Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum

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Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum

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Description

Plants medium-sized or robust. Leaves numerous; petiole unwinged or winged; leaf blade usually broad (3–6 cm), deeply lobed to pinnatisect; lateral lobes variously triangular or deltoid, margin usually dentate or lobulate; interlobes evident, often spotted or bordered tan or brownish purple, margin usually dentate. Capitulum 3–7 cm wide. Involucre usually more than 1.2 cm wide, base rounded or flat. Outer phyllaries (12–)15–25(–28), usually mid-green to deep green and sometimes pruinose, variously arranged, broadly linear, linear-lanceolate, or less often lanceolate, usually 12–16 × 2.5–3.5 mm, usually irregularly patent to reflexed, unbordered or with inconspicuous narrow paler borders, apex usually flat but not infrequently callose or sometimes minutely corniculate. Ligules yellow; floret tube glabrous or sparsely arachnoid with variously curved soft thin hairs. Achene grayish straw-colored brown or light olivaceous brown, usually 3–4.5 mm; body densely spinulose in upper 1/4–1/3, ± abruptly narrowing into a conic to subcylindric 0.2–0.9 mm cone; beak usually 0.9–1.3 cm, thin. Pappus white to dirty white, usually 6–7 mm. Sexual or agamospermous.

from: Ge X., Kirschner J. & Štepánek J. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 324. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Systematics

The name and concept of Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum is synonymous with T. officinale F. H. Wigg. in its wide traditional sense for the entire group of agamospermous polyploid microspecies and the closely related sexually reproducing diploids generally known as "common dandelions", and the use of either name can be chosen as appropriate depending on the context. A lectotypification of Leontodon taraxacum (Taraxacum officinale) from 1985, which made this applicatication impossible, has been shown by Kirschner & Štěpánek (in Taxon 60: 216-220. 2011) to have no standing and has been superseded by these authors (for more details see Synonymy). These authors moreover deliberately refrained from a subsequent epitypification of that name with a particular one of the numerous microspecies included, to allow the use of the name T. officinale in its traditional wide sense.

Distribution

Africa: Azoresnative: doubtfully native; BurundiintroducedA; CameroonintroducedA; Canary Is.native; Cape Provinces (Eastern Cape Provinceintroduced, Western Cape ProvinceintroducedB); EritreaintroducedC; EthiopiaintroducedD; Free Stateintroduced; KenyaintroducedA,E; KwaZulu-Natalintroduced; Lesothointroduced; MadagascarintroducedF; Madeira; MauritiusintroducedG; Morocconative; MozambiqueintroducedA; NamibiaintroducedB; Northern Provinces (Gautengintroduced, MpumalangaintroducedB, North-West ProvinceintroducedB); RodriguesintroducedG; RwandaintroducedA; RéunionintroducedG; SwazilandintroducedB; TanzaniaintroducedA,H,I; ZaireintroducedA; ZambiaintroducedA; ZimbabweintroducedA Antarctic: Falkland Is.introducedJ Asia-Temperate: Afghanistannative; AltaynativeK; AmurnativeL; China South-Central (Yunnanintroduced); Cyprusintroduced: naturalizedM,N,O,P,Q; East Aegean Is.nativeR; Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongolnative); Irannative; KamchatkanativeS; KhabarovsknativeL; Kirgizistannative; KoreaintroducedT,U; Kuril Is.nativeL; Lebanon-Syrianative (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); MongolianativeV; North Caucasusnative (ChechnyanativeW, DagestannativeW, Kabardino-BalkariyanativeW, Karacheyevo-CherkessiyanativeW, Krasnodarnative, Severo-Osetiyanative, StavropolnativeW); Palestine (JordanX,Y); PrimoryenativeS; SakhalinnativeS; Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkeynative; Uzbekistannative; YemenintroducedZ Asia-Tropical: Assam (MeghalayanativeAA); East Himalaya (Darjilingintroduced); India (PunjabnativeAA, Uttar PradeshnativeAA, West Bengalintroduced); Jawaintroduced; Malaya (Peninsular MalaysiaintroducedAB); NepalnativeAC; Pakistannative; PhilippinesintroducedAD,AE; VietnamintroducedAF,AG; West Himalaya (Himachal PradeshnativeAH, Jammu-Kashmirnative) Australasia: Chatham Is.introducedAI; Kermadec Is.introducedAJ; New South Wales (Australian Capital TerritoryintroducedAK, New South WalesintroducedAK); New Zealand NorthintroducedAJ; New Zealand SouthintroducedAJ; Queensland (QueenslandintroducedAK); South AustraliaintroducedAK,AL; TasmaniaintroducedAK; VictoriaintroducedAK,AM Europe: Albanianative; Austrianative (Austrianative, LiechtensteinnativeAN); Balearesnative; Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarusnative; Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgarianative; Central European Russianative; CorsenativeAO,AP,AQ,AR; CzechoslovakiaAQ (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmarknative; East European Russianative; Finlandnative; France (Channel Is.native, Francenative); Føroyarnative; Germanynative; Great Britainnative; Greecenative; Hungarynative; Icelandnative; Irelandnative (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative (Italynative); Kritinative: reported in errorAS; Krymnative; Netherlandsnative; North European Russianative; Northwest European Russianative; Norwaynative; Polandnative; Portugalnative; Romanianative; Sardegnanative: presence questionableAP,AQ,AR,AT,AU; SicilynativeAQ (MaltacultivatedAV, SicilynativeAP,AR,AU,AW); South European Russianative; SpainnativeAQ (Andorranative, Spainnative); SvalbardintroducedAQ; Swedennative; Switzerlandnative; Turkey-in-Europenative; Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, CroatianativeAX,AY, MacedonianativeAX,AZ,BA,BB,BC,BD,BE,BF, Montenegronative, Serbianative, SlovenianativeBG,BH,BI) Northern America: AlbertaintroducedBJ; British ColumbiaintroducedBJ; GreenlandintroducedBJ; LabradorintroducedBJ; ManitobaintroducedBJ; New BrunswickintroducedBJ; Newfoundland (Newfoundlandnative, St.Pierre-MiquelonintroducedBJ); Northwest TerritoriesintroducedBJ; Nova ScotiaintroducedBJ; NunavutintroducedBJ; OntariointroducedBJ; Prince Edward I.introducedBJ; Québecnative; SaskatchewanintroducedBJ; YukonintroducedBJ Pacific: Cook Is.introducedBK; FijiintroducedBL; New CaledoniaintroducedBM South Africa, Republic of: introduced Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Argentina Distrito FederalintroducedBN, Buenos AiresintroducedBN, CorrientesintroducedBO, CórdobaintroducedBO, Entre RíosintroducedBO, FormosaintroducedBN, La PampaintroducedBN, MisionesintroducedBO); Argentina Northwest (CatamarcaintroducedBN, JujuyintroducedBO, La RiojaintroducedBO, MendozaintroducedBO, SaltaintroducedBO, San JuanintroducedBN,BP, San LuisintroducedBO, Santiago del EsterointroducedBO, TucumanintroducedBN); Argentina South (ChubutintroducedBO, NeuquénintroducedBN, Rio NegrointroducedBO, Santa CruzintroducedBN, Santa FéintroducedBO, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)introducedBO); BoliviaintroducedBQ,BR,BS; Brazil South (Rio Grande do SulintroducedBO, Santa CatarinaintroducedBN); Chile Central (BiobíointroducedBN, CoquimbointroducedBO, La AraucaniaintroducedBO, MauleintroducedBO, O'HigginsintroducedBO, Santiagointroduced, ValparaísointroducedBO,BS); Chile North (AntofagastaintroducedBN, AtacamaintroducedBO); Chile South (AisénintroducedBO, Los LagosintroducedBN, MagellanesintroducedBN); Colombiaintroduced; CubaintroducedBT; EcuadorintroducedBU; Guatemalaintroduced; Juan Fernández Is.BS; ParaguayintroducedBO; PeruintroducedBS,BV; UruguayintroducedBN; VenezuelaintroducedBW

Common names

Arabic (Lebanon): طَرَخْشَقون مَخْزَنيBX,1; Arabic (Syria): طَرَخْشَقون مَخْزَنيBY,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Обикновено глухарчеBZ,1; Chinese (China): 西洋蒲公英组 xi yang pu gong ying zuCA; English (Northern America): Common dandelionCB; French (Northern America): Pissenlit officinalCB; German (Germany): Wiesen-KuhblumeCC,1; Italian (Italy): Dente di LeoneCD,1, Piscia caneCD,1, PiscialettoCD,1, SoffioneCD,1, Tarassaco comuneCD,1; Romanian (Moldova): Пэпэдие медичиналэCE,1; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Bồ công anh lùnCF, bồ công anh trung quốcCG
1. recommended

Uses

Taraxacum officinale is widely used as vegetable or salad. Plants are collected from the wild or cultivated. The green or blanched young leaves are used in salads, cooked in soups or prepared as spinach. The taproots are eaten raw or cooked as a vegetable. Moreover, the dried and roasted taproots provide a coffee substitute, flower heads in bud are sometimes used as capers. Leaves and roots are also used for making tonics and medicinally.CH

Bibliography

A. Pope G. V., Flora Zambesiaca 6(1). 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
B. G. Germishuizen & N. L. Meyer, Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist 14. 2003 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
C. Tadesse M. - 16. Scolymus - 29. Tragopogon in Hedberg I. & Edwards S., Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 2004 (as Taraxacum officinale)
D. Tadesse M. - 16. Scolymus - 29. Tragopogon in Hedberg I. & Edwards S., Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 2004 (as Taraxacum officinale)
E. Beentje H. J. & Jeffrey C. - Cichorieae in Polhill R.M. (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae 1. 2000 (as Taraxacum officinale)
F. Humbert H., Composées. Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (189) 3. 1963 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. vulgare)
G. Scott A. J. - Lactuceae in Bosser J., Guého J. & Jeffrey C. (ed.), Flore des Mascareignes. La Réunion, Maurice, Rodrigues 109. 1993
H. Beentje H. J. & Jeffrey C. - Cichorieae in Polhill R.M. (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae 1. 2000 (as Taraxacum officinale)
I. Jeffrey C., Notes on Compositae: I. The Cichorieae in East Tropical Africa in Kew Bull. 18: 427-486. 1966 (as Taraxacum officinale)
J. Heller T., Upson R. & Lewis R., Field guide to the plants of the Falkland Islands. 2019 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
K. Krasnoborov I. M., Opredelitel' rastenij Respubliki Altaj. 2012: 469 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
L. Charkevič S. S., Sosudistye rastenija sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 6. 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale)
M. Boissier, E., Flora orientalis 3. 1875 (as Taraxacum officinale)
N. Della, A., The Cyprus flora in checklist format. 1999 (as Taraxacum officinale)
O. Georgiades, C., Ê epigenês hlôrida tês Kuprou, taxonomikê, hlôridikê, futogeôgrafikê, oikofusiologikê meletê. 1994 (as Taraxacum officinale)
P. Meikle, R. D., Flora of Cyprus 2. 1985 (as Taraxacum officinale)
Q. Wittzell, H., Miscellaneous Taraxacum notes from Cyprus in Taraxacum Newslett. 21. 1999
R. Rechinger, K. H., Flora aegaea. Flora der Inseln und Halbinseln des Ägäischen Meeres in Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 105(1) (as Taraxacum officinale)
S. Charkevič S. S., Sosudistye rastenija sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 6. 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale)
T. Chang C.-S. & al., Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea Peninsula Flora. 2014 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
U. Pak J.-H. & Yang J.-Y. - Cichorieae in Park C.-W. (ed.), Flora of Korea 6c-1. Asteridae: Asteraceae (1). 2017
V. Gubanov I. A., Konspekt flory vnešnej Mongolii (sosudistye rastenija). 1996
W. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Konspekt flory Kavkaza / Conspectus Florae Caucasi 3(1), 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
X. Post, G. E. , Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai 2. 1933 (as Taraxacum officinale)
Y. Zohary, M. & Feinbrun-Dothan, N., Flora Palaestina 3 (Text) [Feinbrun-Dothan, N.]. 1978
Z. Wood J. R. I., A handbook of the Yemen flora. 1997 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AA. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995
AB. Ridley H. N., The flora of the Malay Peninsula 2. 1923 (as Taraxacum dens-leonis Desf.)
AC. Press J. R. & al., Annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Nepal; updated online version (as Taraxacum officinale)
AD. E. D. Merrill, An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3. 1923 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AE. Nickrent D. L. & al., Leonardo Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines, 2011 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AF. Lê Kim Biên, Thục-vât-chí-Viêt-Nam / Flora of Vietnam 7. Họ cúc / Asteraceae. 2007 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
AG. P.-h. Hô, An illustrated flora of Vietnam 3(1). 1993 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AH. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AI. Garnock-Jones P. J. - Cichorioideae in Webb C. J., Sykes W. R. & Garnock-Jones P. J., Flora of New Zealand 4. 1988 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AJ. Garnock-Jones P. J. - Cichorioideae in Webb C. J., Sykes W. R. & Garnock-Jones P. J., Flora of New Zealand 4. 1988 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AK. Scarlett N. H. - Taraxacum in Wilson A. (ed.), Flora of Australia 37. 2015
AL. Kellermann J. (ed.), Flora of South Australia, Asteraceae, ed. 5. 2014
AM. Scarlett N. H. - 17. Taraxacum in Walsh N. G. & Entwisle T. J., Flora of Victoria 4. 1999
AN. Seitter, H., Die Flora des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. 1977 (as Taraxacum sect. Vulgaria)
AO. Guinochet, M. & Vilmorin, R. de, Flore de France 4. 1982 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AP. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
AQ. Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A., Flora europaea 4 [Tutin, T. G., Heywood, V. H., Burges, N. A., Moore, D. M., Valentine, D. H., Walters, S. M. & Webb, D. A.]. 1976 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
AR. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1 (Testo). 1976 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AS. Jahn, R. & Schönfelder, P., Exkursionsflora für Kreta. 1995
AT. Arrigoni, P. V., Note tassonomiche e corologiche sulla flora sarda in Parlatorea 8. 2006 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
AU. Conti, F., Abbate, G., Alessandrini, A., Blasi, C., An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora.. 2005 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
AV. Haslam, S. M., Sell, P. D. & Wolsely, P. A., A Flora of the Maltese Islands. 1977 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AW. Giardina, G., Raimondo, F. M. & Spadaro, V., A catalogue of plants growing in Sicily in Bocconea 20. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AX. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928-1931 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. officinale)
AY. Nikolić, T., Flora Croatica. Index florae Croaticae, 3 in Nat. Croat. 9, Suppl. 1. 2000 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AZ. Bornmüller, J., Beiträge zur Flora Mazedoniens. Sammlungen in den Kriegsjahren 1916-1918. II in Bot. Jahrb. Syst., Beibl. 136. 1926 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BA. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928-1931 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. erectum)
BB. Matevski, V., Florata na planinskiot masiv Dobra Voda. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BC. Matvejeva, J., Prilog poznavanju flore planine Zeden in Acta Mus. Maced. Sci. Nat. 10(2). 1965 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BD. Nikolovski, T. & Cirimotić, J., Karakteristika na krajbrežnite rastitelni grupacii po srednoto i dolnoto tečenie na r. Vardar (poteg Titov Veles-Gevgelija) in God. Šumarski Inst. (Skopje) 3. 1958 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BE. Stojanov, N., Thracische und macedonische Herbarmaterialen des verstorbenen Prof. Dr. Theodor Nikoloff in Spis. Bulg. Akad. Nauk. 37. 1928 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BF. Vandas, C., Reliquiae Formanekianae. 1909 (as Taraxacum vulgare)
BG. Martinčič, A. & Sušnik, F., Mala flora Slovenije. 1969 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BH. Martinčič, A., Mala flora Slovenije, ed. 3. 1999 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BI. Trpin, D. & Vreš, B., Register flore Slovenije. Praprotnice in cvetnice. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BJ. Brouillet L., Coursol F., Favreau M. & Anions M., VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
BK. Sykes W. R., Flora of the Cook Islands. 2016 (as Taraxacum officinale s.l.)
BL. A. C. Smith & G. D. Carr - Family 186. Asteraceae in A. C. Smith, Flora vitiensis nova 5. 1991 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BM. H. S. Mackee, Les plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. 1985 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BN. Baeza C. M., Stuessy T. F., Tremetsberger K. & Urtubey E. - Lactucaceae in Zuloaga F. O., Morrone O. & Belgrano M. J. (eds.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentinia, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) 2. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BO. Baeza C. M., Stuessy T. F., Tremetsberger K. & Urtubey E. - Lactucaceae in Zuloaga F. O., Morrone O. & Belgrano M. J. (eds.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentinia, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) 2. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BP. Urtubey E. - Lactuceae in Kiesling R. (ed.), Flora de San Juan, Republica Argentina 3b. 2013 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
BQ. D. J. N. Hind, An annotated preliminary checklist of the Compositae of Bolivia . 2009 (as Taraxacum subspathulatum A. J. Richards)
BR. Møller P. & al., Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. 2014 (as Taraxacum officinale L.)
BS. Richards, A. J., An account of some neotropical Taraxacum species in Rhodora 78. 1976 (as Taraxacum subspathulatum A. J. Richards)
BT. Greuter W. & Rankin R., The Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta of Cuba, a preliminary checklist. 2017 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BU. Møller Jørgensen P. & León-Yánez S., Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador in Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BV. Brako L. & Zarucchi J. L., Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru in Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
BW. Hokche O., Berry P. E. & Huber O. (eds.), Nuevo catálogo de la flora vascular de Venezuela. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BX. Nehmé, M., Dictionnaire Etymologique de la Flore du Liban. 2000 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BY. Nehmé, M., Etymological Dictionary of Syrian Flora. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BZ. Andreev, N., Ančev, M., Kožuharov, S. I., Markova, M., Peev, D. & Petrova, A., Opredelitel na visšite rastenija v Bălgarija. 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CA. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
CB. Brouillet L., Coursol F., Favreau M. & Anions M., VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
CC. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4: Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 10. 2005
CD. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
CE. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CF. Lê Kim Biên, Thục-vât-chí-Viêt-Nam / Flora of Vietnam 7. Họ cúc / Asteraceae. 2007 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
CG. Botany Research and Development Group of Vietnam, Vietnam Plant data center. Plant database. 2007 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
CH. Jeffrey C. - Compositae (Asteraceae) in Hanelt P. (ed.), Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (except ornamentals) 4. 2001: 2064