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Common names

Chinese (China): 耳菊属 er ju shuA


Nabalus accommodates species in E Asia and North America (see Sennikov 2000), which were often placed in Prenanthes but are entirely unrelated to the latter (Kilian & al. 2009; Zhang & al. 2011; Schilling & al. 2015). The genus is, however, not monophyletic in its current circumscription (Zhang & al. 2011; Kilian & al. 2017). Instead two different lineages of the Dubyaea-Nabalus-Soroseris-Syncalathium clade of the Crepidinae (Zhang & al. 2011) have migrated into North America. One diversified into the eastern to southeastern true Nabalus (Schilling & al. 2015) including N. trifoliolatus, which provides the type of the generic name. The other is represented by the northwestern species pair N. sagittatus and N. alatus. The phylogeny of the Dubyaea-Nabalus-Soroseris-Syncalathium clade is, however, still unresolved. B,C,D,E,F


"Herbs, perennial. Stem erect, leafy. Synflorescence paniculiform, with many capitula. Capitula often nodding, with 5–25 florets. Involucre narrowly cylindric to narrowly campanulate. Phyllaries in few series; outer phyllaries gradually longer centripetally, to 1/2 as long as inner ones; inner phyllaries ± equal in length. Receptacle naked. Florets yellow, pale purplish, whitish, or greenish. Achene columnar to narrowly fusiform, with 5 weaker or stronger main ribs alternating with 2–4 ± conspicuous secondary ribs, apex truncate. Pappus brownish, of scabrid brittle bristles." G

Chromosome numbers

Diploids and, rarely, tetraploids, x = 8.H


Asia-Temperate: China North-Central (Beijing native, Gansu native, Hebei native, Shaanxi native, Shandong native, Shanxi native); China South-Central (Hubei native, Sichuan native, Yunnan native); China Southeast (Henan native); Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongol native, Ningxia native); Japan (Honshu native, Kyushu native, Shikoku native); Korea (North Korea native, South Korea native); Manchuria (Heilongjiang native, Jilin native, Liaoning native); Primorye native Asia-Tropical: Vietnam native Northern America: Alabama native; Alaska native; Alberta native; Arkansas native; British Columbia native; Colorado native; Connecticut native; Delaware native; District of Columbia native; Florida native; Georgia, U.S.A. native; Idaho native; Illinois native; Indiana native; Iowa native; Kansas native; Kentucky native; Labrador native; Louisiana native; Maine native; Manitoba native; Maryland native; Massachusetts native; Michigan native; Minnesota native; Mississippi native; Missouri native; Montana native; Nebraska native; New Brunswick native; New Hampshire native; New Jersey native; New York native; Newfoundland (Newfoundland native, St.Pierre-Miquelon native); North Carolina native; North Dakota native; Nova Scotia native; Ohio native; Oklahoma native; Ontario native; Oregon native; Pennsylvania native; Prince Edward I. native; Québec native; Rhode I. native; Saskatchewan native; South Carolina native; South Dakota native; Tennessee native; Texas native; Vermont native; Virginia native; Washington native; West Virginia native; Wisconsin native


A. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
B. Kilian N., Gemeinholzer B. & Lack H. W. - Tribe Cichorieae in Funk V. A., Susanna A., Stuessy T. & al., Systematics, evolution and biogeography of Compositae. 2009
C. Kilian N., Sennikov A. N., Wang Z. H. & al., Sub-Paratethyan origin and Middle to Late Miocene principal diversification of the Lactucinae (Cichorieae, Compositae) inferred from molecular phylogenetics, divergence-dating and biogeographic analysis in Taxon 66: 675-703. 2017
D. Schilling E. E. & al., Barcoding the Asteraceae of Tennessee, tribe Cichorieae in Phytoneuron 2015-19: 1-8. 2015
E. Sennikov, O rodakh iz rodstva Prenanthes L. (Asteraceae) [De generibus ex affinitate Prenanthes L. (Asteraceae)] in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 32: 178-181. 2000
F. Zhang J.-W. & al., Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of three closely related genera, Soroseris, Stebbinsia, and Syncalathium (Asteraceae, Cichorieae), endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, SW China in Taxon 60: 15-26. 2011
G. Shih C. & Kilian N. - in Wu & al., Fl. China 20-21. 2011: 341
H. Watanabe K., Index to chromosome numbers in Asteraceae.