Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum

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Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum

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Common names

Arabic (Lebanon): طَرَخْشَقون مَخْزَنيA,1; Arabic (Syria): طَرَخْشَقون مَخْزَنيB,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Обикновено глухарчеC,1; Chinese (China): 西洋蒲公英组 xi yang pu gong ying zuD; English (Northern America): Common dandelionE; French (Northern America): Pissenlit officinalE; German (Germany): Wiesen-KuhblumeF,1; Italian (Italy): Dente di LeoneG,1, Piscia caneG,1, PiscialettoG,1, SoffioneG,1, Tarassaco comuneG,1; Romanian (Moldova): Пэпэдие медичиналэH,1; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Bồ công anh lùnI, bồ công anh trung quốcJ
1. recommended

Systematics

The name and concept of Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum is synonymous with T. officinale F. H. Wigg. in its wide traditional sense for the entire group of agamospermous polyploid microspecies and the closely related sexually reproducing diploids generally known as "common dandelions", and the use of either name can be chosen as appropriate depending on the context. A lectotypification of Leontodon taraxacum (Taraxacum officinale) from 1985, which made this applicatication impossible, has been shown by Kirschner & Štěpánek (in Taxon 60: 216-220. 2011) to have no standing and has been superseded by these authors (for more details see Synonymy). These authors moreover deliberately refrained from a subsequent epitypification of that name with a particular one of the numerous microspecies included, to allow the use of the name T. officinale in its traditional wide sense.

Description

Plants medium-sized or robust. Leaves numerous; petiole unwinged or winged; leaf blade usually broad (3–6 cm), deeply lobed to pinnatisect; lateral lobes variously triangular or deltoid, margin usually dentate or lobulate; interlobes evident, often spotted or bordered tan or brownish purple, margin usually dentate. Capitulum 3–7 cm wide. Involucre usually more than 1.2 cm wide, base rounded or flat. Outer phyllaries (12–)15–25(–28), usually mid-green to deep green and sometimes pruinose, variously arranged, broadly linear, linear-lanceolate, or less often lanceolate, usually 12–16 × 2.5–3.5 mm, usually irregularly patent to reflexed, unbordered or with inconspicuous narrow paler borders, apex usually flat but not infrequently callose or sometimes minutely corniculate. Ligules yellow; floret tube glabrous or sparsely arachnoid with variously curved soft thin hairs. Achene grayish straw-colored brown or light olivaceous brown, usually 3–4.5 mm; body densely spinulose in upper 1/4–1/3, ± abruptly narrowing into a conic to subcylindric 0.2–0.9 mm cone; beak usually 0.9–1.3 cm, thin. Pappus white to dirty white, usually 6–7 mm. Sexual or agamospermous.

from: Ge X., Kirschner J. & Štepánek J. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 324. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Distribution

Africa: Azores nativeK; Burundi introducedL; Cameroon introducedL; Canary Is. nativenative; Cape Provinces (Eastern Cape Province introducedintroducedM, Western Cape Province introducedM); Eritrea introducedN; Ethiopia introducedO; Free State introducedintroducedM; Kenya introducedintroducedL,P; KwaZulu-Natal introducedintroducedM; Lesotho introducedintroducedM; Madagascar introducedQ; Madeira; Mauritius introducedR; Morocco nativenativeS; Mozambique introducedL; Namibia introducedM; Northern Provinces (Gauteng introducedintroducedM, Mpumalanga introducedM, North-West Province introducedM); Rodrigues introducedR; Rwanda introducedL; Réunion introducedR; Swaziland introducedM; Tanzania introducedintroducedintroducedL,T,U; Zaire introducedL; Zambia introducedL; Zimbabwe introducedL Antarctic: Falkland Is. introducedV Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan nativenativeW; Altay nativeX; Amur nativeY; China South-Central (Yunnan introduced); Cyprus introduced: naturalizedAA,AB,AC,AD,Z; East Aegean Is. nativeAE; Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol native); Iran native; Kamchatka nativeAF; Khabarovsk nativeY; Kirgizistan nativenativeAG; Korea introducedAH,AI; Kuril Is. nativeY; Lebanon-Syria native (Lebanon nativenativeAJ,AK,Z, Syria nativenativeAJ,AL,Z); Mongolia nativeAM; North Caucasus nativenativeAN,AO,AP,AQ,AR (Chechnya nativeAS, Dagestan nativeAS, Kabardino-Balkariya nativeAS, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiya nativeAS, Krasnodar nativenativeAS, Severo-Osetiya nativenativeAS, Stavropol nativeAS); Palestine (Jordan native: reported in errorAL,AT); Primorye nativeAF; Sakhalin nativeAF; Transcaucasus (Abkhaziya nativenativeAO,AP,AQ,AS,AU,AV, Adzhariya nativenativeAS, Armenia nativenativeAO,AP,AQ,AS,AW,Z, Azerbaijan nativenativeAO,AP,AQ,AS,AX, Georgia nativenativeAS,AY, Nakhichevan native); Turkey nativenativeAE,AL,AZ,Z; Uzbekistan native; Yemen introducedBA Asia-Tropical: Assam (Meghalaya nativeBB); East Himalaya (Darjiling introduced); India (Punjab nativeBB, Uttar Pradesh nativeBB, West Bengal introduced); Jawa introduced; Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia introducedBC); Nepal nativeBD; Pakistan native; Philippines introducedBE,BF; Vietnam introducedBG,BH; West Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh nativeBI, Jammu-Kashmir nativenativeBJ,BK) Australasia: Chatham Is. introducedBL; Kermadec Is. introducedBM; New South Wales (Australian Capital Territory introducedBN, New South Wales introducedBN); New Zealand North introducedBM; New Zealand South introducedBM; Queensland (Queensland introducedBN); South Australia introducedBN,BO; Tasmania introducedBN; Victoria introducedBN,BP Europe: Albania nativenativeBQ,BR,BS,BT,BU,K; Austria nativenativeK (Austria native, Liechtenstein nativeBV); Baleares nativenativeBW,BX,K; Baltic States (Estonia nativenativeBY,BZ, Kaliningrad native, Latvia nativenativeBZ,CA, Lithuania nativenativeBZ); Belarus nativenativeAQ; Belgium nativenativeK (Belgium native, Luxembourg native); Bulgaria nativenativeBR,BS,CB,CC,CD,K; Central European Russia nativenativeAQ; Corse nativeCE,CF,CG,K; CzechoslovakiaK (Czech Republic nativenativeCH,CI,CJ, Slovakia nativenativeCH,CI,CK); Denmark nativenativeK; East European Russia nativenativeAQ; Finland nativenativeCL,K; France (Channel Is. native, France nativenativeCE,CM,K); Føroyar nativenativeK; Germany nativenativeK; Great Britain nativenativeK; Greece nativenativeBR,BS,CN,CO,K,Z; Hungary nativenativeCP,CQ,K; Iceland nativenativeK; Ireland nativenativeK (Ireland native, Northern Ireland native); Italy nativenativeCF,CG,CR,CS,K (Italy native); Kriti native: reported in errorCT; Krym nativenativeAQ,CU,CV,Z; Netherlands nativenativeCW,K; North European Russia nativenativeAQ; Northwest European Russia nativenativeAQ; Norway nativenativeK; Poland nativenativeCX,CY,CZ,K; Portugal nativenativeK; Romania nativenativeBS,DA,DB,DC,K; Sardegna native: presence questionableCF,CG,CR,DD,K; Sicily nativeK (Malta cultivatedDE, Sicily nativeCF,CG,CR,DF); South European Russia nativenativeAQ; Spain nativeK (Andorra native, Spain nativenativeBW,BX,DG,DH,DI); Svalbard introducedK; Sweden nativenativeK; Switzerland nativenativeDJ,DK,K; Turkey-in-Europe nativenativeDL,K,Z; Ukraine (Moldova nativenativeAQ,DM, Ukraine nativenativeAQ,CU,DN); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina nativenativeBR,BS,DO, Croatia nativeBS,DP, Macedonia nativeBR,BS,DQ,DR,DS,DT,DU,DV, Montenegro nativenativeBR,BS,DW,DX, Serbia nativenativeBR,BS,DY, Slovenia nativeDZ,EA,EB) Northern America: Alberta introducedEC; British Columbia introducedEC; Greenland introducedEC; Labrador introducedEC; Manitoba introducedEC; New Brunswick introducedEC; Newfoundland (Newfoundland native, St.Pierre-Miquelon introducedEC); Northwest Territories introducedEC; Nova Scotia introducedEC; Nunavut introducedEC; Ontario introducedEC; Prince Edward I. introducedEC; Québec native; Saskatchewan introducedEC; Yukon introducedEC Pacific: Cook Is. introducedED; Fiji introducedEE; New Caledonia introducedEF South Africa, Republic of: introduced Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Argentina Distrito Federal introducedEG, Buenos Aires introducedEG, Corrientes introducedEH, Córdoba introducedEH, Entre Ríos introducedEH, Formosa introducedEG, La Pampa introducedEG, Misiones introducedEH); Argentina Northwest (Catamarca introducedEG, Jujuy introducedEH, La Rioja introducedEH, Mendoza introducedEH, Salta introducedEH, San Juan introducedEG,EI, San Luis introducedEH, Santiago del Estero introducedEH, Tucuman introducedEG); Argentina South (Chubut introducedEH, Neuquén introducedEG, Rio Negro introducedEH, Santa Cruz introducedEG, Santa Fé introducedEH, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) introducedEH); Bolivia introducedintroducedEJ,EK,EL; Brazil South (Rio Grande do Sul introducedEH, Santa Catarina introducedEG); Chile Central (Biobío introducedEG, Coquimbo introducedEH, La Araucania introducedEH, Maule introducedEH, O'Higgins introducedEH, Santiago introducedintroducedEG, Valparaíso introducedEH,EL); Chile North (Antofagasta introducedEG, Atacama introducedEH); Chile South (Aisén introducedEH, Los Lagos introducedEG, Magellanes introducedEG); Colombia introducedintroducedEM; Cuba introducedEN; Ecuador introducedEO; Guatemala introduced; Juan Fernández Is.EL; Paraguay introducedEH; Peru introducedEL,EP; Uruguay introducedEG; Venezuela introducedEQ

Uses

Taraxacum officinale is widely used as vegetable or salad. Plants are collected from the wild or cultivated. The green or blanched young leaves are used in salads, cooked in soups or prepared as spinach. The taproots are eaten raw or cooked as a vegetable. Moreover, the dried and roasted taproots provide a coffee substitute, flower heads in bud are sometimes used as capers. Leaves and roots are also used for making tonics and medicinally.ER

Bibliography

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B. Nehmé, M., Etymological Dictionary of Syrian Flora. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
C. Andreev, N., Ančev, M., Kožuharov, S. I., Markova, M., Peev, D. & Petrova, A., Opredelitel na visšite rastenija v Bălgarija. 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale)
D. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
E. Brouillet L., Coursol F., Favreau M. & Anions M., VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
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H. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986 (as Taraxacum officinale)
I. Lê Kim Biên, Thục-vât-chí-Viêt-Nam / Flora of Vietnam 7. Họ cúc / Asteraceae. 2007 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
J. Botany Research and Development Group of Vietnam, Vietnam Plant data center. Plant database. 2007 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
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M. Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L., Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist 14. 2003 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
N. Tadesse M. - 16. Scolymus - 29. Tragopogon in Hedberg I. & Edwards S., Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 2004 (as Taraxacum officinale)
O. Tadesse M. - 16. Scolymus - 29. Tragopogon in Hedberg I. & Edwards S., Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 2004 (as Taraxacum officinale)
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Q. Humbert H., Composées. Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (189) 3. 1963 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. vulgare)
R. Scott A. J. - Lactuceae in Bosser J., Guého J. & Jeffrey C. (ed.), Flore des Mascareignes. La Réunion, Maurice, Rodrigues 109. 1993
S. Valdés, B., Rejdali, M., Achhal El Kadmiri, A., Jury, S. L. & Montserrat, J. M., Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du nord du Maroc, incluant des clés d’identification 2. 2002 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
T. Beentje H. J. & Jeffrey C. - Cichorieae in Polhill R.M. (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae 1. 2000 (as Taraxacum officinale)
U. Jeffrey C., Notes on Compositae: I. The Cichorieae in East Tropical Africa in Kew Bull. 18: 427-486. 1966 (as Taraxacum officinale)
V. Heller T., Upson R. & Lewis R., Field guide to the plants of the Falkland Islands. 2019 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
W. Breckle S.-W. & al., Vascular plants of Afghanistan, an augmented checklist. 2013 (as Taraxacum officinale)
X. Krasnoborov I. M., Opredelitel' rastenij Respubliki Altaj. 2012: 469 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
Y. Charkevič S. S., Sosudistye rastenija sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 6. 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale)
Z. Boissier, E., Flora orientalis 3. 1875 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AA. Della, A., The Cyprus flora in checklist format. 1999 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AB. Georgiades, C., Ê epigenês hlôrida tês Kuprou, taxonomikê, hlôridikê, futogeôgrafikê, oikofusiologikê meletê. 1994 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AC. Meikle, R. D., Flora of Cyprus 2. 1985 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AD. Wittzell, H., Miscellaneous Taraxacum notes from Cyprus in Taraxacum Newslett. 21: 5-6. 1999
AE. Rechinger K. H., Flora aegaea. Flora der Inseln und Halbinseln des Ägäischen Meeres in Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 105(1). 1944 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AF. Charkevič S. S., Sosudistye rastenija sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 6. 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AG. Lazkov G. A. & Sultanova B. A., Kadastr flory Kyrgyzstana: sosudistye rasteniya / Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan. – Norrlinia 24. 2011 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
AH. Chang C.-S. & al., Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea Peninsula Flora. 2014 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
AI. Pak J.-H. & Yang J.-Y. - Cichorieae in Park C.-W. (ed.), Flora of Korea 6c-1. Asteridae: Asteraceae (1). 2017
AJ. Mouterde, P., Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie 3, Texte. 1978–1984 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AK. Tohmé G. & Tohmé H., Illustrated flora of Lebanon. 2007 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AL. Post, G. E., Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai 2. 1933 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AM. Gubanov I. A., Konspekt flory vnešnej Mongolii (sosudistye rastenija). 1996
AN. Galuško, A. I., Flora severnogo Kavkaza 3. 1980 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AO. Grossgejm A. A., Flora kavkaza 4. 1934 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AP. Grossgejm A. A., Opredelitel’ rastenij Kavkaza. 1949 (as Taraxacum vulgare)
AQ. Komarov, V. L., Flora SSSR 29 [Bobrov, E. G. & Cvelev, N. N.]. 1964 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AR. Zernov, A. S., Rastenija severo-zapadnogo Zakavkaz’ja. 2000 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AS. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Konspekt flory Kavkaza / Conspectus Florae Caucasi 3(1), 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
AT. Zohary, M. & Feinbrun-Dothan, N., Flora Palaestina 3 (Text) [Feinbrun-Dothan, N.]. 1978
AU. Gagnidze R., Flora Gruzii, ed. 2, 14. 2003 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AV. Kechoveli, N. N., Flora Gruzii 8. 1952 (as Taraxacum vulgare)
AW. Tahtadžjan A. L., Flora Armenii 9. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AX. Karjagin, I. I., Flora azerbajdžana 8. 1961 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AY. Gagnidze R., Flora Gruzii, ed. 2, 14. 2003 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
AZ. Davis P. H., Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 5. 1975 (as Taraxacum vulgare)
BA. Wood J. R. I., A handbook of the Yemen flora. 1997 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BB. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995
BC. Ridley H. N., The flora of the Malay Peninsula 2. 1923 (as Taraxacum dens-leonis Desf.)
BD. Press J. R. & al., Annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Nepal; updated online version (as Taraxacum officinale)
BE. Merrill, E.D., An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3. 1923 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BF. Nickrent D. L. & al., Leonardo Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines, 2011 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BG. Hô, P.-h., An illustrated flora of Vietnam 3(1). 1993 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BH. Lê Kim Biên, Thục-vât-chí-Viêt-Nam / Flora of Vietnam 7. Họ cúc / Asteraceae. 2007 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
BI. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BJ. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BK. Kirschner J., Štěpánek J., Klimeš L. & al., The Taraxacum flora of Ladakh, with notes on the adjacent regions of the West Himalaya in Phytotaxa 457: 1-409. 2020
BL. Garnock-Jones P. J. - Cichorioideae in Webb C. J., Sykes W. R. & Garnock-Jones P. J., Flora of New Zealand 4. 1988 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BM. Garnock-Jones P. J. - Cichorioideae in Webb C. J., Sykes W. R. & Garnock-Jones P. J., Flora of New Zealand 4. 1988 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BN. Scarlett N. H. - Taraxacum in Wilson A. (ed.), Flora of Australia 37. 2015
BO. Kellermann J. (ed.), Flora of South Australia, Asteraceae, ed. 5. 2014
BP. Scarlett N. H. - 17. Taraxacum in Walsh N. G. & Entwisle T. J., Flora of Victoria 4. 1999
BQ. Demiri M., Flora ekskursioniste e shqipërisë. 1983 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BR. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928–1931 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. erectum)
BS. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928–1931 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. officinale)
BT. Vangjeli, J., Flora e Shqipërisë 4. 1999 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. officinale)
BU. Vangjeli, J., Udhëheqës fushor i florës së Shqipërisë. 2003 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. officinale)
BV. Seitter, H., Die Flora des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. 1977 (as Taraxacum sect. Vulgaria)
BW. Bolòs, O. de & Vigo, J., Flora dels països catalans 3. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BX. Bolòs, O. de, Vigo, J., Masalles, R. M. & Ninot, J. M., Flora manual dels països catalans. 1990 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BY. Eichwald, K. & al., Eesti NSV floora 6. 1978 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BZ. Kuusk, V., Tabaka, L. & Jankjavičene, R., Flora baltijskih republik. Svodka sosudistyh rastenij 3. 2003 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CA. Tabaka L., Gabrilova G. & Fatare I., Flora sosudistyh rastenij Latvijskoj SSR. 1988 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CB. Andreev, N., Ančev, M., Kožuharov, S. I., Markova, M., Peev, D. & Petrova, A., Opredelitel na visšite rastenija v Bălgarija. 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CC. As’ov, B., Petrova, A., Dimitrov, D. & Vasilev, R., Konspekt na visšata flora na Bălgarija, ed. 2. 2002 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CD. Stojanov, N. & Stefanov, B., Flora na Bălgarija, 4 [Stojanov, N., Stefanov, B. & Kitanov, B.], 2. 1967 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. officinale)
CE. Guinochet, M. & Vilmorin, R. de, Flore de France 4. 1982 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CF. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
CG. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1 (Testo). 1976 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CH. Dostál J., Nová kvetena CSSR 2. 1989 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CI. Dostál J., Vel’ký kl’úc na určovanie vyšších rastlín 2. 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CJ. Kubát, K., Klíč ke květeně České republiky. 2002 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CK. Marhold, K. & Hindák, F., Zoznam nižších a vyšších rastlín Slovenska. 1998 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CL. Sonck, C. E., Översikt av Taraxacum-arnerna i Enare Lappmark. Del I in Norrlinia 3. 1991 (as Taraxacum rubescens)
CM. Fournier, P., Les quatre flores de la France, Corse comprise. 1934–1940 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. vulgare)
CN. Halácsy, E. de, Conspectus florae graecae 2. 1902 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CO. Halácsy, E. de, Supplementum conspectus florae graecae. 1908 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CP. Horváth, F., Dobolyi, Z. K., Morschhauser, T, Lőkös, L., Karas, L. & Szerdahelyi, T., Flóra adatbázis 1.2. Taxon-lista és attribútum allomány. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CQ. Simon, T., A magyarországi edényes flóra határozója. Harasztok - virágos növények. 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CR. Conti, F., Abbate, G., Alessandrini, A., Blasi, C., An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora. 2005 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
CS. Fiori, A., Nuova flora analitica d’Italia 2. 1925–1929 (as Taraxacum officinale var. vulgare)
CT. Jahn, R. & Schönfelder, P., Exkursionsflora für Kreta. 1995
CU. Prokudin, J. N. (ed.), Opredelitel’ vysših rastenij Ukrainy. 1987 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CV. Vul’f, E. V., Flora Kryma 3(3) [Rubcov, N. I. & Privalova, L. A.]. 1969 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CW. Meijden, R. van der, Heukels' Flora van Nederland, ed. 21. 1990 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CX. Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkova, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M., Flowering plants and pteridophytes of Poland. A Checklist. in Biodivers. Poland 1. 2002 (as Taraxacum anceps)
CY. Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkova, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M., Flowering plants and pteridophytes of Poland. A Checklist. in Biodivers. Poland 1. 2002 (as Taraxacum eumorphum)
CZ. Mirek, Z., Vascular plants of Poland. A Checklist. in Polish Bot. Stud., Guideb. Ser. 15. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DA. Ciocârlan, V., Flora ilustrata a României 2. 1990 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DB. Popescu, A. & Sanda, V., Conspectul florei cormofitelor spontane din România in Acta Bot. Horti Bucurest. [suppl.]. 1998 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DC. Săvulescu, T., Flora Republicii Populare Romîne 10. 1965 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DD. Arrigoni, P. V., Note tassonomiche e corologiche sulla flora sarda in Parlatorea 8: 53-62. 2006 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
DE. Haslam, S. M., Sell, P. D. & Wolsely, P. A., A Flora of the Maltese Islands. 1977 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DF. Giardina, G., Raimondo, F. M. & Spadaro, V., A catalogue of plants growing in Sicily in Bocconea 20. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DG. Cadevall i Diars, J. & Sallent, A., Flora de Catalunya 3(3-6). 1923 (as Taraxacum vulgare)
DH. Valdés, B., Talavera, S. & Fernández-Galiano, E., Flora vascular de Andalucía occidental 3. 1987 (as Taraxacum vulgare)
DI. Willkomm, M. & Lange, J., Prodromus florae hispanicae 2. 1865–1870 (as Taraxacum officinale var. officinale)
DJ. Hess, H. E., Bestimmungsschlüssel zur Flora der Schweiz und angrenzender Gebiete, ed. 4. 1998 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DK. Schinz, H. & Keller, R., Flora der Schweiz, ed. 3, 2. 1914 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. vulgare)
DL. Webb D. A., The flora of European Turkey in Proc. Roy. Irish Acad., B 65/B/1: 1-100. 1966 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DM. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DN. Mosyakin, S. L. & Fedoronchuk, M. M., Vascular plants of Ukraine. A nomenclatural checklist. 1999 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
DO. Beck von Mannagetta, G., Flora Bosnae et Hercegovinae [Flora Bosne, Hercegovine i novipazarskog sandžaka] 4(4) [Slišković, T.]. 1983 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DP. Nikolić, T., Flora Croatica. Index florae Croaticae, 3 in Nat. Croat. 9, Suppl. 1. 2000 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DQ. Bornmüller J. F. N., Beiträge zur Flora Mazedoniens. Sammlungen in den Kriegsjahren 1916-1918. II in Bot. Jahrb. Syst., Beibl. 136. 1926 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DR. Matevski, V., Florata na planinskiot masiv Dobra Voda. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DS. Matvejeva, J., Prilog poznavanju flore planine Zeden in Acta Mus. Maced. Sci. Nat. 10(2). 1965 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DT. Nikolovski, T. & Cirimotić, J., Karakteristika na krajbrežnite rastitelni grupacii po srednoto i dolnoto tečenie na r. Vardar (poteg Titov Veles-Gevgelija) in God. Šumarski Inst. (Skopje) 3: 119-149. 1958 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DU. Stojanov, N., Thracische und macedonische Herbarmaterialen des verstorbenen Prof. Dr. Theodor Nikoloff in Spis. Bulg. Akad. Nauk. 37: 49-209. 1928 (as Taraxacum officinale)
DV. Vandas, C., Reliquiae Formanekianae. 1909 (as Taraxacum vulgare)
DW. Rohlena, J., Conspectus florae montenegrinae in Preslia 20-21: 1-506. 1942 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. erectum)
DX. Rohlena, J., Conspectus florae montenegrinae in Preslia 20-21: 1-506. 1942 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. officinale)
DY. Josifović, M., Flora SR Srbije 7. 1975 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. officinale)
DZ. Martinčič, A. & Sušnik, F., Mala flora Slovenije. 1969 (as Taraxacum officinale)
EA. Martinčič, A., Mala flora Slovenije, ed. 3. 1999 (as Taraxacum officinale)
EB. Trpin D. & Vreš B., Register flore Slovenije. Praprotnice in cvetnice. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
EC. Brouillet L., Coursol F., Favreau M. & Anions M., VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
ED. Sykes W. R., Flora of the Cook Islands. 2016 (as Taraxacum officinale s.l.)
EE. Smith, A.C. & Carr, G.D. - Family 186. Asteraceae in A. Chev., Flora vitiensis nova 5. 1991 (as Taraxacum officinale)
EF. Mackee, H.S., Les plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. 1985 (as Taraxacum officinale)
EG. Baeza C. M., Stuessy T. F., Tremetsberger K. & Urtubey E. - Lactucaceae in Zuloaga F. O., Morrone O. & Belgrano M. J. (eds.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentinia, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) 2. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
EH. Baeza C. M., Stuessy T. F., Tremetsberger K. & Urtubey E. - Lactucaceae in Zuloaga F. O., Morrone O. & Belgrano M. J. (eds.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentinia, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) 2. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
EI. Urtubey E. - Lactuceae in Kiesling R. (ed.), Flora de San Juan, Republica Argentina 3b. 2013 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
EJ. D. J. N. Hind, An annotated preliminary checklist of the Compositae of Bolivia. 2009 (as Taraxacum subspathulatum A. J. Richards)
EK. Møller P. & al., Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. 2014 (as Taraxacum officinale L.)
EL. Richards A. J., An account of some neotropical Taraxacum species in Rhodora 78: 682-706. 1976 (as Taraxacum subspathulatum A. J. Richards)
EM. Avila F. & al. - Asteraceae in Bernal R. & al., Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. 2016 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
EN. Greuter W. & Rankin R., The Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta of Cuba, a preliminary checklist. 2017 (as Taraxacum officinale)
EO. Møller Jørgensen P. & León-Yánez S., Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador in Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (as Taraxacum officinale)
EP. Brako L. & Zarucchi J. L., Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru in Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
EQ. Hokche O., Berry P. E. & Huber O. (eds.), Nuevo catálogo de la flora vascular de Venezuela. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
ER. Jeffrey C. - Compositae (Asteraceae) in Hanelt P. (ed.), Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (except ornamentals) 4. 2001: 2064