Scolymus maculatus

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Scolymus maculatus

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Common names

Arabic (Lebanon): سْكوليمُس مُبَقَّعA,1; Arabic (Syria): سْكوليمُس مُبَقَّعB,1; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): Петнист сколимусC,1; English (Australia): Spotted ThistleD,E, Spotted golden thistleF; French (France): Scolyme tachéG,1; Hebrew (Israel): חוֹחַ עָקֹדH,1, חוח עקודH,1; Italian (Italy): Cardogna macchiataI,1; Maltese (Malta): Xewk isfar (tar-riga bajda)J,1; Swedish (Sweden): TaggfibblaK,1; Turkish (Cyprus): Benekli AltındikenL; Ukrainian (Ukraine & Crimea): Сколiмус плямистийM,1
1. recommended

Description

Herb, annual or biennial, 40-160 cm high, with taproot, glabrous or subglabrous. Flowering stems winged with deltoid, denticulate lobes, whitish, branched. Cauline leaves greyish green with white margins and veins on both surfaces. Lower cauline leaves narrowly obovate, 10.0-20.0 cm long, 2.0-5.0-(8.0) cm wide, pinnatipartite or pinnatifid, dentate to spinose, petiole-like attenuate. Middle and upper cauline leaves oblong-deltoid, 2.0-7.0 cm long, 2.0-5.0 cm wide, coarsely spinose, green with white margins and nerves on both surfaces. Synflorescence paniculiform. Peduncle absent. Involucre at flowering ovoid, c. 15.0 mm long, at flowering 7.0 mm in diameter, glabrous; outer involucral bracts ovate-oblong, 12.0-30.0 mm long, 3.0-5.0 mm wide, margin coarsely spinose; inner involucral bracts oblong or ovate, 4.0-15.0 mm long, 3.0-4.0 mm wide, mucronate, margin scarious. Receptacle with scales almost totally enveloping the achenes and winged all round. Corolla ligulate, yellow, pilose with crispate, brown hairs; tube 5.0-6.0 mm long; ligule 9.0-10.0 mm long, c. 1.8 mm wide. Anthertube bluish black, c. 6.0 mm long; apical appendages obtuse. Style 9.0-10.0 mm long; branches up to 0.4 mm long. Achenes cylindrical-obovoid in outline, dorsally compressed, 4.0-5.0 mm long, c. 3.0 mm wide. Pappus paleaceous or absent.

Based on: Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae , Tribe Cichorieae . – Enfield; Feinbrun-Dothan, N. 1978: Flora Palaestina 3. – Jerusalem; Meikle, R.D. 1985: Flora auf Cyprus 2. – Kew; Sell, P. and Murell, G. 2006: Flora of Great Britain and Ireland 4. – Cambridge; Strother, J. L. 2006: 34. Scolymus Linnaeus und 35. Cichorium Linnaeus. – Pp. 220-222 in: Flora of North America Editorial Com. (ed.), Flora of North America 19. – New York.

Distribution

Africa: Algeria (AlgerianativeN); Canary Is. (Canary Is.nativeO); Egypt (EgyptnativeP,Q,R); Madeira (MadeiranativeO); MorocconativeS,T,U,V; Sudan (SudannativeW); Tunisia (TunisianativeX) Asia-Temperate: Cyprus (CyprusnativeAA,Y,Z); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.nativeAB,AC,AD); Iran (IrannativeAE,AF); Iraq (IraqnativeAG,AH); Lebanon-Syria (LebanonnativeAI,AJ,P, SyrianativeAI,AJ,AK); Palestine (IsraelnativeAJ,AK,AL, JordannativeAK,AL,AM,AN); Turkey (TurkeynativeAB,AJ,P) Australasia: New South Wales (New South WalesintroducedAO,AP,D); Northern Territory (Northern TerritoryintroducedAO); Queensland (QueenslandintroducedAP,D,E); South Australia (South AustraliaintroducedAO) Europe: Baleares (BalearesnativeAQ,AR,AS,AT,AU); Belgium (Belgiumintroduced: adventitious (casual)AV); Bulgaria (BulgarianativeAU,AW,AX,AY,C); FrancenativeAR,AU,AZ,BA,BB; Greece (GreecenativeAC,AU,AX,BC,BD,P); ItalynativeAU,BE,BF,BG,I; Kriti (KritinativeAC,AD,AU,AX,BC,BH,P); Krym (KrymAU,BI,BJ,BK,BL,BM); Portugal (PortugalnativeAU,BN,BO,BP,BQ); Sardegna (SardegnanativeAU,BE,BF,BG,I); SicilynativeAU (MaltanativeBF,J, SicilynativeBE,BF,BG,I); Spain (GibraltarnativeBR, SpainnativeAQ,AR,AU,BQ,BR,BS); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-EuropenativeAB,AU,BT); Yugoslavia (Croatianative: presence questionableAX, Macedonianative: presence questionableAX) Northern America: North Carolina (North CarolinaintroducedBU)

Uses

The species was formerly cultivated in southern Europe for the roots and young shoots used asparagus-like as a vegetable.BV,BW

Bibliography

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