Scolymus maculatus

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Description

Herb, annual or biennial, 40-160 cm high, with taproot, glabrous or subglabrous. Flowering stems winged with deltoid, denticulate lobes, whitish, branched. Cauline leaves greyish green with white margins and veins on both surfaces. Lower cauline leaves narrowly obovate, 10.0-20.0 cm long, 2.0-5.0-(8.0) cm wide, pinnatipartite or pinnatifid, dentate to spinose, petiole-like attenuate. Middle and upper cauline leaves oblong-deltoid, 2.0-7.0 cm long, 2.0-5.0 cm wide, coarsely spinose, green with white margins and nerves on both surfaces. Synflorescence paniculiform. Peduncle absent. Involucre at flowering ovoid, c. 15.0 mm long, at flowering 7.0 mm in diameter, glabrous; outer involucral bracts ovate-oblong, 12.0-30.0 mm long, 3.0-5.0 mm wide, margin coarsely spinose; inner involucral bracts oblong or ovate, 4.0-15.0 mm long, 3.0-4.0 mm wide, mucronate, margin scarious. Receptacle with scales almost totally enveloping the achenes and winged all round. Corolla ligulate, yellow, pilose with crispate, brown hairs; tube 5.0-6.0 mm long; ligule 9.0-10.0 mm long, c. 1.8 mm wide. Anthertube bluish black, c. 6.0 mm long; apical appendages obtuse. Style 9.0-10.0 mm long; branches up to 0.4 mm long. Achenes cylindrical-obovoid in outline, dorsally compressed, 4.0-5.0 mm long, c. 3.0 mm wide. Pappus paleaceous or absent.

Based on: Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae , Tribe Cichorieae . – Enfield; Feinbrun-Dothan, N. 1978: Flora Palaestina 3. – Jerusalem; Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. – Kew; Sell, P. and Murell, G. 2006: Flora of Great Britain and Ireland 4. – Cambridge; Strother, J. L. 2006: 34. Scolymus Linnaeus und 35. Cichorium Linnaeus. – Pp. 220-222 in: Flora of North America Editorial Com. (ed.), Flora of North America 19. – New York.

Distribution

Africa: Algeria (AlgerianativeA); Canary Is. (Canary Is.nativeB); Egypt (EgyptnativeC,D,E); Madeira (MadeiranativeB); MorocconativeF,G,H,I; Sudan (SudannativeJ); Tunisia (TunisianativeK) Asia-Temperate: Cyprus (CyprusnativeL,M,N); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.nativeO,P,Q); Iran (IrannativeR,S); Iraq (IraqnativeT,U); Lebanon-Syria (LebanonnativeC,V,W, SyrianativeV,W,X); Palestine (IsraelnativeW,X,Y, JordannativeAA,X,Y,Z); Turkey (TurkeynativeC,O,W) Australasia: New South Wales (New South WalesintroducedAB,AC,AD); Northern Territory (Northern TerritoryintroducedAB); Queensland (QueenslandintroducedAC,AD,AE); South Australia (South AustraliaintroducedAB) Europe: Baleares (BalearesnativeAF,AG,AH,AI,AJ); Belgium (Belgiumintroduced: adventitious (casual)AK); Bulgaria (BulgarianativeAJ,AL,AM,AN,AO); FrancenativeAG,AJ,AP,AQ,AR; Greece (GreecenativeAJ,AN,AS,AT,C,P); ItalynativeAJ,AU,AV,AW,AX; Kriti (KritinativeAJ,AN,AS,AY,C,P,Q); Krym (KrymAJ,AZ,BA,BB,BC,BD); Portugal (PortugalnativeAJ,BE,BF,BG,BH); Sardegna (SardegnanativeAJ,AU,AV,AW,AX); SicilynativeAJ (MaltanativeAV,BI, SicilynativeAU,AV,AW,AX); Spain (GibraltarnativeBJ, SpainnativeAF,AG,AJ,BH,BJ,BK); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-EuropenativeAJ,BL,O); Yugoslavia (Croatianative: presence questionableAN, Macedonianative: presence questionableAN) Northern America: North Carolina (North CarolinaintroducedBM)

Common names

Arabic (Lebanon): سْكوليمُس مُبَقَّعBN,1; Arabic (Syria): سْكوليمُس مُبَقَّعBO,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Петнист сколимусAL,1; English (Australia): Spotted ThistleAC,AE, Spotted golden thistleBP; French (France): Scolyme tachéBQ,1; Hebrew (Israel): חוֹחַ עָקֹדBR,1, חוח עקודBR,1; Italian (Italy): Cardogna macchiataAW,1; Maltese (Malta): Xewk isfar (tar-riga bajda)BI,1; Swedish (Sweden): TaggfibblaBS,1; Turkish (Cyprus): Benekli AltındikenBT; Ukrainian (Ukraine & Crimea): Сколiмус плямистийBU,1
1. recommended

Uses

The species was formerly cultivated in southern Europe for the roots and young shoots used asparagus-like as a vegetable.BV,BW

Bibliography

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