacum species in Rhodora 78. 1976 (as Taraxacum subspathulatum A. J. Richards)
BU. D. J. N. Hind, An annotated preliminary checklist of the Compositae of Bolivia . 2009 (as Taraxacum subspathulatum A. J. Richards)
BV. Møller P. & al., Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. 2014 (as Taraxacum officinale L.)
BW. Greuter W. & Rankin R., The Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta of Cuba, a preliminary checklist. 2017 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BX. Møller Jørgensen P. & León-Yánez S., Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador in Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BY. Brako L. & Zarucchi J. L., Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru in Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
BZ. Hokche O., Berry P. E. & Huber O. (eds.), Nuevo catálogo de la flora vascular de Venezuela. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CA. Nehmé, M., Dictionnaire Etymologique de la Flore du Liban. 2000 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CB. Nehmé, M., Etymological Dictionary of Syrian Flora. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CC. Andreev, N., Ančev, M., Kožuharov, S. I., Markova, M., Peev, D. & Petrova, A., Opredelitel na visšite rastenija v Bălgarija. 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CD. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
CE. Brouillet L., Coursol F., Favreau M. & Anions M., VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
CF. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4: Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 10. 2005
CG. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
CH. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CI. Lê Kim Biên, Thục-vât-chí-Viêt-Nam / Flora of Vietnam 7. Họ cúc / Asteraceae. 2007 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
CJ. Botany Research and Development Group of Vietnam, Vietnam Plant data center. Plant database. 2007 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
CK. Jeffrey C. - Compositae (Asteraceae) in Hanelt P. (ed.), Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (except ornamentals) 4. 2001: 2064