Cichorium intybus

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Cichorium intybus

https://pictures.bgbm.org/digilib/Scaler?fn=Cichorieae/Cichorium_intybus_A_02.jpg&mo=file

Common names

(Myanmar): Chi-ko-riA; Albanian (Albania): KoreB,1, ÇikoreB,1; Arabic (Lebanon): هِنْدَبا بَرِّيَّةC,1; Arabic (Saudi Arabia): HindabahD; Arabic (Syria): هِنْدَبا بَرِّيَّةE,1; Arabic (United Arab Emirates): chicoriaF, hindibaa bareeyaF; Armenian (Armenia): Ճարճատուկ սովորականG,1; Baluchi (Pakistan): KashinH, ZralH; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Грапавоплодна синя жлъчкаI,1; Chinese (China): 菊苣 ju juJ; Corsican (Corse): CrispinuK,1, Erba amaraK,1; Czech (Czech Republic): Čekanka obecnáL,1, Čekanka obecná setáM,1; Danish (Denmark): CikorieN,1; Dutch; Flemish (South Africa): SigoreiO; English (Australia): ChicoryP,Q,R,S,T,U,V,W,X, SuccoryS, succoryV; English (Great Britain): ChicoryY,1; English (India): Bunk ChicoryZ, Wild ChicoryZ; English (Mascarene Islands): ChicoryAA; English (Myanmar): ChicoryA; English (New Zealand): ChicoryAB; English (Northern America): Wild chicoryAC; English (Pakistan): ChicoryAD; English (Puerto Rico): ChicoryAE; English (South Africa): ChicoryO; English (United Arab Emirates): chicoryF; Estonian (Estonia): Harilik sigurAF,1; Finnish (Finland): SikuriN,1; French (Belgium): Barbe de capucinAG,1, ChiconAG,1, ChicoréeAH,1, Chicorée amèreAG,1, Chicorée blondeAG,1, Chicorée de BruxellesAG,1, Chicorée rougeAG,1, Chicorée sauvageAI,1, EndiveAG,1, WitlofAG,1; French (Corse): Chicorée amèreK,1; French (France): Chicorée amèreAJ,1, Chicorée sauvageAJ,1; French (Mascarene Islands): ChicoréeAA; French (Northern America): Chicorée sauvageAC; French (Switzerland): ChicoréeAK,1, EndiveAK,1, WitloofAK,1; German (Germany): Gewöhnliche WegwarteAL,1; German (Switzerland): WegwarteAK,1, ZichorieAK,1; Hindi (India): KasniAM,AN,AO,Z; Italian (Italy): Cicoria comuneAP,1; Italian (Switzerland): Cicoria comuneAK,1, RadicchioAK,1; Latvian (Latvia): Parastais cigoriņšAF,1; Lithuanian (Lithuania): Paprastoji trūkažolėAF,1; Norwegian (Norway): SikoriN,1; Polish (Poland): Cykoria podróżnikAQ,1, Cykoria podróżnik siewnaAR,1; Portuguese (Azores): AlmeirãoAS, Chicória-bravaAS; Portuguese (Mozambique): almeiraoAT; Romanian (Moldova): Чикоарэ комунэAU,1; Russian (Armenia): Цикорий обыкновенныйG,1; Spanish; Castilian (Cuba): Achicoria de bruselasAE; Spanish; Castilian (Dominican Republic): AchicoriaAE, EscarolaAE; Spanish; Castilian (Haiti): ChicoréeAE; Spanish; Castilian (Puerto Rico): AchicoriaAE, ChicoriaAE; Swedish (Sweden): CikoriaAV,1, SallatscikoriaAW,1, VägvårdaN,2; Turkish (Turkey): HindibaAX; Ukrainian (Ukraine & Crimea): Петрові батогиAY,2, Цикорій дикийAY,1; Urdu (Pakistan): KasniH, kasniAD; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Cải ô rôAZ
1. recommended, 2. synonym

Systematics

Cichorium intybus is a fairly variable species. According to Gemeinholzer & Bachmann (2005) intraspecific variability seems to be highly influenced by plasticity as consequence of ecological impacts and does not justifiy recognition of infraspecific taxa.

A conspicuous morph was described as subsp. spicatum (Ricci 2007) from the coast of the Adria (but also reported from Pakistan, Ghafour & al. 2017). Its capitula are situated regularly both single on long peduncules and by 10–18 in shortly stalked spiciform partial synflorescences, the latter in the axil of the former. Hammer & Gladis (2014: 1456) identified this morph with the cultivar known in Italy as "puntarelle", "cicoria asparago", or "cicoria catalogna cimata" and in SW Germany as "Vulkanspargel".

Plants with a pappus of 0.5–0.8 mm (instead of otherwise 0.2–0.5(–0.6) mm) length were described as var. khatoonae from Pakistan (Ghafour & al. 2017).

Cichorium spinosum is very closely related to C. intybus. For details, based on Gemeinholzer & Bachmann (2005), see under that species.BA,BB,BC,H

Description

"Perennial herb with taproot. Stem 30–200 cm, often branched from the base. Basal leaves obovate to oblanceolate, 13–60 x 5–12 cm, rounded to acute, entire to runcinate, glabrous to puberulous. Cauline leaves like basal leaves, but smaller towards apex. Capitula solitary or clustered iu groups of 2–4(–8), sessile or on 4–7 (rarely up to 13) cm long peduncles, which are 2–3 mm in cross-section. Involucrum 3.5–5 mm wide. Outer phyllaries half as long to slightly longer than inner phyllaries, upper part reflexed, ovate or elliptic to (ovate-)lanceolate. 4.7–12.5(–16.0) x 2–4 mm, the lower 2–5 mm part fleshy, upper part acute to acuminate, rarely mucronate or cuspidate, more or less entire; glabrous or set witb 0.1–1 mm long, glandular or non-glandular hairs. Inner phyllaries 8, 7.5–14.5(–16.5) x 1.9–3.0(–4.0) mm, entire; hairs absent or up to 2.3 mm long, glandular or not. Florets (12–)15–19(–25), when fully flowering maximally expanded in one (flat) plane; tube 1.5–3.2 mm long; plate 10–19 x 2–4.5 mm with acute, 0.3–1.3 mm long lobes. Style 6.5–10.5 mm long, upper part with spreading hairs over 2–3.5 mm, blue; stigmatic lobes 1.5–3.0 mm long, blue. Pappus attached in 1 or 2 rows of erect to erecto-patent, irregularly shaped, rounded to acute, 0.2–0.5(–0.6) mm long scales, in the outer florets often wider and blunt to very blunt at centrifugal side. Pappus scales of inner florets usually larger than scales of outer florets. Achenes 1.8–2.7 x 1–1.5 mm, obovoid to cylindrical, weakly ribbed."BD

Distribution

Africa: Algeria nativeBE; Azores native: doubtfully nativenative: doubtfully nativeAS,BF,BG,BH; Cape Provinces (Eastern Cape Province introducedBI, Northern Cape Province introducedBI, Western Cape Province introducedBI); Eritrea introducedBJ; Ethiopia introducedBJ; Free State introducedBI; KwaZulu-Natal introducedBI; Libya native: doubtfully nativeBK,BL; Morocco nativeBM,BN,BO,BP; Northern Provinces (Gauteng introducedBI, North-West Province introducedBI, Northern Province introducedBI); Tunisia nativeBQ Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan nativenativeBR,BS; Altay introducedBT,BU; Buryatiya introducedBU; China North-Central (Beijing introducedBV, Gansu doubtfully presentJ, Hebei introducedJ, Shaanxi introducedJ, Shandong introducedJ, Shanxi introducedBV,J); China Southeast (Henan introducedJ); Cyprus introducedBW; East Aegean Is. nativeBX,BY,BZ; Gulf States (United Arab Emirates introducedCA,F); Iran nativeBS,CB; Iraq nativeBS,CC; Irkutsk introducedBU; Kazakhstan nativeCD; Khabarovsk introducedCE; Kirgizistan nativeCF,CG; Krasnoyarsk introducedBU; Lebanon-Syria (Lebanon nativeCH,CI,CJ, Syria nativeCI,CJ); Manchuria (Heilongjiang introducedBV,J, Jilin doubtfully presentJ, Liaoning introducedBV,J); Mongolia introducedCK; North Caucasus nativeCL,CM,CN (Chechnya nativeCO, Dagestan nativeCO, Kabardino-Balkariya nativeCO, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiya nativeCO, Krasnodar nativeCO, Severo-Osetiya nativeCO, Stavropol nativeCO); Oman introducedCP; Palestine (Israel nativenativeCJ,CQ, Jordan nativeCJ,CR,CS); Primorye introducedCE; Sakhalin introducedCE; Saudi Arabia introducedD; Tadzhikistan nativeCT; Taiwan introducedJ; Transcaucasus (Abkhaziya nativenativeCO, Adzhariya nativenativeCM,CN,CO,CU,CV, Armenia nativenativeCM,CN,CW,G, Azerbaijan nativenativeCM,CN,CW,CX, Georgia nativenativeCU,CW, Nagorno Karabakh nativeCW, Nakhichevan nativenativeCM,CW,CX); Turkey nativeAX,CH,CY,CZ; Turkmenistan nativeDA; West Siberia introducedBU; Xinjiang introducedBV,J Asia-Tropical: Bangladesh introducedDB; India (Haryana introducedAM, Maharashtra introducedDC, Rajasthan introducedDD, Uttar Pradesh introducedDE); Myanmar introducedA; Pakistan nativeAD,BS; West Himalaya (Himachal Pradesh introducedDF) Australasia: New South Wales (Australian Capital Territory introducedDG,R,U,V,W, New South Wales introducedDG,P,S,U,W,X); New Zealand North introducedT; New Zealand South introducedT; Northern Territory introducedS; Queensland (Queensland introducedAB,DG,S,U,V,W,X); South Australia introducedS,U,V,W,X; Tasmania introducedDG,R,S,U,V,W,X; Victoria introducedDG,S,U,V,W,X; Western Australia (Western Australia introducedDG,DH,S,U,V,W,X) Europe: Albania nativeBH,DI,DJ,DK; Austria nativeBH (Austria nativeDL, Liechtenstein nativeDM); Baleares nativeBH,DN,DO,DP,DQ,DR,DS; Baltic States (Estonia nativeDT, Kaliningrad nativeDU, Latvia nativeDT, Lithuania nativeDT); Belarus nativeDV; Belgium nativeBH (Belgium nativeDW, Luxembourg nativeDX); Bulgaria nativeBH,DY,DZ,EA,EB,I; Central European Russia nativeDV; Corse introducedBH,EC,ED,EE,EF; Czechoslovakia nativeBH (Czech Republic nativeEG,EH,EI,EJ, Slovakia nativenativeEG,EH,EK,EL); Denmark nativeBH,EM; East European Russia nativeDV; Finland introducedBH,EN; France nativeBH,DO,EC,EO,EP,EQ; Germany nativeBH,ER,ES,ET; Great Britain nativeBH; Greece nativeBZ,EA,EU,EV,EW,EX,EY,EZ,FA,FB,FC,FD; Hungary nativeBH,FE,FF; Ireland introducedBH (Ireland introducedFG,FH,FI, Northern Ireland introducedFG,FH); Italy nativenativenativenativeAP,BH,FJ,FK,FL,FM,FN,FO,FP; Kriti nativeBX,BY,BZ,FQ,FR,FS,FT,FU; Krym nativenativeBH,CH,DV,FV,FW,FX,FY,FZ,GA,GB,GC; Netherlands nativeBH,GD; North European Russia introducedDV; Northwest European Russia nativeDV; Norway introducedintroducedBH,GE,GF; Poland nativeBH; Portugal native: doubtfully nativeBF; Romania nativenativeBH,DZ,GG,GH,GI; Sardegna nativenativenativeAP,BH,FK,FM,GJ; Sicily nativeBH (Malta nativeGK,GL, Sicily nativeAP,FJ,FK,FL,FM,GM); South European Russia nativeDV; Spain nativeBH (Spain nativeDN,DO,GN,GO,GP); Sweden nativeBH,GQ,GR; Switzerland nativeBH,GS,GT; Turkey-in-Europe nativeBH,BZ,CY,CZ,GU; Ukraine (Moldova nativeAU,DV, Ukraine nativeDV,FZ); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovina nativeDZ,GV,GW, Croatia nativenativenativeAP,DZ,FK,GX, Macedonia native: presence questionableDZ,EA, Montenegro nativeDZ,GY, Serbia nativeDZ,FK,GZ, Slovenia nativeHA,HB) Northern America: Alberta introducedAC,HC; Arkansas introducedHC; British Columbia introducedAC,HC; California introducedHC; Connecticut introducedHC; Illinois introducedHC; Indiana introducedHC; Iowa introducedHC; Kansas introducedHC; Labrador introducedAC,HC; Maine introducedHC; Manitoba introducedAC,HC; Massachusetts introducedHC; Mexico Central (México State introducedHD); Mexico Northwest (Baja California introducedHE, Sonora introducedHE); Michigan introducedHC; Montana introducedHC; Nevada introducedHC; New Brunswick introducedAC,HC; New Hampshire introducedHC; New York introducedHC; Newfoundland (Newfoundland introducedAC,HC, St.Pierre-Miquelon introducedAC,HC); North Carolina introducedHC; Nova Scotia introducedAC,HC,V; Ontario introducedAC,HC; Pennsylvania introducedHC; Prince Edward I. introducedAC,HC; Québec introducedAC,HC; Rhode I. introducedHC; Saskatchewan introducedAC,HC; Texas introducedHC,HE; Utah introducedHC; Vermont introducedHC Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Argentina Distrito Federal introducedHF, Buenos Aires introducedHF, Córdoba introducedHF, Entre Ríos introducedHF, La Pampa introducedHF); Argentina Northwest (Jujuy introducedHF, Mendoza introducedHF, Salta introducedHF, Tucuman introducedHF); Argentina South (Neuquén introducedHF, Rio Negro introducedHF, Santa Fé introducedHF); Bolivia introducedHG; Brazil South (Santa Catarina introducedHF); Chile Central (Biobío introducedHF,HH, Coquimbo introducedHF,HH, La Araucania introducedHF,HH, Maule introducedHF,HH, O'Higgins introducedHF,HH, Santiago introducedHF,HH, Valparaíso introducedHF,HH); Chile North (Atacama introducedHF); Chile South (Los Lagos introducedHF,HH, Magellanes introducedHF,HH); Cuba introducedAE,HI; Dominican Republic introducedAE; El Salvador introducedHJ; Guatemala introducedHJ,HK; Haiti (Haiti introducedAE); Honduras introducedHJ,HL; Juan Fernández Is. introducedHF; Puerto Rico introducedAE; Uruguay introducedHF; Venezuela introducedHM; Windward Is. (Martinique introducedAE)

Uses

Oldest archaeological evidence of the use of Cichorium intybus goes back to the Bronze age in Europe, its cultivation was already known in the ancient Roman period (Rivera Nuñez & Obón De Castro C. 1996). The plant parts used are the taproot and the rosette leaves. Accordingly, domestication of C. intybus developed cultivars with a tuber-like taproot on the one hand and cultivars for the use of the rosette leaves as salad or vegetable.

The Sativum group cultivars (Jeffrey 2001: 2053) were formerly widely and are still grown for use of the roasted root as a coffee substitute in some parts of the world. The Radicchio group and Sugar loaf group cultivars are used as salad (Jeffrey 2001: 2053). The cultivars of the Foliosum group are grown in Europe and parts of the Mediterrranean for long, solid, compact forced and blanched leaf-heads as a winter vegetable (Jeffrey 2001: 2053).HN,HO

Credits

Willing E. 2012: Images (2 added)

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