Youngia japonica

Primary tabs

Youngia japonica

Common names

Chinese (China): 黄鹌菜 huang an caiA; French (Mascarene Islands): Lastron bâtardB; French (Réunion): Lastron bâtardC; Japanese (Japan): Oni-tabirakoD; Korean (Korea): Ppo-ri-ppaeng-iE; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Cải đồngF,G


Babcock & Stebbins (1937) treated Youngia japonica as a species with three subspecies, subsp. japonica (including Y. lyrata), subsp. longiflora and subsp. elstonii. While subsp. longiflora is fairly well characterised by longer involucres (6-7 mm instead of 4-5.5 mm), longer anther tubes (c. 3 mm instead of up to 2 mm) and larger achenes (2-2.5 mm instead of 1.5-2 mm), the delimitation between subsp. japonica and subsp. elstonii appears more difficult in view of frequent transitions and a probably scattered distribution pattern according to Shih & Kilian (in Shih & al. 2011).

Molecular and morphological analyses of Youngia japonica in Taiwan by Nakamura & al. (2012, 2013) shed further light on this species, its phylogeny and taxonomy. According to their molecular analysis, subsp. elstonii and subsp. longiflora consitute clearly distinguishable clades in the ITS phylogeny, less so, however, in the plastid phylogeny, corroborating the status of both as separate taxa. With the a priori assumption that subsp. elstonii (treated as Y. pseudosenecio) is a separate species, Nakamura & al. (2012, 2013) concluded that also subsp. longiflora represents a separate species because the latter is sister to the clade including Y. japonica + Y. pseudosenecio. They do not, however, show how subsp. elstonii (as Y. pseudosenecio) is distinguished from the remainder of their Y. japonica. Urbatsch & al. (2013), when confirming the occurrence of subsp. elstonii (as Y. thunbergiana) in North America as an introduced species, confirmed with an ITS phylogeny and morphological comparison the latter to be a taxon distinct form subsp. japonica. Recognition of subsp. elstonii and subsp. longiflora as separate species appears to be an equally justified taxonomic treatment.

Besides, Nakamura & al. (2012, 2013) recognised two further entities, both endemic to Taiwan, and assigned subspecies status to them. These are subsp. formosana and subsp. monticola.


Babcock E. B & Stebbins G. L. 1937: The genus Youngia. – Publ. Carnegie Inst. Washington 484.

Nakamura K., Chung K.-F., Huang C.-J., Kono Y., Kokubugata G. & Peng C.-I. 2012: Extreme habitats that emerged in the Pleistocene triggered divergence of weedy Youngia (Asteraceae) in Taiwan. – Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 63: 486–499.

Nakamura K., Kono Y., Huang C.-J., Chung K.-F. & Peng C.-I. 2013: Correction of confusions regarding the identity and synonymy of Youngia (Asteraceae: Tribe Cichorieae) in Taiwan. – Syst. Bot. 38: 507–516.

Shih C., Ge X. J.; Kilian N., Kirschner J., Štěpánek J., Sukhorukov A. P., Mavrodiev E. V. & Gottschlich G. 2011: Cichorieae. – Pp. 195–353 in: Wu Z. Y., Raven P. H. & Hong D. Y. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21. Asteraceae. – Beijing: Science Press & St Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden.

Urbatsch L. E., Pruski J. F. & Neubig K. N. 2013: Youngia thunbergiana (Crepidinae, Cichorieae, Asteraceae), a species overlooked in the North American Flora. – Castanea 78: 330-337.  // ➪ //


Herbs usually 10–150 cm tall, annual. Stems solitary or few, erect, branched from base, middle, or only apically, glabrous or basally often ± hairy, ± leafy or leafless. Basal leaves ± oblanceolate, to 15(–25) × 4(–6) cm, lyrately pinnatipartite or pinnatisect, rarely not divided; glabrous or somewhat hairy, base attenuate into a longer or shorter narrowly winged to ± unwinged petiole-like portion, margin sinuate-dentate; lateral lobes few to many, ovate, rhombic, or elliptic, gradually smaller toward leaf base; terminal lobe ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or obovate, much larger than lateral ones, apex rounded to acute. Stem leaves similar to basal leaves, abruptly or gradually reduced to bracts upward on stem. Synflorescence corymbiform to paniculiform- corymbiform, usually with many to numerous capitula. Capitula with 10–20 florets; peduncle capillaceous. Involucre cylindric, 4–7 mm. Phyllaries abaxially glabrous; outer phyllaries ovate to triangular, longest less than 1.5 mm, apex acute; inner phyllaries adaxially appressed pubescent, midvein subapically plane, margin ± white scarious, apex acute. Anther tube dark green. Style branches yellow upon drying. Achene light brown to dark reddish or purplish brown, fusiform, 1.5–2.5 mm, ribs finely spiculate, apex strongly attenuate. Pappus white, 2.5–3.5 mm. Fl. and fr. Feb–Dec.

from: Shih C. & Kilian N. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 260–261. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.


Africa: Canary Is.introducedH; Comoros (ComorosintroducedI,J); KwaZulu-NatalintroducedK; MadagascarintroducedI,J; MauritiusintroducedB,L,M; RodriguesintroducedB; RéunionintroducedB,C; SeychellesintroducedN,O Asia-Temperate: AfghanistannativeP,Q,R; China North-Central (BeijingnativeS, Gansunative, Hebeinative, Shaanxinative, Shandongnative); China South-Central (Chongqingnative, Guizhounative, Hubeinative, Sichuannative, Yunnannative); China Southeast (Anhuinative, Fujiannative, Guangdongnative, Guangxinative, Henannative, Hunannative, Jiangsunative, Jiangxinative, Zhejiangnative); Hainannative; Japannative: doubtfully native (HokkaidonativeD, HonshunativeD, KyushunativeD, ShikokunativeD); Koreanative (South Koreanative); Nansei-shotonativeD; Ogasawara-shotonativeD,T; Taiwannative; Tibetnative Asia-Tropical: BangladeshnativeU; Borneo (SabahnativeV); CambodianativeW; East Himalaya (BhutannativeAA,X,Y,Z, DarjilingnativeX, SikkimnativeX); India (BiharnativeAB, DelhinativeAC, HaryananativeAD, KeralaintroducedAE, PunjabnativeAF,Y, Tamil NaduintroducedAG,AH, Uttar Pradeshpresent); JawaintroducedAI; LaosnativeW; Malaya (Peninsular MalaysianativeAA,AJ,AK,AL,AM,AN,Z); MyanmarnativeAO; NepalnativeAA,AL,AM,AP; New Guinea (Irian JayanativeAQ, Papua New GuineanativeAQ,AR); PakistannativeAF,AS,AT,Y; PhilippinesnativeAA,AJ,AU,AV,J,Y,Z; Sri LankaintroducedAA,AJ,M,Z; ThailandnativeAW,W; Vietnamnative; West Himalaya (Himachal PradeshnativeAX,Y, Jammu-KashmirnativeY, UttaranchalnativeAY,AZ,Z) Australasia: New South Wales (New South WalesnativeBA,BB); Queensland (QueenslandnativeBA,BB,BC) Europe: Spain (SpainintroducedH) Northern America: Alabamaintroduced; ArkansasintroducedBD; District of Columbiaintroduced; FloridaintroducedBD; Georgia, U.S.A.introduced; KentuckyintroducedBD; LouisianaintroducedBD; Marylandintroduced; MississippiintroducedBD; New YorkintroducedBD; North Carolinaintroduced; PennsylvaniaintroducedBD; South Carolinaintroduced; TennesseeintroducedBD; TexasintroducedBD; Virginiaintroduced Pacific: Cook Is.introducedBE; FijiintroducedBF; Hawaii (Hawaiian Is.introduced); New CaledoniaintroducedBG Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Entre RíosintroducedBH); Argentina Northwest (TucumanintroducedBH); BahamasintroducedBI,BJ,BK; Cayman Is.introducedBI,BK,BL; ColombiaintroducedBM; Costa RicaintroducedBN; CubaintroducedBI,BK,BO,BP; Dominican RepublicintroducedBI,BK,BQ; El SalvadorintroducedBN; GuatemalaintroducedBN; Haiti (HaitiintroducedBI,BK,BQ, Navassa I.introducedBK); HondurasintroducedBR; JamaicaintroducedBI,BK; Leeward Is. (Virgin Is.introducedBI); Netherlands AntillesintroducedBI; NicaraguaintroducedBN; PanamáintroducedBS; Puerto RicointroducedBI,BK; VenezuelaintroducedBT; Windward Is. (BarbadosintroducedBI, DominicaintroducedBI,BU)


Byers E. 2017: Images (3 added)


A. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
B. Scott A. J. - Lactuceae in Bosser J., Guého J. & Jeffrey C. (ed.), Flore des Mascareignes. La Réunion, Maurice, Rodrigues 109. 1993
C. De Cordemoy E. J., Flore de l'île de la Réunion: Phanérogames, Cryptogames vasculaires, Muscinées avec l'indication de propriétés économiques et industrielles des plantes. 1895
D. Koyama H. - Asteraceae (Compositae) in Iwatsuki K., Yamazaki T., Boufford D. E. & Ohba H. (eds.), Flora of Japan 3(b). 1995
E. Park C.-W., The Genera of Vascular Plants of Korea. 2007
F. Botany Research and Development Group of Vietnam, Vietnam Plant data center. Plant database. 2007
G. Lê Kim Biên, Thục-vât-chí-Viêt-Nam / Flora of Vietnam 7. Họ cúc / Asteraceae. 2007
H. Pyke S., Youngia japonica (L.) DC. (Compositae), recently detected in Barcelona in Collect. Bot. (Barcelona) 35: e005. 2016
I. Humbert H., Composées. Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (189) 3. 1963
J. Lawalrée A., Dethier D. & Gilissen E., Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-Rwanda-Burundi). Spermatophytes, Compositae I. 1986
K. Hermann P. P. J., Retief E., Koekemoer M. & Welman W. G., Asteraceae (Compositae). Pp. 101-170 in: Leistner O. A. (ed.), Seed plants of Southern Africa: families and genera in Strelitzia 10. 2000
L. Baker J. G., Flora of Mauritius and the Seychelles: A description of the flowering plants and ferns of these island. 1877 (as Crepis japonica (L.) Benth.)
M. Trimen H., A hand-book of the Flora of Ceylon 3. 1895 (as Crepis japonica (L.) Benth.)
N. Friedmann F., Flore des Seychelles, Dicotylédones, 2011
O. Friedmann F., Flore des Seychelles- Dicotylédones. 1994
P. Breckle S.-W. & al., Vascular plants of Afghanistan, an augmented checklist. 2013 (as Youngia japonica)
Q. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995 (as Youngia japonica)
R. Rechinger K. H., 20. Prenanthes - 29. Lapsana in Fl. Iran. 122: 180-223. 1977 (as Youngia japonica)
S. C. Shih, Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 80(1). 1997
T. Takeschi T., Flora of Bonin Islands, ed. 2. 2003
U. Zia Uddin Ahmed (Chief Editor), Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 6. 2008
V. Anderson C., Hind D. J. N., Beman J. H. & Beaman R. S. - Asteraceae in Anderson C., Beaman J. H. & Beaman R. S., The Plants of Mount Kinabalu 4. 2001
W. Gagnepain F. - Composées in Lecomte M. H., Flore générale de l'Indo-Chine 3(4). 1924 (as Crepis japonica (L.) Benth.)
X. Grierson A. J. C. & Long D. G., Flora of Bhutan 2(3). 2001
Y. Hajra P. K., Rao R. R., Singh D. K. and Uniyal B. P., Flora of India 12. 1995
Z. Hara H., Chater A. O. & Williams L. H. J., An enumeration of the flowering plants of Nepal 3. 1982
AA. Siwakoti M. & Varma S. K., Plant Diversity of Eastern Nepal. Flora of Plains of Eastern Nepal. 1999
AB. Varma S. K., Flora of Bhagalpur. 1981
AC. Maheshwari J. K., The Flora of Delhi. 1963
AD. Kumar S., Flora of Haryana (Materials). 2001
AE. Sasidharan N., Biodiversity Documentation for Kerala in KFRI Handbook 17. 2004
AF. Kashyap S. R. & Joshi A. C., Lahore District Flora. 1936 (as Crepis japonica (L.) Benth.)
AG. Matthew K. M., An excursion Flora of Central Tamilnadu, India. 1991
AH. Wright R., Contributions to the Botany of India. 1834 (as Lactuca napifolia Wall. ex DC.)
AI. Backer C. A. & Bakhuizen van den Brink R. C., Flora of Java (Spermatophytes only). 1965
AJ. Grierson A. J. C. - Compositae in Dassayanake M. D. & Fosberg F. R. (ed.), A Revised Handbook of the Flora of Ceylon 1. 1980
AK. Kitamura S. - Compositae in Hara H. (ed.), The Flora of eastern Himalaya. 1966
AL. Kitamura S. - Flowering Plants and Ferns in Kihara H., Fauna and Flora of Nepal Himalaya. 1955
AM. Malla S. B., Shakya P. R., Rajbhandari S. B., Shrestha T. B., Adhikari P. B. & Adhikari S. R., Flora of Kathmandu Valley in Bull. Dept. Med. Pl. Nepal 11. 1986
AN. Ridley H. N., The Flora of Malaya Peninsula. 1923 (as Crepis japonica (L.) Benth.)
AO. Kress W. J., DeFilipps R. A., Farr E. & Daw Yin Yin Kyi, A checklist of trees, shrubs, herbs and climbers of Myanmar in Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb. 45. 2003
AP. Press J. R. & al., Annotated checklist of the flowering plants of Nepal; updated online version
AQ. Koster J. T., The Compositae of New Guinea V in Blumea 23(1): 163-175. 1976
AR. Borrell O. W., An Annotated Checklist of the Flora of Kairiru Island, New Guinea. 1989
AS. Ghafoor A. & al., Flora of Pakistan 222. Asteraceae (IV) Cichorieae. 2017
AT. Rechinger K. H., 20. Prenanthes - 29. Lapsana in Fl. Iran. 122: 180-223. 1977
AU. Merrill E. D., An Enumeration of Philippine Flowering Plants. 1923
AV. Nickrent D. L. & al., Leonardo Co's Digital Flora of the Philippines, 2011
AW. Koyama H. & al., Flora of Thailand 13(2) Compositae. 2016
AX. Kaur H. & Sharma M., Flora of Sirmaur. 2004
AY. Babu C. R., Herbaceous Flora of Dehra Dun. 1977
AZ. Rana T. S., Datt B. & Rao R. R., Flora of Tons Valley Garhwal Himalaya (Uttaranchal). 2003
BA. Murray L. - 168. Tragopogon - 177. Youngia in Harden G. J., Flora of New South Wales 3. 1992
BB. Thompson I. R. & al. - Asteraceae tribe Cichorieae in Wilson A. (ed.), Flora of Australia 37. 2015
BC. Stanley T. D. & Ross E. M., Flora of south-eastern Queensland 2. 1986
BD. Spurr P. L. - 41. Youngia in Flora of North America Editorial Committee (ed.), Flora of North America. North of Mexico 19. 2006
BE. Sykes W. R., Flora of the Cook Islands. 2016
BF. A. C. Smith & G. D. Carr - Family 186. Asteraceae in A. Chev., Flora vitiensis nova 5. 1991
BG. H. S. Mackee, Les plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. 1985
BH. Slanis A. C. & Perea M. C. in Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 46: 139-143. 2011
BI. Acevedo-Rodríguez P. & Strong M. T., Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies. – Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 98. 2012
BJ. Correll D. S. & Correll H. B., Flora of the Bahama Archipelago (Including the Turks and Caicos Islands). 1982
BK. Liogier H. A., Descriptive Flora of Puerto Rico and adjancent islands 5. 1997
BL. Proctor R. G., Flora of the Cayman islands, ed. 2. 2012
BM. Avila F. & al. - Asteraceae in Bernal R. & al., Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. 2016
BN. Pruski J. F. & Robinson H., Flora mesoamericana, 5(2) Asteraceae, electronic ed. 2015
BO. Greuter W. & Rankin R., The Spermatophyta and Pteridophyta of Cuba, a preliminary checklist. 2017
BP. Liogier H. A., Flora de Cuba 5. 1963 (as Crepis japonica (L.) Benth.)
BQ. Liogier A. H., La Flora de la Española VIII in Serie Científica, ser. 29, 72. 1996
BR. C. H. Nelson Sutherland, Catálogo de las plants vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas.
BS. Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index.Monogr. Syst. Bot. Missouri Bot. Gard., 17. 1987
BT. Hokche O., Berry P. E. & Huber O. (eds.), Nuevo catálogo de la flora vascular de Venezuela. 2008
BU. Howard R. A., Flora of the Lesser Antilles (Lewards and Windward Islands) 6 (3). 1989