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Common names

Chinese (China): 耳菊属 er ju shuA


Nabalus accommodates species in E Asia and North America (see Sennikov 2000), which were often placed in Prenanthes but are entirely unrelated to the latter (Kilian & al. 2009; Zhang & al. 2011; Schilling & al. 2015). The genus is, however, not monophyletic in its current circumscription (Zhang & al. 2011; Kilian & al. 2017). Instead two different lineages of the Dubyaea-Nabalus-Soroseris-Syncalathium clade of the Crepidinae (Zhang & al. 2011) have migrated into North America. One diversified into the eastern to southeastern true Nabalus (Schilling & al. 2015) including N. trifoliolatus, which provides the type of the generic name. The other is represented by the northwestern species pair N. sagittatus and N. alatus. The phylogeny of the Dubyaea-Nabalus-Soroseris-Syncalathium clade is, however, still unresolved. B,C,D,E,F


"Herbs, perennial. Stem erect, leafy. Synflorescence paniculiform, with many capitula. Capitula often nodding, with 5–25 florets. Involucre narrowly cylindric to narrowly campanulate. Phyllaries in few series; outer phyllaries gradually longer centripetally, to 1/2 as long as inner ones; inner phyllaries ± equal in length. Receptacle naked. Florets yellow, pale purplish, whitish, or greenish. Achene columnar to narrowly fusiform, with 5 weaker or stronger main ribs alternating with 2–4 ± conspicuous secondary ribs, apex truncate. Pappus brownish, of scabrid brittle bristles." G

Chromosome numbers

Diploids and, rarely, tetraploids, x = 8.H


Asia-Temperate: China North-Central (Beijingnative, Gansunative, Hebeinative, Shaanxinative, Shandongnative, Shanxinative); China South-Central (Hubeinative, Sichuannative, Yunnannative); China Southeast (Henannative); Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongolnative, Ningxianative); Japan (Honshunative, Kyushunative, Shikokunative); Korea (North Koreanative, South Koreanative); Manchuria (Heilongjiangnative, Jilinnative, Liaoningnative); Primoryenative Asia-Tropical: Vietnamnative Northern America: Alabamanative; Alaskanative; Albertanative; Arkansasnative; British Columbianative; Coloradonative; Connecticutnative; Delawarenative; District of Columbianative; Floridanative; Georgia, U.S.A.native; Idahonative; Illinoisnative; Indiananative; Iowanative; Kansasnative; Kentuckynative; Labradornative; Louisiananative; Mainenative; Manitobanative; Marylandnative; Massachusettsnative; Michigannative; Minnesotanative; Mississippinative; Missourinative; Montananative; Nebraskanative; New Brunswicknative; New Hampshirenative; New Jerseynative; New Yorknative; Newfoundland (Newfoundlandnative, St.Pierre-Miquelonnative); North Carolinanative; North Dakotanative; Nova Scotianative; Ohionative; Oklahomanative; Ontarionative; Oregonnative; Pennsylvanianative; Prince Edward I.native; Québecnative; Rhode I.native; Saskatchewannative; South Carolinanative; South Dakotanative; Tennesseenative; Texasnative; Vermontnative; Virginianative; Washingtonnative; West Virginianative; Wisconsinnative


A. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
B. Kilian N., Gemeinholzer B. & Lack H. W. - Tribe Cichorieae in Funk V. A., Susanna A., Stuessy T. & al., Systematics, evolution and biogeography of Compositae. 2009
C. Kilian N., Sennikov A. N., Wang Z. H. & al., Sub-Paratethyan origin and Middle to Late Miocene principal diversification of the Lactucinae (Cichorieae, Compositae) inferred from molecular phylogenetics, divergence-dating and biogeographic analysis in Taxon 66: 675-703. 2017
D. Schilling E. E. & al., Barcoding the Asteraceae of Tennessee, tribe Cichorieae in Phytoneuron 2015-19: 1-8. 2015
E. Sennikov, O rodakh iz rodstva Prenanthes L. (Asteraceae) [De generibus ex affinitate Prenanthes L. (Asteraceae)] in Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 32: 178-181. 2000
F. Zhang J.-W. & al., Molecular phylogeny and biogeography of three closely related genera, Soroseris, Stebbinsia, and Syncalathium (Asteraceae, Cichorieae), endemic to the Tibetan Plateau, SW China in Taxon 60: 15-26. 2011
G. Shih C. & Kilian N. - in Wu & al., Fl. China 20-21. 2011: 341
H. Watanabe K., Index to chromosome numbers in Asteraceae.