Primary tabs



Herbs, perennial, biennial, or annual, rhizomatous or with a taproot. Stems leafy or leafless. Leaves pinnate or not divided, margin entire or toothed. Synflorescence corymbiform, paniculiform, or racemiform, rarely a solitary capitulum. Capitula erect, medium to large in size. Involucre cylindric to campanulate. Phyllaries in several series; outer phyllaries ± imbricate, centripetally gradually longer, longest 1/4–2/3 or more as long as inner ones; inner phyllaries usually equal in length, linear-lanceolate, abaxially usually with simple and/or glandular hairs, rarely glabrous, adaxially glabrous or with appressed silky hairs. Receptacle naked [or more rarely paleate or with bristles]. Florets yellow [or more rarely reddish purple]. Achene cylindric to fusiform, with 10–20 equal finely spinulescent or smooth and glabrous ribs, apex distinctly attenuate, constricted, or beaked. Pappus white to pale yellowish, soft to rigidulous, scabrid, persistent or caducous.

from: Shih C. & Kilian N. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 245. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Chromosome numbers

Diploids, tetraploids, hexaploids, octoploids; x = 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3.A


Africa: Algeria (Algerianative); Angola (Angolanative); Azores (Açôresnative); Burundi (Burundinative); Cameroon (Cameroonnative); Canary Is. (Canary Is.native); Cape Provinces (Eastern Cape Provincenative); Djibouti (Djiboutiintroduced); Egypt (Egyptnative); Eritrea (Eritreanative); Ethiopia (Ethiopianative); Free State (Free Statenative); Kenya (Kenyanative); KwaZulu-Natal (KwaZulu-Natalnative); Lesotho (Lesothonative); Libya (Libyanative); Madeira (Madeiranative); Malawi (Malawinative); Morocconative; Mozambique (Mozambiquenative); Nigeria (Nigerianative); Northern Provinces (Gautengnative, Mpumalanganative, North-West Provincenative, Northern Provincenative); Rwanda (Rwandanative); Selvagens (Selvagensnative); Somalia (Somalianative); Sudan (Sudannative); Swaziland (Swazilandnative); Tanzania (Tanzanianative); Tunisia (Tunisianative); Uganda (Ugandanative); Zaire (Zairenative); Zambia (Zambianative); Zimbabwe (Zimbabwenative) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan (Afghanistannative); Altay (Altaynative); Amur (Amurnative); Buryatiya (Buryatiyanative); China North-Central (Gansunative, Hebeinative, Shaanxinative, Shanxinative); China South-Central (Guizhounative, Sichuannative, Yunnannative); China Southeast (Guangxinative); Chita (Chitanative); Cyprusnative (Cyprusnative); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.native); Gulf States (United Arab Emiratesnative); Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongolnative); Iran (Irannative); Iraq (Iraqnative); Irkutsk (Irkutsknative); Japan (Hokkaidonative); Kamchatka (Kamchatkanative); Kazakhstan (Kazakhstannative); Khabarovsk (Khabarovsknative); Kirgizistan (Kirgizistannative); Korea (North Koreanative); Krasnoyarsk (Krasnoyarsknative); Kuril Is. (Kuril Is.native); Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); Magadan (Magadannative); Manchuria (Heilongjiangnative, Jilinnative, Liaoningnative); Mongolia (Mongolianative); North Caucasusnative (Chechnyanative, Dagestannative, Kabardino-Balkariyanative, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiyanative, Krasnodarnative, Severo-Osetiyanative, Stavropolnative); Oman (Omannative); Palestine (Israelnative, Jordannative); Primorye (Primoryeintroduced); Qinghai (Qinghainative); Sakhalin (Sakhalinnative); Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabianative); Sinai (Sinainative); Tadzhikistan (Tadzhikistannative); Tibet (Tibetnative); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkey (Turkeynative); Turkmenistan (Turkmenistannative); Tuva (Tuvanative); West Siberia (West Siberianative); Xinjiang (Xinjiangnative); Yakutskiya (Yakutskiyanative); Yemen (North Yemennative, South Yemennative) Asia-Tropical: East Himalaya (Bhutannative, Sikkimnative); India (Uttar Pradeshnative, West Bengalnative); Laos (Laosnative); Myanmarnative (Myanmarnative); Nepal (Nepalnative); Pakistan (Pakistannative); Thailand (Thailandnative); Vietnamnative (Vietnamnative); West Himalayanative (Himachal Pradeshnative, Jammu-Kashmirnative, Uttaranchalnative) Australasia: Chatham Is. (Chatham Is.introduced); Kermadec Is. (Kermadec Is.introduced); New South Wales (Australian Capital Territoryintroduced, New South Walesintroduced); New Zealand North (New Zealand Northintroduced); New Zealand South (New Zealand Southintroduced); Queensland (Queenslandintroduced); South Australia (South Australiaintroduced); Tasmania (Tasmaniaintroduced); Victoria (Victoriaintroduced); Western Australia (Western Australiaintroduced) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Austrianative (Austrianative, Liechtensteinnative); Baleares (Balearesnative); Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarus (Belarusnative); Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European Russianative); Corse (Corsenative); Czechoslovakia (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmark (Denmarknative); East European Russia (East European Russianative); Finland (Finlandnative); Francenative; Germany (Germanynative); Great Britain (Great Britainnative); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (Hungarynative); Iceland (Icelandintroduced); Irelandnative (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative (Italynative); Kriti (Kritinative); Krym (Krymnative); Netherlands (Netherlandsnative); North European Russia (North European Russianative); Northwest European Russia (Northwest European Russianative); Norway (Norwaynative); Poland (Polandnative); Portugal (Portugalnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative); Sicilynative (Maltanative, Sicilynative); South European Russia (South European Russianative); Spainnative (Andorranative, Gibraltarnative, Spainnative); Sweden (Swedennative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative); Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: Alabama (Alabamaintroduced); Alaska (Alaskaintroduced); Alberta (Albertanative); Arizona (Arizonanative); Arkansas (Arkansasintroduced); British Columbia (British Columbianative); California (Californianative); Colorado (Coloradonative); Connecticut (Connecticutintroduced); Delaware (Delawareintroduced); District of Columbia (District of Columbiaintroduced); Florida (Floridaintroduced); Georgia, U.S.A. (Georgia, U.S.A.introduced); Greenland (Greenlandintroduced); Idaho (Idahonative); Illinois (Illinoisintroduced); Indiana (Indianaintroduced); Iowa (Iowanative); Kentucky (Kentuckyintroduced); Labrador (Labradorintroduced); Louisiana (Louisianaintroduced); Maine (Maineintroduced); Manitoba (Manitobanative); Maryland (Marylandintroduced); Massachusetts (Massachusettsintroduced); Mexico Northeast (Chihuahuanative); Michigan (Michiganintroduced); Minnesota (Minnesotanative); Mississippi (Mississippiintroduced); Missouri (Missouriintroduced); Montana (Montananative); Nebraska (Nebraskanative); Nevada (Nevadanative); New Brunswick (New Brunswickintroduced); New Hampshire (New Hampshireintroduced); New Jersey (New Jerseyintroduced); New Mexico (New Mexiconative); New York (New Yorkintroduced); Newfoundland (Newfoundlandintroduced); North Carolina (North Carolinaintroduced); North Dakota (North Dakotanative); Northwest Territories (Northwest Territoriesintroduced); Nova Scotia (Nova Scotiaintroduced); Ohio (Ohiointroduced); Oklahoma (Oklahomaintroduced); Ontario (Ontariointroduced); Oregon (Oregonnative); Pennsylvania (Pennsylvaniaintroduced); Québec (Québecintroduced); Rhode I. (Rhode I.introduced); Saskatchewan (Saskatchewannative); South Carolina (South Carolinaintroduced); South Dakota (South Dakotanative); Tennessee (Tennesseeintroduced); Texas (Texasnative); Utah (Utahnative); Vermont (Vermontintroduced); Virginia (Virginiaintroduced); Washington (Washingtonnative); West Virginia (West Virginiaintroduced); Wisconsin (Wisconsinintroduced); Wyoming (Wyomingnative); Yukon (Yukonintroduced) Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Argentina Distrito Federalintroduced, Buenos Airesintroduced, Córdobaintroduced, Entre Ríosintroduced, La Pampaintroduced); Argentina Northwest (Mendozaintroduced, San Luisintroduced); Argentina South (Chubutintroduced, Neuquénintroduced, Rio Negrointroduced, Santa Cruzintroduced, Santa Féintroduced, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)introduced); Brazil South (Rio Grande do Sulintroduced); Chile Central (Biobíointroduced, La Araucaniaintroduced, Mauleintroduced, O'Higginsintroduced, Santiagointroduced); Chile South (Aisénintroduced, Los Lagosintroduced, Magellanesintroduced); Dominican Republic (Dominican Republicintroduced); Juan Fernández Is. (Juan Fernández Is.introduced); Uruguay (Uruguayintroduced)

Common names

Albanian (Albania): ShmangëB,1; Arabic (Lebanon): خُفِّيَّةC,1, سَراغَةC,1; Arabic (Syria): خُفِّيَّةD,1, سَراغَةD,1; Armenian (Armenia): ԶամբյուղախոտE,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): ДрипавкаF,1; Chinese (China): 还阳参属 huan yang shen shuG; English (Great Britain): Hawk's-beardH,1; Estonian (Estonia): KoeratubakasI,1; French (Corse): CrépideJ,1; German (Germany): GrundfesteK,1, PippauK,1; German (Switzerland): PippauL,1; Hebrew (Israel): נִיסָנִיתM,1, ניסניתM,1; Italian (Italy): RadicchiellaN,1; Italian (Switzerland): RadicchiellaL,1; Latvian (Latvia): CietpieneI,1; Lithuanian (Lithuania): KreisvėI,1; Polish (Poland): PępawaO,1; Romanian (Moldova): ГэлбенушP,1; Russian (Armenia): СкердаE,1; Swedish (Sweden): FibblorQ,1; Turkish (Turkey): KıskıR
1. recommended


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D. Nehmé, M., Etymological Dictionary of Syrian Flora. 2008
E. Tahtadžjan, A. L., Flora Armenii 9. 1995
F. Andreev, N. & Kozucharov, S. I., Opredelitel na vissite rastenija v Balgarija. 1992
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H. Dony, J. G. , Jury, S. L. & Perring, F. H., English Names of Wild Flowers, a list recommended by the Botanical Society of the British Isles, ed. 2. 1986
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L. Aeschimann, D. & Heitz, C., Index synonymique de la flore de Suisse et territoires limitrophes (ISFS). 1996
M. Avinoam Danin, Flora of Israel Online
N. Pignatti, S., Flora d'Italia 3. 1982
O. Mirek, Z., Piękoś-Mirkova, H., Zając, A. & Zając, M., in Biodivers. Poland 1. 2002
P. Gejdeman, T. S., Opredelitel' vysših rastenij Moldavskoj SSR, ed. 3. 1986
Q. Karlsson, T., Checklista över Nordens kärlväxter . 2004
R. Güner A. (ed.), Türkiye Bitkileri Listesi (Damarlı Bitkiler). 2012