Gundelia tournefortii

Primary tabs

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Description

"Plants up to c. 0.8(–1) m, normally branched with several upright branches, each of which ending in a synflorescence. Whole plants more or less densely covered with thin cobwebbed hairs, these being appressed to the leaves and sometimes forming a dense tomentum. Near the stem these hairs gradually change to arachnoid hairs. Especially in young state the synflorescences are densely covered with arachnoid hairs. Synflorescences up to 7 cm long, excluding the bracts up to 4 cm in diameter. Bracts normally without lateral spines. Partial synflorescences in the middle part of the synflorescence formed by 5–6(–7)flowers. The inside flower colour yellowish to yellow, outside yellow to brown. Fruit cuneiform to more or less rectangular (seen from other side), 1.3–1.5 cm long (including spines); the spines adhere to a crown-like structure, they have ± equal length, up to 4 mm long, directed ± straight upright."A

Distribution

The distribution of Gundelia tournefortii needs reassessment because of confusion with the other species of the genus now recognised.
Africa: Algeria (AlgeriaintroducedB) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan (Afghanistandoubtfully presentC,D); Cyprus (CyprusnativeE,F,G); Iran (IrannativeH); Iraq (IraqnativeD); Kazakhstan (Kazakhstandoubtfully presentD); Lebanon-Syria (LebanonnativeI,J,K, SyrianativeJ,K,L,M); Palestine (IsraelnativeI,K,N,O, JordannativeK,N,O,P); Sinai (SinainativeK,Q,R); Transcaucasus (Armeniadoubtfully presentS,T, Azerbaijandoubtfully presentS,U, Nagorno Karabakhdoubtfully presentS, Nakhichevanreported in errorS,U,V); Turkey (TurkeynativeI,L,M,W,X,Y); Turkmenistan (Turkmenistandoubtfully presentD); Uzbekistan (Uzbekistandoubtfully presentD)

Credits

Christodoulou C. S. 2009: Images (4 added).
Pils G. 2009: Images (1 added).

Common names

Arabic (Lebanon): عَكّوبZ,1, غُنْدِلْيَة تُرْنَفورZ,1; Arabic (Syria): عَكّوبAA,1, غُنْدِلْيَة تُرْنَفورAA,1; Hebrew (Israel): עַכּוּבִית הַגַּלְגַּלAB,1, עכובית הגלגלAB,1; Turkish (Turkey): KengerY
1. recommended

Uses

Gundelia tournefortii is collected for the use of the young shoots as an asparagus-like vegetable. The young synflorescences are eaten like artichokes. A chewing gum is made from the latex. From November to March plants are collected in large amounts from the wild because market prices are very high. Populations are dwindling due to over-utilisation. On a small scale it also has been cultivated since the end of the 20th century, both in Israel and Palestine. In the past the achenes were used as a source of edible oil, a practise dating back to the Neolithicum.AC,AD

Bibliography

A. Vitek E. & al., Gundelia tournefortii L. (Compositae) – an approach in Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 119. 2017: 232
B. Quézel, P. & Santa, S., Nouvelle flore de l'Algérie et des régions désertiques méridionales 2. 1963
C. Breckle S.-W. & al., Vascular plants of Afghanistan, an augmented checklist. 2013 (as Gundelia tournefortii)
D. Hind N. in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 30. 2013 (as Gundelia tournefortii)
E. Meikle, R. D., Flora of Cyprus 2. 1985
F. Osorio-Tafall, B. H. & Serafim, G. M., List of the vascular plants of Cyprus. 1973
G. Viney, D. E., An illustrated flora of North Cyprus 1. 1994
H. Leonard J. - Gundelia in Leonard J., Contribution a l'etude de la Flore et de la Vegetation des deserts d'Iran. 1984
I. Boissier, E., Flora Orientalis 3. 1875
J. Mouterde, P., Nouvelle flore du Liban et de la Syrie. Texte 3. 1978-1984
K. Post, G. E. , Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai 2. 1933
L. Boissier, E., Flora Orientalis 3. 1875 (as Gundelia tournefortii var. tenuisecta Boiss.)
M. Post, G. E. , Flora of Syria, Palestine and Sinai 2. 1933 (as Gundelia tournefortii var. tenuisecta Boiss.)
N. Danin A. & al., Flora of Israel online
O. Zohary, M. & Feinbrun-Dothan, N., Flora Palaestina 3. 1978
P. Taifour H., El-Oqlah A. & (ed.) Ghazanfar S. A., The plants of Jordan, an annotated checklist. 2017
Q. Boulos, L., Flora of Egypt 3. 2002
R. Täckholm, V., Students' flora of Egypt, ed. 2. 1974
S. Grossgejm, A. A., Flora kavkaza 4. 1934
T. Tahtažan, A. L., Flora Armenii 9. 1995
U. Karjagin, I. I., Flora azerbajdžana 8. 1961
V. Nersesyan A. in Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 116. 2014: 259
W. Davis P. H., Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 5. 1975
X. Davis P. H., Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 5. 1975 (as Gundelia tournefortii var. tenuisecta Boiss.)
Y. Güner A. (ed.), Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). 2012
Z. Nehmé, M., Dictionnaire Etymologique de la Flore du Liban. 2000
AA. Nehmé, M., Etymological Dictionary of Syrian Flora. 2008
AB. Avinoam Danin, Flora of Israel Online - http://flora.huji.ac.il
AC. Hind N. in Curtis's Bot. Mag. 30. 2013
AD. Vitek E. & al., Gundelia tournefortii L. (Compositae) – an approach in Ann. Naturhist. Mus. Wien, B 119. 2017