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Common names

Albanian (Albania): DhëmbëluanA,1; Arabic (Lebanon): يَعْضيضB,1; Arabic (Syria): يَعْضيضC,1; Armenian (Armenia): ԱրյուծատամD,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): ЖълтицаE,1; Czech (Czech Republic): MáchelkaF,1; English (Great Britain): HawkbitG,1; Estonian (Estonia): SeanuppH,1; French (Corse): LiondentI,1; German (Germany): LöwenzahnJ,1; Hebrew (Israel): שֵׁן-אֲרִיK,1, שן-אריK,1; Italian (Italy): Dente di leoneL,1; Latvian (Latvia): VēlpieneH,1; Lithuanian (Lithuania): SnaudalėH,1; Polish (Poland): BrodawnikM,1; Romanian (Moldova): Капул кэругэрулуйN,1; Russian (Armenia): КульбабаD,1; Swedish (Sweden): LejonfibblorO,1; Turkish (Turkey): AslandışıP
1. recommended


Phylogenetic analyses by Samuel & al. (2006) based on nrDNA (ITS) and plastid DNA markers revealed that Leontodon in its traditional circumscription is actucally diphyletic. While L. subg. Leontodon, hence Leontodon s.str., is sister to Picris and Helminthotheca and the three cluster in a clade with Hypochaeris, L. subg. Oporinia forms a clade of its own basal to the clade of the four taxa. This finding was confirmed by Enke & al. (2012), based on a broader sampling using nrITS, and these molecular results are supported by chromosome and phytochemical data and by the indumentum types. The occurrence of 2- to several-fid or stellate hairs on leaves and phyllaries (Widder 1931; Pittoni 1974), of hypocretenolids (Zidorn & Stuppner 2001a+b; Zidorn 2006) and of varied basic chromosomes numbers (mostly x = 4, 7, 11; Rousi 1973; Pittoni 1974; Izuzquiza 1991; Mariotti Lippi & Garbari 2004) are characteristic of Leontodon s.str. In contrast, the former L. subg. Oporinia, now separated as the genus Scorzoneroides (Greuter & al. 2006), is characterised by strictly simple hairs, the occurrrence of guaianolides and rather homogenous basic chromosome numbers of x = 5 or 6.

Leontodon in this narrower sense comprises some 40 species and has a distribution centred in the Mediterranean area and extending into N Europe and SW Asia. The traditional, morphology based distinction within Leontodon s.str. (as L. subg. Leontodon) of three separate entities, classified as three sections by Widder (1975), received support from molecular phylogenetics (Samuel & al. 2006; Enke & al. 2012). The relationships of the three entities is, however, not fully yet resolved. So far it is evident that Leontodon sect. Leontodon and sect. Asterothrix are sister groups, and that L. sect. Thrincia represents a separate lineage. Considering that L. sect. Thrincia is also morphologically well distinct from the remainder of Leontodon s.str., Talavera & al. (2015) and Talavera & Talavera (2017) resurrected the former genus Thrincia for this lineage, which appears premature. The clade of the first two sections forms a polytomy together with Leontodon sect. Thrincia, Helminthotheca and Picris in the nrITS phylogeny by Samuel & al. (2006). The grouping of L. sect. Thrincia in a trichotomy with Picris and Helminthotheca in the nrITS tree by Enke & al. (2012) has no statistical support. The tree based on the combined matK-nrITS dataset by Samuel & al. (2006), however, resolves a moderately supported sister group relationship between L. sect. Thrincia and the remainder of Leontodon. The molecular phylogenetic results by Moura & al. (2015) are inconclusive with respect to the position of L. sect. Thrincia due to their restricted sampling. Since there is no conclusive evidence against a sister group relationship of L. sect. Thrincia and the remainder of Leontodon s.str., the Cichorieae Systematics Portal for the time being maintains the wider circumscription of Leontodon with inclusion of L. sect. Thrincia.

The species of Hedypnois, the only genus of the subtribe with a scabrid instead of a plumose pappus, indicating a reversal from the plumose pappus back to a scabrid or scaly pappus, are nested in Leontodon sect. Leontodon (Enke & al. 2012). If paraphylectic genera are not accepted, it has thus to be considered a congener of Leontodon.

(1) Leontodon sect. Leontodon includes the European and Anatolian-Caucasean L. hispidus group mostly with single capitula on simple stems without leaves. This group also includes L. kulczinskii from the E Carpathians and three somewhat aberrant species from the Azores that develop branched and leafy stems with numerous capitula (L. rigens, L. filii and L. hochstetteri, Paiva & Ormonde 1973, 1975; Lack 1981; Samuel & al. 2006; Moura & al. 2015). The predominant basic chromosome number is x = 7 (Samuel & al. 2006).

(2) Leontodon sect. Asterothrix occurs throughout the Mediterranean and is usually characterised by 3- to several-fid or stellate hairs on leaves and phyllaries, and all achenes having pappus bristles. It includes L. incanus, L. berinii and the L. crispus group with L. asperrimus, L. anomalus, L. crispus, L. graecus, L. farinosus etc. Somewhat deviating by, e.g., their variable indumentum are the three species L. boryi (from the Sierra Nevada in SE Spain), L. rosanii (from Italy) and L. hirtai (from SW France to Spain). In the analyses by Samuel & al. (2006) the first two are associated in the nrITS tree with L. sect. Asterothrix but in the matK tree with L. sect. Leontodon. As explained by Samuel & al. (2006), these results suggest intersectional hybrid origins of the three taxa.

(3) Leontodon sect. Thrincia includes up to eight species (Talavera & Talavera 2015, under Thrincia) centred in the W Mediterranean but extending into NW Europe and SW Asia, which share an indumentum of hairs on leaves and phyllaries with 2-3 terminal, straight, or rarely more or less hooked branches, outer achenes with pappus reduced to scales or short bristles and a chromosome complement of 2n = 8 (Rousi 1973; Pittoni 1974). Two well supported clades can be recognised in the molecular analyses by Samuel & al. (2006) and Enke & al. (2012), one with the widespread L. tuberosus and the SW Mediterranean L. maroccanus, the other including L. tingitanus (from S Spain and N Morocco) and the widespread L. saxatilis group.

Chromosome numbers

Diploids, rarely triploids and tetraploids, usually x = 7, 4; 11; but dysploid cytotypes occur. AH,Z


Africa: Algerianative; Azoresnative; Canary Is.native; Egyptnative; Libyanative; Madeiranative; Tunisianative Asia-Temperate: Cyprusnative; East Aegean Is.native; Irannative; Iraqnative; Lebanon-Syrianative; Nansei-shotointroduced; North Caucasusnative; Palestinenative; Transcaucasusnative; Turkeynative; Turkmenistannative Australasia: Antipodean Is.introduced; Chatham Is.introduced; Kermadec Is.introduced; New South Walesintroduced; New Zealand Northintroduced; New Zealand Southintroduced; Northern Territoryintroduced; Queenslandintroduced; South Australiaintroduced; Tasmaniaintroduced; Victoriaintroduced; Western Australiaintroduced Europe: Albanianative; Austrianative; Balearesnative; Baltic Statesnative; Belarusnative; Belgiumnative; Bulgarianative; Central European Russianative; Corsenative; Czechoslovakianative; Denmarknative; East European Russianative; Finlandnative; Germanynative; Great Britainnative; Greecenative; Hungarynative; Irelandnative; Italynative; Kritinative; Krymnative; Netherlandsnative; North European Russianative; Northwest European Russianative; Norwaynative; Polandnative; Portugalnative; Romanianative; Sardegnanative; Sicilynative; South European Russianative; Spainnative; Swedennative; Switzerlandnative; Turkey-in-Europenative; Ukrainenative; Yugoslavianative Northern America: Alabamaintroduced; Arizonaintroduced; British Columbiaintroduced; Californiaintroduced; Connecticutintroduced; Georgia, U.S.A.introduced; Illinoisintroduced; Indianaintroduced; Kansasintroduced; Marylandintroduced; Massachusettsintroduced; Mexico Northeastnative; Michiganintroduced; Missouriintroduced; Nevadaintroduced; New Jerseyintroduced; New Yorkintroduced; North Carolinaintroduced; Ohiointroduced; Ontariointroduced; Oregonintroduced; Pennsylvaniaintroduced; Tennesseeintroduced; Texasintroduced; Vermontintroduced; Virginiaintroduced; Washingtonintroduced; Wisconsinintroduced Southern America: Argentina Northeastintroduced; Chile Centralintroduced; Chile Southintroduced; Dominican Republicintroduced; Haitinative; Juan Fernández Is.introduced


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