Youngia japonica

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Youngia japonica

http://media.bgbm.org/erez/erez?src=EditWP6/photos/Youngia_japonica_Bb_02.jpg

Common names

Chinese (China): 黄鹌菜 huang an caiA; French (Mascarene Islands): Lastron bâtardB; French (Réunion): Lastron bâtardC; Japanese (Japan): Oni-tabirakoD; Korean (Korea): Ppo-ri-ppaeng-iE; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Cải đồngF,G

Systematics

Babcock & Stebbins (1937) treated Youngia japonica as a species with three subspecies, subsp. japonica (including Y. lyrata), subsp. longiflora and subsp. elstonii. While subsp. longiflora is fairly well characterised by longer involucres (6-7 mm instead of 4-5.5 mm), longer anther tubes (c. 3 mm instead of up to 2 mm) and larger achenes (2-2.5 mm instead of 1.5-2 mm), the delimitation between subsp. japonica and subsp. elstonii appears more difficult in view of frequent transitions and a probably scattered distribution pattern according to Shih & Kilian (in Shih & al. 2011).

Molecular and morphological analyses of Youngia japonica in Taiwan by Nakamura & al. (2012, 2013) shed further light on this species, its phylogeny and taxonomy. According to their molecular analysis, subsp. elstonii and subsp. longiflora consitute clearly distinguishable clades in the ITS phylogeny, less so, however, in the plastid phylogeny, corroborating the status of both as separate taxa. With the a priori assumption that subsp. elstonii (treated as Y. pseudosenecio) is a separate species, Nakamura & al. (2012, 2013) concluded that also subsp. longiflora represents a separate species because the latter is sister to the clade including Y. japonica + Y. pseudosenecio. They do not, however, show how subsp. elstonii (as Y. pseudosenecio) is distinguished from the remainder of their Y. japonica. Urbatsch & al. (2013), when confirming the occurrence of subsp. elstonii (as Y. thunbergiana) in North America as an introduced species, confirmed with an ITS phylogeny and morphological comparison the latter to be a taxon distinct form subsp. japonica. Recognition of subsp. elstonii and subsp. longiflora as separate species appears to be an equally justified taxonomic treatment.

Besides, Nakamura & al. (2012, 2013) recognised two further entities, both endemic to Taiwan, and assigned subspecies status to them. These are subsp. formosana and subsp. monticola.

References


Babcock E. B & Stebbins G. L. 1937: The genus Youngia. – Publ. Carnegie Inst. Washington 484.

Nakamura K., Chung K.-F., Huang C.-J., Kono Y., Kokubugata G. & Peng C.-I. 2012: Extreme habitats that emerged in the Pleistocene triggered divergence of weedy Youngia (Asteraceae) in Taiwan. – Molec. Phylogenet. Evol. 63: 486–499.

Nakamura K., Kono Y., Huang C.-J., Chung K.-F. & Peng C.-I. 2013: Correction of confusions regarding the identity and synonymy of Youngia (Asteraceae: Tribe Cichorieae) in Taiwan. – Syst. Bot. 38: 507–516.

Shih C., Ge X. J.; Kilian N., Kirschner J., Štěpánek J., Sukhorukov A. P., Mavrodiev E. V. & Gottschlich G. 2011: Cichorieae. – Pp. 195–353 in: Wu Z. Y., Raven P. H. & Hong D. Y. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21. Asteraceae. – Beijing: Science Press & St Louis: Missouri Botanical Garden.

Urbatsch L. E., Pruski J. F. & Neubig K. N. 2013: Youngia thunbergiana (Crepidinae, Cichorieae, Asteraceae), a species overlooked in the North American Flora. – Castanea 78: 330-337.  // ➪ //


Description

Herbs usually 10–150 cm tall, annual. Stems solitary or few, erect, branched from base, middle, or only apically, glabrous or basally often ± hairy, ± leafy or leafless. Basal leaves ± oblanceolate, to 15(–25) × 4(–6) cm, lyrately pinnatipartite or pinnatisect, rarely not divided; glabrous or somewhat hairy, base attenuate into a longer or shorter narrowly winged to ± unwinged petiole-like portion, margin sinuate-dentate; lateral lobes few to many, ovate, rhombic, or elliptic, gradually smaller toward leaf base; terminal lobe ovate, ovate-lanceolate, or obovate, much larger than lateral ones, apex rounded to acute. Stem leaves similar to basal leaves, abruptly or gradually reduced to bracts upward on stem. Synflorescence corymbiform to paniculiform- corymbiform, usually with many to numerous capitula. Capitula with 10–20 florets; peduncle capillaceous. Involucre cylindric, 4–7 mm. Phyllaries abaxially glabrous; outer phyllaries ovate to triangular, longest less than 1.5 mm, apex acute; inner phyllaries adaxially appressed pubescent, midvein subapically plane, margin ± white scarious, apex acute. Anther tube dark green. Style branches yellow upon drying. Achene light brown to dark reddish or purplish brown, fusiform, 1.5–2.5 mm, ribs finely spiculate, apex strongly attenuate. Pappus white, 2.5–3.5 mm. Fl. and fr. Feb–Dec.

from: Shih C. & Kilian N. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 260–261. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.

Distribution

Africa: Canary Is.introducedH; Comoros (ComorosintroducedI,J); KwaZulu-NatalintroducedK; MadagascarintroducedI,J; MauritiusintroducedB,L,M; RodriguesintroducedB; RéunionintroducedB,C; SeychellesintroducedN,O Asia-Temperate: AfghanistannativeP,Q,R; China North-Central (BeijingnativeS, Gansunative, Hebeinative, Shaanxinative, Shandongnative); China South-Central (Chongqingnative, Guizhounative, Hubeinative, Sichuannative, Yunnannative); China Southeast (Anhuinative, Fujiannative, Guangdongnative, Guangxinative, Henannative, Hunannative, Jiangsunative, Jiangxinative, Zhejiangnative); Hainannative; Japannative: doubtfully native (HokkaidonativeD, HonshunativeD, KyushunativeD, ShikokunativeD); Koreanative (South Koreanative); Nansei-shotonativeD; Ogasawara-shotonativeD,T; Taiwannative; Tibetnative Asia-Tropical: BangladeshnativeU; Borneo (SabahnativeV); CambodianativeW; East Himalaya (BhutannativeAA,X,Y,Z, DarjilingnativeX, SikkimnativeX); India (BiharnativeAB, DelhinativeAC, HaryananativeAD, KeralaintroducedAE, PunjabnativeAF,Y, Tamil NaduintroducedAG,AH, Uttar Pradeshpresent); JawaintroducedAI; LaosnativeW; Malaya (Peninsular MalaysianativeAA,AJ,AK,AL,AM,AN,Z); MyanmarnativeAO; NepalnativeAA,AL,AM,AP; New Guinea (Irian JayanativeAQ, Papua New GuineanativeAQ,AR); PakistannativeAF,AS,AT,Y; PhilippinesnativeAA,AJ,AU,AV,J,Y,Z; Sri LankaintroducedAA,AJ,M,Z; ThailandnativeAW,W; Vietnamnative; West Himalaya (Himachal PradeshnativeAX,Y, Jammu-KashmirnativeY, UttaranchalnativeAY,AZ,Z) Australasia: New South Wales (New South WalesnativeBA,BB); Queensland (QueenslandnativeBA,BB,BC) Europe: Spain (SpainintroducedH) Northern America: Alabamaintroduced; ArkansasintroducedBD; District of Columbiaintroduced; FloridaintroducedBD; Georgia, U.S.A.introduced; KentuckyintroducedBD; LouisianaintroducedBD; Marylandintroduced; MississippiintroducedBD; New YorkintroducedBD; North Carolinaintroduced; PennsylvaniaintroducedBD; South Carolinaintroduced; TennesseeintroducedBD; TexasintroducedBD; Virginiaintroduced Pacific: Cook Is.introducedBE; FijiintroducedBF; Hawaii (Hawaiian Is.introduced); New CaledoniaintroducedBG Southern America: Argentina Northeast (Entre RíosintroducedBH); Argentina Northwest (TucumanintroducedBH); BahamasintroducedBI,BJ,BK; Cayman Is.introducedBI,BK,BL; ColombiaintroducedBM; Costa RicaintroducedBN; CubaintroducedBI,BK,BO,BP; Dominican RepublicintroducedBI,BK,BQ; El SalvadorintroducedBN; GuatemalaintroducedBN; Haiti (HaitiintroducedBI,BK,BQ, Navassa I.introducedBK); HondurasintroducedBR; JamaicaintroducedBI,BK; Leeward Is. (Virgin Is.introducedBI); Netherlands AntillesintroducedBI; NicaraguaintroducedBN; PanamáintroducedBS; Puerto RicointroducedBI,BK; VenezuelaintroducedBT; Windward Is. (BarbadosintroducedBI, DominicaintroducedBI,BU)

Credits

Byers E. 2017: Images (3 added)

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