Primary tabs



"Herbs, perennial. Stem erect, leafy. Synflorescence paniculiform, with many capitula. Capitula often nodding, with 5–25 florets. Involucre narrowly cylindric to narrowly campanulate. Phyllaries in few series; outer phyllaries gradually longer centripetally, to 1/2 as long as inner ones; inner phyllaries ± equal in length. Receptacle naked. Florets yellow, pale purplish, whitish, or greenish. Achene columnar to narrowly fusiform, with 5 weaker or stronger main ribs alternating with 2–4 ± conspicuous secondary ribs, apex truncate. Pappus brownish, of scabrid brittle bristles." A


Nabalus accommodates species in E Asia and North America (see Sennikov 2000), which were often placed in Prenanthes but are entirely unrelated to the latter (Kilian & al. 2009; Zhang & al. 2011; Schilling & al. 2015). The genus is, however, not monophyletic in its current circumscription (Zhang & al. 2011; Kilian & al. 2017). Instead two different lineages of the Dubyaea-Nabalus-Soroseris-Syncalathium clade of the Crepidinae (Zhang & al. 2011) have migrated into North America. One diversified into the eastern to southeastern true Nabalus (Schilling & al. 2015) including N. trifoliolatus, which provides the type of the generic name. The other is represented by the northwestern species pair N. sagittatus and N. alatus. The phylogeny of the Dubyaea-Nabalus-Soroseris-Syncalathium clade is, however, still unresolved. B,C,D,E,F

Chromosome numbers

Diploids and, rarely, tetraploids, x = 8.G


Asia-Temperate: China North-Central (Beijingnative, Gansunative, Hebeinative, Shaanxinative, Shandongnative, Shanxinative); China South-Central (Hubeinative, Sichuannative, Yunnannative); China Southeast (Henannative); Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongolnative, Ningxianative); Japan (Honshunative, Kyushunative, Shikokunative); Korea (North Koreanative, South Koreanative); Manchuria (Heilongjiangnative, Jilinnative, Liaoningnative); Primoryenative Asia-Tropical: Vietnamnative Northern America: Alabamanative; Alaskanative; Albertanative; Arkansasnative; British Columbianative; Coloradonative; Connecticutnative; Delawarenative; District of Columbianative; Floridanative; Georgia, U.S.A.native; Idahonative; Illinoisnative; Indiananative; Iowanative; Kansasnative; Kentuckynative; Labradornative; Louisiananative; Mainenative; Manitobanative; Marylandnative; Massachusettsnative; Michigannative; Minnesotanative; Mississippinative; Missourinative; Montananative; Nebraskanative; New Brunswicknative; New Hampshirenative; New Jerseynative; New Yorknative; Newfoundland (Newfoundlandnative, St.Pierre-Miquelonnative); North Carolinanative; North Dakotanative; Nova Scotianative; Ohionative; Oklahomanative; Ontarionative; Oregonnative; Pennsylvanianative; Prince Edward I.native; Québecnative; Rhode I.native; Saskatchewannative; South Carolinanative; South Dakotanative; Tennesseenative; Texasnative; Vermontnative; Virginianative; Washingtonnative; West Virginianative; Wisconsinnative

Common names

Chinese (China): 耳菊属 er ju shuH


A. Shih C. & Kilian N. - in Wu & al., Fl. China 20-21. 2011: 341
B. Kilian N., Gemeinholzer B. & Lack H. W. - Tribe Cichorieae in Funk V. A., Susanna A., Stuessy T. & al., Systematics, evolution and biogeography of Compositae. 2009
C. Kilian N., Sennikov A. N., Wang Z. H. & al., Sub-Paratethyan origin and Middle to Late Miocene principal diversification of the Lactucinae (Cichorieae, Compositae) inferred from molecular phylogenetics, divergence-dating and biogeographic analysis in Taxon 66: 675-703. 2017
D. Schilling E. E. & al., Barcoding the Asteraceae of Tennessee, tribe Cichorieae in Phytoneuron 2015-19: 1-8. 2015
E. Sennikov, O rodakh iz rodstva Prenanthes L. (Asteraceae) [De generibus ex affinitate Prenanthes L. (Asteraceae)] in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 32: 178-181. 2000
F. Zhang J.-W. & al., Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of three closely related genera, Soroseris, Stebbinsia, and Syncalathium (Asteraceae, Cichorieae), endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, SW China in Taxon 60: 15-26. 2011
G. Watanabe K., Index to chromosome numbers in Asteraceae.
H. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011