Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum

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Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum

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Common names

Arabic (Lebanon): طَرَخْشَقون مَخْزَنيA,1; Arabic (Syria): طَرَخْشَقون مَخْزَنيB,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Обикновено глухарчеC,1; Chinese (China): 西洋蒲公英组 xi yang pu gong ying zuD; English (Northern America): Common dandelionE; French (Northern America): Pissenlit officinalE; German (Germany): Wiesen-KuhblumeF,1; Italian (Italy): Dente di LeoneG,1, Piscia caneG,1, PiscialettoG,1, SoffioneG,1, Tarassaco comuneG,1; Romanian (Moldova): Пэпэдие медичиналэH,1; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Bồ công anh lùnI, bồ công anh trung quốcJ
1. recommended

Systematics

The name and concept of Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum is synonymous with T. officinale F. H. Wigg. in its wide traditional sense for the entire group of agamospermous polyploid microspecies and the closely related sexually reproducing diploids generally known as "common dandelions", and the use of either name can be chosen as appropriate depending on the context. A lectotypification of Leontodon taraxacum (Taraxacum officinale) from 1985, which made this applicatication impossible, has been shown by Kirschner & Štěpánek (in Taxon 60: 216-220. 2011) to have no standing and has been superseded by these authors (for more details see Synonymy). These authors moreover deliberately refrained from a subsequent epitypification of that name with a particular one of the numerous microspecies included, to allow the use of the name T. officinale in its traditional wide sense.

Description

Plants medium-sized or robust. Leaves numerous; petiole unwinged or winged; leaf blade usually broad (3–6 cm), deeply lobed to pinnatisect; lateral lobes variously triangular or deltoid, margin usually dentate or lobulate; interlobes evident, often spotted or bordered tan or brownish purple, margin usually dentate. Capitulum 3–7 cm wide. Involucre usually more than 1.2 cm wide, base rounded or flat. Outer phyllaries (12–)15–25(–28), usually mid-green to deep green and sometimes pruinose, variously arranged, broadly linear, linear-lanceolate, or less often lanceolate, usually 12–16 × 2.5–3.5 mm, usually irregularly patent to reflexed, unbordered or with inconspicuous narrow paler borders, apex usually flat but not infrequently callose or sometimes minutely corniculate. Ligules yellow; floret tube glabrous or sparsely arachnoid with variously curved soft thin hairs. Achene grayish straw-colored brown or light olivaceous brown, usually 3–4.5 mm; body densely spinulose in upper 1/4–1/3, ± abruptly narrowing into a conic to subcylindric 0.2–0.9 mm cone; beak usually 0.9–1.3 cm, thin. Pappus white to dirty white, usually 6–7 mm. Sexual or agamospermous.

from: Ge X., Kirschner J. & Štepánek J. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 324. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Distribution

Africa: Azores native: doubtfully native; Burundi introducedK; Cameroon introducedK; Canary Is. nativenative; Cape Provinces (Eastern Cape Province introduced, Western Cape Province introducedL); Eritrea introducedM; Ethiopia introducedN; Free State introduced; Kenya introducedintroducedK,O; KwaZulu-Natal introduced; Lesotho introduced; Madagascar introducedP; Madeira; Mauritius introducedQ; Morocco native; Mozambique introducedK; Namibia introducedL; Northern Provinces (Gauteng introduced, Mpumalanga introducedL, North-West Province introducedL); Rodrigues introducedQ; Rwanda introducedK; Réunion introducedQ; Swaziland introducedL; Tanzania introducedintroducedintroducedK,R,S; Zaire introducedK; Zambia introducedK; Zimbabwe introducedK Antarctic: Falkland Is. introducedT Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan native; Altay nativeU; Amur nativeV; China South-Central (Yunnan introduced); Cyprus introduced: naturalizedAA,W,X,Y,Z; East Aegean Is. nativeAB; Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol native); Iran native; Kamchatka nativeAC; Khabarovsk nativeV; Kirgizistan native; Korea introducedAD,AE; Kuril Is. nativeV; Lebanon-Syria native (Lebanon native, Syria native); Mongolia nativeAF; North Caucasus native (Chechnya nativeAG, Dagestan nativeAG, Kabardino-Balkariya nativeAG, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiya nativeAG, Krasnodar native, Severo-Osetiya native, Stavropol nativeAG); Palestine (Jordan native: reported in errorAH,AI); Primorye nativeAC; Sakhalin nativeAC; Transcaucasus (Abkhaziya native, Adzhariya native, Armenia native, Azerbaijan native, Georgia native, Nakhichevan native); Turkey native; Uzbekistan native; Yemen introducedAJ Asia-Tropical: Assam (Meghalaya nativeAK); East Himalaya (Darjiling introduced); India (Punjab nativeAK, Uttar Pradesh nativeAK, West Bengal introduced); Jawa introduced; Malaya (Peninsular Malaysia introducedAL); Nepal nativeAM; Pakistan native; Philippines introducedAN,AO; Vietnam introducedAP,AQ; West Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh nativeAR, Jammu-Kashmir native) Australasia: Chatham Is. introducedAS; Kermadec Is. introducedAT; New South Wales (Australian Capital Territory introducedAU, New South Wales introducedAU); New Zealand North introducedAT; New Zealand South introducedAT; Queensland (Queensland introducedAU); South Australia introducedAU,AV; Tasmania introducedAU; Victoria introducedAU,AW Europe: Albania native; Austria native (Austria native, Liechtenstein nativeAX); Baleares native; Baltic States (Estonia native, Kaliningrad native, Latvia native, Lithuania native); Belarus native; Belgium native (Belgium native, Luxembourg native); Bulgaria native; Central European Russia native; Corse nativeAY,AZ,BA,BB; CzechoslovakiaBA (Czech Republic native, Slovakia native); Denmark native; East European Russia native; Finland native; France (Channel Is. native, France native); Føroyar native; Germany native; Great Britain native; Greece native; Hungary native; Iceland native; Ireland native (Ireland native, Northern Ireland native); Italy native (Italy native); Kriti native: reported in errorBC; Krym native; Netherlands native; North European Russia native; Northwest European Russia native; Norway native; Poland native; Portugal native; Romania native; Sardegna native: presence questionableAZ,BA,BB,BD,BE; Sicily nativeBA (Malta cultivatedBF, Sicily nativeAZ,BB,BE,BG); South European Russia native; Spain nativeBA (Andorra native, Spain native); Svalbard introducedBA; Sweden native; Switzerland native; Turkey-in-Europe native; Ukraine (Moldova native, Ukraine native); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina native, Croatia nativeBH,BI, Macedonia nativeBH,BJ,BK,BL,BM,BN,BO,BP, Montenegro native, Serbia native, Slovenia nativeBQ,BR,BS) Northern America: Alberta introducedBT; British Columbia introducedBT; Greenland introducedBT; Labrador introducedBT; Manitoba introducedBT; New Brunswick introducedBT; Newfoundland (Newfoundland native, St.Pierre-Miquelon introducedBT); Northwest Territories introducedBT; Nova Scotia introducedBT; Nunavut introducedBT; Ontario introducedBT; Prince Edward I. introducedBT; Québec native; Saskatchewan introducedBT; Yukon introducedBT Pacific: Cook Is. introducedBU; Fiji introducedBV; New Caledonia introducedBW South Africa, Republic of: introduced Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Argentina Distrito Federal introducedBX, Buenos Aires introducedBX, Corrientes introducedBY, Córdoba introducedBY, Entre Ríos introducedBY, Formosa introducedBX, La Pampa introducedBX, Misiones introducedBY); Argentina Northwest (Catamarca introducedBX, Jujuy introducedBY, La Rioja introducedBY, Mendoza introducedBY, Salta introducedBY, San Juan introducedBX,BZ, San Luis introducedBY, Santiago del Estero introducedBY, Tucuman introducedBX); Argentina South (Chubut introducedBY, Neuquén introducedBX, Rio Negro introducedBY, Santa Cruz introducedBX, Santa Fé introducedBY, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) introducedBY); Bolivia introducedintroducedCA,CB,CC; Brazil South (Rio Grande do Sul introducedBY, Santa Catarina introducedBX); Chile Central (Biobío introducedBX, Coquimbo introducedBY, La Araucania introducedBY, Maule introducedBY, O'Higgins introducedBY, Santiago introduced, Valparaíso introducedBY,CC); Chile North (Antofagasta introducedBX, Atacama introducedBY); Chile South (Aisén introducedBY, Los Lagos introducedBX, Magellanes introducedBX); Colombia introduced; Cuba introducedCD; Ecuador introducedCE; Guatemala introduced; Juan Fernández Is.CC; Paraguay introducedBY; Peru introducedCC,CF; Uruguay introducedBX; Venezuela introducedCG

Uses

Taraxacum officinale is widely used as vegetable or salad. Plants are collected from the wild or cultivated. The green or blanched young leaves are used in salads, cooked in soups or prepared as spinach. The taproots are eaten raw or cooked as a vegetable. Moreover, the dried and roasted taproots provide a coffee substitute, flower heads in bud are sometimes used as capers. Leaves and roots are also used for making tonics and medicinally.CH

Bibliography

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B. Nehmé, M., Etymological Dictionary of Syrian Flora. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
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D. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
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F. Rothmaler, W., Exkursionsflora von Deutschland, 4: Gefäßpflanzen: Kritischer Band, ed. 10. 2005
G. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
H. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986 (as Taraxacum officinale)
I. Lê Kim Biên, Thục-vât-chí-Viêt-Nam / Flora of Vietnam 7. Họ cúc / Asteraceae. 2007 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
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L. G. Germishuizen & N. L. Meyer, Plants of southern Africa: an annotated checklist 14. 2003 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
M. Tadesse M. - 16. Scolymus - 29. Tragopogon in Hedberg I. & Edwards S., Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 2004 (as Taraxacum officinale)
N. Tadesse M. - 16. Scolymus - 29. Tragopogon in Hedberg I. & Edwards S., Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea. 2004 (as Taraxacum officinale)
O. Beentje H. J. & Jeffrey C. - Cichorieae in Polhill R.M. (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae 1. 2000 (as Taraxacum officinale)
P. Humbert H., Composées. Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (189) 3. 1963 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. vulgare)
Q. Scott A. J. - Lactuceae in Bosser J., Guého J. & Jeffrey C. (ed.), Flore des Mascareignes. La Réunion, Maurice, Rodrigues 109. 1993
R. Beentje H. J. & Jeffrey C. - Cichorieae in Polhill R.M. (ed.), Flora of Tropical East Africa. Compositae 1. 2000 (as Taraxacum officinale)
S. Jeffrey C., Notes on Compositae: I. The Cichorieae in East Tropical Africa in Kew Bull. 18: 427-486. 1966 (as Taraxacum officinale)
T. Heller T., Upson R. & Lewis R., Field guide to the plants of the Falkland Islands. 2019 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
U. Krasnoborov I. M., Opredelitel' rastenij Respubliki Altaj. 2012: 469 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
V. Charkevič S. S., Sosudistye rastenija sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 6. 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale)
W. Boissier, E., Flora orientalis 3. 1875 (as Taraxacum officinale)
X. Della, A., The Cyprus flora in checklist format. 1999 (as Taraxacum officinale)
Y. Georgiades, C., Ê epigenês hlôrida tês Kuprou, taxonomikê, hlôridikê, futogeôgrafikê, oikofusiologikê meletê. 1994 (as Taraxacum officinale)
Z. Meikle, R. D., Flora of Cyprus 2. 1985 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AA. Wittzell, H., Miscellaneous Taraxacum notes from Cyprus in Taraxacum Newslett. 21: 5-6. 1999
AB. Rechinger K. H., Flora aegaea. Flora der Inseln und Halbinseln des Ägäischen Meeres in Denkschr. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Naturwiss. Kl. 105(1). 1944 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AC. Charkevič S. S., Sosudistye rastenija sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 6. 1992 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AD. Chang C.-S. & al., Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea Peninsula Flora. 2014 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
AE. Pak J.-H. & Yang J.-Y. - Cichorieae in Park C.-W. (ed.), Flora of Korea 6c-1. Asteridae: Asteraceae (1). 2017
AF. Gubanov I. A., Konspekt flory vnešnej Mongolii (sosudistye rastenija). 1996
AG. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Konspekt flory Kavkaza / Conspectus Florae Caucasi 3(1), 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
AH. Post, G. E., Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai 2. 1933 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AI. Zohary, M. & Feinbrun-Dothan, N., Flora Palaestina 3 (Text) [Feinbrun-Dothan, N.]. 1978
AJ. Wood J. R. I., A handbook of the Yemen flora. 1997 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AK. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995
AL. Ridley H. N., The flora of the Malay Peninsula 2. 1923 (as Taraxacum dens-leonis Desf.)
AM. Press J. R. & al., Annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Nepal; updated online version (as Taraxacum officinale)
AN. E. D. Merrill, An enumeration of Philippine flowering plants 3. 1923 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AO. Nickrent D. L. & al., Leonardo Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines, 2011 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AP. Lê Kim Biên, Thục-vât-chí-Viêt-Nam / Flora of Vietnam 7. Họ cúc / Asteraceae. 2007 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
AQ. P.-h. Hô, An illustrated flora of Vietnam 3(1). 1993 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AR. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AS. Garnock-Jones P. J. - Cichorioideae in Webb C. J., Sykes W. R. & Garnock-Jones P. J., Flora of New Zealand 4. 1988 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AT. Garnock-Jones P. J. - Cichorioideae in Webb C. J., Sykes W. R. & Garnock-Jones P. J., Flora of New Zealand 4. 1988 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AU. Scarlett N. H. - Taraxacum in Wilson A. (ed.), Flora of Australia 37. 2015
AV. Kellermann J. (ed.), Flora of South Australia, Asteraceae, ed. 5. 2014
AW. Scarlett N. H. - 17. Taraxacum in Walsh N. G. & Entwisle T. J., Flora of Victoria 4. 1999
AX. Seitter, H., Die Flora des Fürstentums Liechtenstein. 1977 (as Taraxacum sect. Vulgaria)
AY. Guinochet, M. & Vilmorin, R. de, Flore de France 4. 1982 (as Taraxacum officinale)
AZ. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
BA. Tutin T. G, Heywood V. H., Burges N. A. & al., Flora europaea 4. 1976 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
BB. Zangheri, P., Flora italica 1 (Testo). 1976 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BC. Jahn, R. & Schönfelder, P., Exkursionsflora für Kreta. 1995
BD. Arrigoni, P. V., Note tassonomiche e corologiche sulla flora sarda in Parlatorea 8: 53-62. 2006 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
BE. Conti, F., Abbate, G., Alessandrini, A., Blasi, C., An annotated checklist of the Italian vascular flora. 2005 (as Taraxacum officinale aggr.)
BF. Haslam, S. M., Sell, P. D. & Wolsely, P. A., A Flora of the Maltese Islands. 1977 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BG. Giardina, G., Raimondo, F. M. & Spadaro, V., A catalogue of plants growing in Sicily in Bocconea 20. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BH. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928-1931 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. officinale)
BI. Nikolić, T., Flora Croatica. Index florae Croaticae, 3 in Nat. Croat. 9, Suppl. 1. 2000 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BJ. Bornmüller J. F. N., Beiträge zur Flora Mazedoniens. Sammlungen in den Kriegsjahren 1916-1918. II in Bot. Jahrb. Syst., Beibl. 136. 1926 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BK. Hayek, A. von, Prodromus florae peninsulae balcanicae, 2 in Repert. Spec. Nov. Regni Veg. Beih. 30(2). 1928-1931 (as Taraxacum officinale subsp. erectum)
BL. Matevski, V., Florata na planinskiot masiv Dobra Voda. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BM. Matvejeva, J., Prilog poznavanju flore planine Zeden in Acta Mus. Maced. Sci. Nat. 10(2). 1965 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BN. Nikolovski, T. & Cirimotić, J., Karakteristika na krajbrežnite rastitelni grupacii po srednoto i dolnoto tečenie na r. Vardar (poteg Titov Veles-Gevgelija) in God. Šumarski Inst. (Skopje) 3: 119-149. 1958 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BO. Stojanov, N., Thracische und macedonische Herbarmaterialen des verstorbenen Prof. Dr. Theodor Nikoloff in Spis. Bulg. Akad. Nauk. 37: 49-209. 1928 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BP. Vandas, C., Reliquiae Formanekianae. 1909 (as Taraxacum vulgare)
BQ. Martinčič, A. & Sušnik, F., Mala flora Slovenije. 1969 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BR. Martinčič, A., Mala flora Slovenije, ed. 3. 1999 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BS. Trpin D. & Vreš B., Register flore Slovenije. Praprotnice in cvetnice. 1995 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BT. Brouillet L., Coursol F., Favreau M. & Anions M., VASCAN, the Database of Vascular Plants of Canada (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
BU. Sykes W. R., Flora of the Cook Islands. 2016 (as Taraxacum officinale s.l.)
BV. A. C. Smith & G. D. Carr - Family 186. Asteraceae in A. Chev., Flora vitiensis nova 5. 1991 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BW. H. S. Mackee, Les plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. 1985 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BX. Baeza C. M., Stuessy T. F., Tremetsberger K. & Urtubey E. - Lactucaceae in Zuloaga F. O., Morrone O. & Belgrano M. J. (eds.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentinia, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) 2. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BY. Baeza C. M., Stuessy T. F., Tremetsberger K. & Urtubey E. - Lactucaceae in Zuloaga F. O., Morrone O. & Belgrano M. J. (eds.), Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur (Argentinia, Sur de Brasil, Chile, Paraguay y Uruguay) 2. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
BZ. Urtubey E. - Lactuceae in Kiesling R. (ed.), Flora de San Juan, Republica Argentina 3b. 2013 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
CA. D. J. N. Hind, An annotated preliminary checklist of the Compositae of Bolivia. 2009 (as Taraxacum subspathulatum A. J. Richards)
CB. Møller P. & al., Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. 2014 (as Taraxacum officinale L.)
CC. Richards A. J., An account of some neotropical Taraxacum species in Rhodora 78: 682-706. 1976 (as Taraxacum subspathulatum A. J. Richards)
CD. Greuter W. & Rankin R., The Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta of Cuba, a preliminary checklist. 2017 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CE. Møller Jørgensen P. & León-Yánez S., Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador in Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 75. 1999 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CF. Brako L. & Zarucchi J. L., Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru in Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard. 45. 1993 (as Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg.)
CG. Hokche O., Berry P. E. & Huber O. (eds.), Nuevo catálogo de la flora vascular de Venezuela. 2008 (as Taraxacum officinale)
CH. Jeffrey C. - Compositae (Asteraceae) in Hanelt P. (ed.), Mansfeld's encyclopedia of agricultural and horticultural crops (except ornamentals) 4. 2001: 2064