Primary tabs



Extensive molecular phylogenetic analyses of the Sonchus alliance by Kim & al. (1996, 1997, 1999a,b, 2004, 2007) revealed that the genus Dendroseris, and, according to yet unpublished results (Kim, pers. comm., March 2007) also the monospecific genus Thamnoseris, both formerly included in a separate subtribe Dendroseridinae, are part of the Sonchinae and the Sonchus alliance in particular.

Recent molecular phylogenetic analyses by Gemeinholzer & al. (in Kilian & al. 2009; Kim & al. pers. comm., March 2007) revealed that also Aposeris (lacking a pappus) and Hyoseris (with an inner pappus of basally strongly widened bristles) have to be included in the Sonchinae. Blackmore (1981) stated that the palynological evidence is inconclusive for the placement of Hyoseris, reflecting a possible relationship to the Hypochaeris alliance as likely as to the Launaea-Reichardia-Sonchus alliance. Molecular analyses by Samuel & al. (2003) revealed that neither species is a member of the Hypochaeridinae. Aposeris is sister to all other genera of this subtribe, which are rather closely related to each other, while Hyoseris is sister to the clade including Launaea, Reichardia and the Sonchus alliance. Inclusion of Hyoseris required a change of name of the subtribe from Sonchinae to Hyoseridinae because of the priority rule.

The various species-poor genera, established within the Sonchus alliance for species of the Canary Islands (Chrysoprenanthes, Babcockia, Lactucosonchus, Sventenia, Taeckholmia, Wildpretia) and of Australia/New Zealand (Actites, Embergia, Kirkianella), were nested within Sonchus in all recent molecular phylogenetic analyses (Kim & al. 1996, 1997, 1999a, b, 2004, 2007). The same has been confirmed for the monospecific Mediterranean Aetheorhiza as well as for Dendroseris and Thamnoseris, endemic to the Pacific Juan Fernandez and Desventuradas Islands, respectively (Kim & al. 2007; S.-C. Kim, pers. comm., March 2007). The Canarian, Mediterranean and Australian/New Zealandean genera are morphologically questionably distinct from Sonchus and their inclusion in Sonchus seems therefore a justified consequence. The case may appear different with respect to Dendroseris (Carlquist 1966; Crawford & al. 1992; Sang & al. 1994) and Thamnoseris, which apparently have evolved from within Sonchus after long-distant dispersal to these Pacific island groups. They may be exemplary for the need to accept, whenever appropriate, also paraphyletic genera as long as we want taxonomy to reflect evolution (Brummitt 2002, 2008, Hörandl 2007). Mejías & Kim (2012), however, came, also after an extensive review of the literature on these genera, to the conclusion that Dendroseris and Thamnoseris should best be included in Sonchus and provided the corresponding nomenclatural combinations. The treatment here follows these authors.


Blackmore S. 1981: Palynology and intergeneric relationships in subtribe Hyoseridinae (Compositae: Lactuceae). – Bot. J. Linn. Soc. 82: 1-13.

Brummitt R. K. 2002: How to chop a tree. – Taxon 51: 31-41.

Brummitt R. K. 2008: Evolution in taxonomic perspective. – Taxon 57: 1049-1050.
Carlquist S. 1966: The biota of long-distance dispersal II. Loss of dispersibility in Pacific Compositae. – Evolution 20: 30-48.

Crawford D. J., Stuessy T. F., Haines D. W., Cosner M. B.,Silva O. M. & Lopez P. 1992: Evolution of the genus Dendroseris (Asteraceae: Lactuceae) on the Juan Fernandez Islands: evidence from chloroplast and ribosomal DNA. – Syst. Bot. 17: 676-682.

Hörandl E. 2007: Neglecting evolution is bad taxonomy. – Taxon 56: 1-5.

Kilian N., Gemeinholzer B. & Lack H. W. 2009: Tribe Cichorieae. – In: Funk V. A., Susanna A., Stuessy T. & Bayer R. (ed.), Systematics, evolution, and biogeography of the Compositae. – Vienna: IAPT.

Kim S.-C., Crawford D. J., Francisco-Ortega J. & Santos-Guerra A. 1996: A common origin for woody Sonchus and five related genera in the Macaronesian islands: molecular evidence for extensive radiation. – Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. US 93: 7743-7748.

Kim S.-C., Crawford D. J. & Jansen R. K. 1997: Phylogenetic relationships among the genera of the subtribe Sonchinae (Asteraceae): evidence from ITS sequences. – Syst. Bot. 21: 417-432.

Kim S.-C., Crawford D. J., Francisco-Ortega J. & Santos-Guerra A. 1999a: Adaptive radiation and genetic differentiation in the woody Sonchus alliance (Asteraceae: Sonchinae) in the Canary Islands. – Pl. Syst. Evol. 215: 101-118.

Kim S.-C., Crawford D. J., Jansen R. K. & Santos-Guerra A. 1999b: The use of a non-coding region of chloroplast DNA in phylogenetic studies of the subtribe Sonchinae (Asteraceae: Lactuceae). – Pl. Syst. Evol. 215: 85-99.

Kim S.-C., Lu C. T. & Lepschi B. J. 2004: Phylogenetic positions of Actites megalocarpa and Sonchus hydrophilus (Sonchinae: Asteraceae) based on ITS and chloroplast non-coding DNA sequences. – Austral. Syst. Bot. 17: 73-81.

Kim S.-C., Lee C. & Mejías J. A. 2007: Phylogenetic analysis of chloroplast DNA matK gene and ITS of nrDNA sequences reveals polyphyly of the genus Sonchus and new relationships among the subtribe Sonchinae (Asteraceae: Cichorieae). – Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 44: 578-597.

Mejias J. A. & Kim S.-C. 2012: Taxonomic treatment of Cichorieae (Asteraceae) endemic to the Juan Fernandez and Desventuradas Islands (SE Pacific). – Ann. Bot. Fenn. 49: 171–178.

Samuel R., Stuessy T. F., Tremetsberger K., Baeza C. M. & Siljak Yakovlev S. 2003: Phylogenetic relationships among species of Hypochaeris (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) based on ITS, plastid trnL intron, trnL-F spacer, and matK sequences. – Amer. J. Bot. 90: 496-507.

Sang T., Crawford D. J., Kim S.-C. & Stuessy T. F. 1994: Radiation of the endemic genus Dendroseris (Asteraceae) on the Juan Fernandez Islands: evidence from sequences of the ITS regions of nuclear ribosomal DNA. – Amer. J. Bot. 81: 1494-1501.


Africa: Aldabra (Aldabranative); Algeria (Algerianative); Angola (Angolanative); Azores (Açôresnative); Benin (Beninnative); Burkina (Burkinanative); Burundi (Burundinative); Cameroon (Cameroonnative); Canary Is. (Canary Is.native); Cape Provinces (Eastern Cape Provincenative, Northern Cape Provincenative); Cape Verdenative (Cape Verdenative); Central African Republic (Central African Republicnative); Chad (Chadnative); Comoros (Mayotteintroduced); Congo (Congonative); Djibouti (Djiboutinative); Egypt (Egyptnative); Eritrea (Eritreanative); Ethiopia (Ethiopianative); Free State (Free Statenative); Gambia, The (Gambia, Theintroduced); Ghana (Ghananative); Guinea (Guineanative); Gulf of Guinea Is. (Biokonative: doubtfully native, São Toméintroduced); Ivory Coast (Ivory Coastnative); Kenya (Kenyanative); KwaZulu-Natal (KwaZulu-Natalnative); Libya (Libyanative); Madagascar (Madagascarnative); Madeira (Madeiranative); Malawi (Malawinative); Mali (Malinative); Mauritania (Mauritanianative); Mauritius (Mauritiusnative); Morocconative; Mozambique (Mozambiquenative); Namibia (Namibianative); Niger (Nigernative); Nigeria (Nigerianative); Northern Provinces (Gautengnative, Mpumalanganative, North-West Provincenative, Northern Provincenative); Rwanda (Rwandanative); Réunion (Réunionnative); Selvagens (Selvagensnative); Senegal (Senegalnative); Seychelles (Seychellesnative); Sierra Leone (Sierra Leonenative); Socotra (Socotranative); Somalia (Somalianative); St.Helena (St.Helenanative); Sudan (Sudannative); Tanzania (Tanzanianative); Togo (Togonative); Tunisia (Tunisianative); Uganda (Ugandanative); Western Saharanative (Western Saharanative); Zaire (Zairenative); Zambia (Zambianative); Zimbabwe (Zimbabwenative) Asia-Temperate: Afghanistan (Afghanistannative); Altay (Altaynative); Amur (Amurnative); Buryatiya (Buryatiyanative); China North-Central (Gansunative, Hebeinative, Shaanxinative, Shandongnative, Shanxinative); China South-Central (Guizhounative, Hubeinative, Sichuannative, Yunnannative); China Southeast (Anhuiintroduced, Fujiannative, Guangdongnative, Guangxinative, Henannative, Hong Kongnative, Hunannative, Jiangsunative, Jiangxinative, Zhejiangnative); Chita (Chitanative); Cyprus (Cyprusnative); East Aegean Is. (East Aegean Is.native); Gulf States (Bahrainnative, Qatarnative, United Arab Emiratesnative); Hainan (Hainannative); Inner Mongolia (Nei Mongolnative, Ningxianative); Iran (Irannative); Iraq (Iraqnative); Irkutsk (Irkutsknative); Japanintroduced (Hokkaidonative, Honshunative, Kyushunative, Shikokunative); Kamchatka (Kamchatkanative); Kazakhstan (Kazakhstannative); Khabarovsk (Khabarovsknative); Kirgizistan (Kirgizistannative); Korea (North Koreanative, South Koreanative); Krasnoyarsk (Krasnoyarsknative); Kuril Is. (Kuril Is.native); Kuwait (Kuwaitnative); Lebanon-Syria (Lebanonnative, Syrianative); Magadan (Magadannative); Manchuria (Heilongjiangnative, Jilinnative, Liaoningnative); Mongolianative (Mongolianative); North Caucasusnative (Chechnyanative, Dagestannative, Kabardino-Balkariyanative, Karacheyevo-Cherkessiyanative, Krasnodarnative, Severo-Osetiyanative, Stavropolnative); Ogasawara-shoto (Ogasawara-shotointroduced); Oman (Omannative); Palestine (Israelnative, Jordannative); Primorye (Primoryenative); Qinghai (Qinghainative); Sakhalin (Sakhalinnative); Saudi Arabia (Saudi Arabianative); Sinai (Sinainative); Tadzhikistan (Tadzhikistannative); Taiwan (Taiwannative); Tibet (Tibetnative); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Armenianative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative, Nakhichevannative); Turkey (Turkeynative); Turkmenistan (Turkmenistannative); Tuva (Tuvanative); Uzbekistannative (Uzbekistannative); West Siberia (West Siberianative); Xinjiang (Xinjiangnative); Yakutskiya (Yakutskiyanative); Yemen (North Yemennative, South Yemennative) Asia-Tropical: Andaman Is. (Andaman Is.native); Assam (Assamnative, Manipurnative, Meghalayanative); Bangladesh (Bangladeshnative); Borneo (Sabahintroduced); East Himalaya (Bhutannative, Sikkimnative); Indiaintroduced (Biharnative, Chattisgarhnative, Haryananative, Karnatakanative, Keralanative, Madhya Pradeshnative, Maharashtranative, Orissanative, Punjabnative, Rajasthannative, Tamil Nadunative, Uttar Pradeshnative, West Bengalnative); Jawa (Jawanative); Laos (Laosnative); Malaya (Peninsular Malaysianative); Maldives (Maldivesnative); Myanmar (Myanmarnative); Nepal (Nepalnative); New Guinea (Irian Jayaintroduced, Papua New Guineaintroduced); Pakistan (Pakistannative); Philippines (Philippinesnative); Sri Lanka (Sri Lankanative); Sumatera (Sumateranative); Thailandintroduced (Thailandnative); Vietnam (Vietnamnative); West Himalaya (Himachal Pradeshnative, Jammu-Kashmirnative) Australasia: Antipodean Is. (Antipodean Is.introduced); Chatham Is. (Chatham Is.native); Kermadec Is. (Kermadec Is.introduced); New South Wales (Australian Capital Territorynative, New South Walesnative); New Zealand North (New Zealand Northnative); New Zealand South (New Zealand Southnative); Northern Territory (Northern Territoryintroduced); Queensland (Queenslandnative); South Australia (South Australianative); Tasmania (Tasmanianative); Victoria (Victorianative); Western Australia (Ashmore-Cartier Is.introduced, Western Australianative) Europe: Albania (Albanianative); Austrianative (Austrianative, Liechtensteinnative); Baleares (Balearesnative); Baltic States (Estonianative, Kaliningradnative, Latvianative, Lithuanianative); Belarus (Belarusnative); Belgiumnative (Belgiumnative, Luxembourgnative); Bulgaria (Bulgarianative); Central European Russia (Central European Russianative); Corse (Corsenative); Czechoslovakianative (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmark (Denmarknative); East European Russia (East European Russianative); Finland (Finlandnative); Francenative (Francenative); Føroyar (Føroyarnative); Germany (Germanynative); Great Britain (Great Britainnative); Greece (Greecenative); Hungary (Hungarynative); Irelandnative (Irelandnative, Northern Irelandnative); Italynative; Kriti (Kritinative); Krym (Krymnative); Netherlands (Netherlandsnative); North European Russia (North European Russianative); Northwest European Russia (Northwest European Russianative); Norway (Norwaynative); Poland (Polandnative); Portugal (Portugalnative); Romania (Romanianative); Sardegna (Sardegnanative); Sicilynative (Maltanative, Sicilynative); South European Russia (South European Russianative); Spainnative (Andorranative, Gibraltarnative, Spainnative); Sweden (Swedennative); Switzerland (Switzerlandnative); Turkey-in-Europe (Turkey-in-Europenative); Ukraine (Moldovanative, Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative) Northern America: Alabama (Alabamaintroduced); Alaska (Alaskaintroduced); Alberta (Albertaintroduced); Arizona (Arizonaintroduced); Arkansas (Arkansasintroduced); British Columbia (British Columbiaintroduced); California (Californiaintroduced); Colorado (Coloradointroduced); Connecticut (Connecticutintroduced); Delaware (Delawareintroduced); District of Columbia (District of Columbiaintroduced); Florida (Floridaintroduced); Georgia, U.S.A. (Georgia, U.S.A.introduced); Greenland (Greenlandintroduced); Idaho (Idahointroduced); Illinois (Illinoisintroduced); Indiana (Indianaintroduced); Iowa (Iowaintroduced); Kansas (Kansasintroduced); Kentucky (Kentuckyintroduced); Labrador (Labradorintroduced); Louisiana (Louisianaintroduced); Maine (Maineintroduced); Manitoba (Manitobaintroduced); Maryland (Marylandintroduced); Massachusetts (Massachusettsintroduced); Mexican Pacific Is. (Guadalupe I.introduced); Mexico Central (Mexico Distrito Federalintroduced, Morelosintroduced, México Stateintroduced, Pueblaintroduced, Tlaxcalaintroduced); Mexico Gulf (Veracruzintroduced); Mexico Northeast (Chihuahuaintroduced, Coahuilaintroduced, Durangointroduced, Guanajuatointroduced, Hidalgointroduced, Nuevo Leónintroduced, Querétarointroduced, San Luis Potosíintroduced, Tamaulipasintroduced, Zacatecasintroduced); Mexico Northwest (Baja Californiaintroduced, Baja California Surintroduced, Sinaloaintroduced, Sonoraintroduced); Mexico Southeast (Campecheintroduced, Chiapasintroduced, Quintana Roointroduced, Yucatánintroduced); Mexico Southwest (Colimaintroduced, Guerrerointroduced, Jaliscointroduced, Michoacánintroduced, Oaxacaintroduced); Michigan (Michiganintroduced); Minnesota (Minnesotaintroduced); Mississippi (Mississippiintroduced); Missouri (Missouriintroduced); Montana (Montanaintroduced); Nebraska (Nebraskaintroduced); Nevada (Nevadaintroduced); New Brunswick (New Brunswickintroduced); New Hampshire (New Hampshireintroduced); New Jersey (New Jerseyintroduced); New Mexico (New Mexicointroduced); New York (New Yorkintroduced); Newfoundland (Newfoundlandintroduced, St.Pierre-Miquelonintroduced); North Carolina (North Carolinaintroduced); North Dakota (North Dakotaintroduced); Northwest Territories (Northwest Territoriesintroduced); Nova Scotia (Nova Scotiaintroduced); Nunavut (Nunavutintroduced); Ohio (Ohiointroduced); Oklahoma (Oklahomaintroduced); Ontario (Ontariointroduced); Oregon (Oregonintroduced); Pennsylvania (Pennsylvaniaintroduced); Prince Edward I. (Prince Edward I.introduced); Québec (Québecintroduced); Rhode I. (Rhode I.introduced); Saskatchewan (Saskatchewanintroduced); South Carolina (South Carolinaintroduced); South Dakota (South Dakotaintroduced); Tennessee (Tennesseeintroduced); Texas (Texasintroduced); Utah (Utahintroduced); Vermont (Vermontintroduced); Virginia (Virginiaintroduced); Washington (Washingtonintroduced); West Virginia (West Virginiaintroduced); Wisconsin (Wisconsinintroduced); Wyoming (Wyomingintroduced); Yukon (Yukonintroduced) Pacific: Fiji (Fijiintroduced); Hawaii (Hawaiian Is.introduced); New Caledonia (New Caledoniaintroduced) Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Argentina Distrito Federalintroduced, Buenos Airesintroduced, Chacointroduced, Corrientesintroduced, Córdobaintroduced, Entre Ríosintroduced, Formosaintroduced, La Pampaintroduced, Misionesintroduced); Argentina Northwest (Catamarcaintroduced, Jujuyintroduced, La Riojaintroduced, Mendozaintroduced, Saltaintroduced, San Juanintroduced, San Luisintroduced, Santiago del Esterointroduced); Argentina South (Chubutintroduced, Neuquénintroduced, Rio Negrointroduced, Santa Cruzintroduced, Santa Féintroduced, Tierra del Fuego (Argentina)introduced); Aruba (Arubaintroduced); Bahamas (Bahamasintroduced); Bolivia (Boliviaintroduced); Brazil Northeast (Bahiaintroduced); Brazil South (Paranáintroduced, Rio Grande do Sulintroduced, Santa Catarinaintroduced); Brazil Southeast (Trindadeintroduced); Cayman Is. (Cayman Is.introduced); Chile Central (Biobíointroduced, Coquimbointroduced, La Araucaniaintroduced, Mauleintroduced, O'Higginsintroduced, Santiagointroduced, Valparaísointroduced); Chile North (Antofagastaintroduced, Atacamaintroduced, Tarapacaintroduced); Chile South (Aisénintroduced, Los Lagosintroduced, Magellanesintroduced); Colombia (Colombiaintroduced); Cuba (Cubaintroduced); Desventurados Is. (Desventurados Is.introduced); Dominican Republic (Dominican Republicintroduced); Guatemala (Guatemalaintroduced); Haiti (Haitiintroduced); Jamaica (Jamaicaintroduced); Juan Fernández Is. (Juan Fernández Is.introduced); Leeward Is. (Anguillaintroduced, Antigua-Barbudaintroduced, Guadeloupeintroduced, Montserratintroduced, Netherlands Leeward Is.introduced, St.Martin-St.Barthélémyintroduced, Virgin Is.introduced); Netherlands Antilles (Bonaireintroduced, Curaçaointroduced); Panamá (Panamáintroduced); Paraguay (Paraguayintroduced); Peru (Peruintroduced); Puerto Rico (Puerto Ricointroduced); Trinidad-Tobago (Trinidad-Tobagointroduced); Turks-Caicos Is. (Turks-Caicos Is.introduced); Uruguay (Uruguayintroduced); Venezuela (Venezuelaintroduced); Venezuelan Antilles (Venezuelan Antillesintroduced); Windward Is. (Barbadosintroduced, Dominicaintroduced, Grenadaintroduced, Martiniqueintroduced, St.Luciaintroduced, St.Vincentintroduced)


Kim S.-C. 2009: Systematic (data).