Lactuca raddeana

Primary tabs

http://media.bgbm.org/erez/erez?src=EditWP6/photos/Lactuca_raddeana_Bc_04.jpg

Common names

Chinese (China): 毛脉翅果菊 mao mai chi guo juA; Japanese (Japan): Chōsen-yama-niganaB, Yama-niganaB; Korean (Korea): San-sseum-ba-gwiC; Vietnamese (Vietnam): Nhũ diệpD

Description

Herbs 0.8–2 m tall, biennial or perennial. Roots ramose. Stem solitary, erect, basal half ± densely hispid, apical half glabrous and branched. Lower and middle stem leaves with basal portion cuneate or winged petiole-like, 2–10 cm; apical portion ovate, elliptic, or triangular, 5–16 × 2–8.5 cm, undivided, pinnatipartite, or lyrately pinnatipartite, ± hispid, margin dentate and coarsely sinuate-dentate; lateral lobes 1–3 pairs, elliptic, apex acute; terminal lobe triangular, ovate-triangular, or subrhombic, apex acute. Upper stem leaves with basal portion shorter, winged, and petiole-like to cuneate, apical portion ovate, elliptic, or lanceolate. Synflorescence narrowly paniculate, with numerous capitula on wiry branches. Capitula with 8–11 florets. Involucre cylindric, 8–10 mm at anthesis, 9–11 × 4–5 mm in fruit. Phyllaries often pale purplish red; outer phyllaries triangular-ovate to lanceolate, largest ca. 5 × 1–2 mm, apex obtuse; inner phyllaries 5(or 6), apex obtuse. Florets bright yellow. Achene 3–4 mm; body reddish to dark brown, ellipsoid, compressed, broadly winged, 1.5–2 mm wide, with 3(–5) prominent ribs on either side, apically contracted into a concolorous or apically pale stout 0.2–0.4 mm beak. Pappus 6–7 mm, ± caducous. Fl. and fr. May–Oct. 2n = 18.

from: Shih C. & Kilian N. in Wu Z. Y. & al. (ed.), Flora of China 20–21: 235. 2011, Beijing & St Louis.


Biennial (or perennial?). Plants, with more or less distinct, underground, narrow-fusiform thickenings. Stem 65-120(200) cm high, weakly sulcate, often reddish, usually rather densely covered with narrow squamiform hairs, branched above and glabrous here. Leaves highly variable, green above, glaucous beneath, unevenly erose, spinose-toothed, and usually with narrow reddish frill, and short squamiform hairs (under a hand lens!) on both sides and along margin (more distinct along veins beneath); lower leaves (early-withering) mostly on long, narrow-winged petioles, with lyrate-pinnatisect, (or pinnatipartite) lamina, with triangular-hastate or triangular-ovate apical segment, and one to three pairs of lateral segments usually retrorse; middle and upper cauline leaves on broad-winged petioles, sometimes with a pair of lateral lobes, often without, with ovate, ovate-triangular or oblong-rhombic lamina; uppermost leaves strongly reduced, sessile, mostly oblong or lanceolate. Capitula with 9-10 (according to literature records, up to 14-15) florets, almost cylindrical, slightly swollen in lower part and somewhat broadened in upper, about 10 mm long with fruits, usually in narrow-paniculate inflorescence; peduncles slender, unequal, but often as long as capitula or longer, with few reduced leaves resembling involucral bracts. Involucre mostly two-rowed; involucral bracts herbaceous; inner bracts longer, narrow-ovate, often reddish, more or less distinctly narrowed, below middle, convex, subobtuse. Corolla (according to literature records) pale yellow or straw-yellow. Achenes 3-4 mm long, 1.5 2 mm wide, ellipsoid, flat, often curved, dark violet to almost black, with few strongly raised ribs on each side and light-colored short hairs in transverse sinuate-rows, more distinct in upper part of achene (under a lens!), toward base slightly narrowed, with very short (sometimes not distinct) 0.1-0.3 mm long collar at apex, terminating in light colored, roundish, four- or five-angled disk with pappus; pappus of thin, about 6 mm-long, fragile hairs, falling singly.

from: Bobrov, E. G. and Tzvelev, N. N. (ed.) 2000: Flora of the USSR XXIX, Compositae, Tribe Cichorieae. – Enfield.

Distribution

Asia-Temperate: Amur (AmurnativeE); China North-Central (GansunativeA,F,G, HebeinativeA,G, ShaanxinativeA,F, ShandongnativeA,G, ShanxinativeA,G); China South-Central (GuizhounativeA,F, HubeinativeA,F, SichuannativeA,F,G, YunnannativeA,F); China Southeast (AnhuinativeA,F,G, FujiannativeA,F,G, GuangdongnativeA,F, GuangxinativeA,F, HenannativeA,F,G, HunannativeA,F, JiangxinativeA,F,G); Japan (HokkaidonativeH, HonshunativeH, KyushunativeB,H, ShikokunativeH); Khabarovsk (KhabarovsknativeE); Korea (North KoreanativeA,C,I, South KoreanativeA,C,I); Kuril Is. (Kuril Is.nativeE,J); Manchuria (JilinnativeA,F,G, LiaoningnativeA); Primorye (PrimoryenativeE); Sakhalin (SakhalinnativeE) Asia-Tropical: Vietnam (VietnamnativeA,K,L)

Credits

Marin Murracciole P. 2017: Synonymy (on Lactuca raddeana var. aogashimensis)

Bibliography

A. Wu & al., Flora of China 20-21. 2011
B. Koyama H. - Asteraceae (Compositae) in Iwatsuki K., Yamazaki T., Boufford D. E. & Ohba H. (eds.), Flora of Japan 3(b). 1995
C. Park C.-W., The Genera of Vascular Plants of Korea. 2007
D. Lê Kim Biên, Thục-vât-chí-Viêt-Nam / Flora of Vietnam 7. Họ cúc / Asteraceae. 2007 (as Pterocypsela raddeana (Maxim.) C. Shih)
E. Charkevič S. S., Sosudistye rastenija sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 6. 1992 (as Pterocypsela raddeana (Maxim.) C. Shih)
F. C. Shih, Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 80(1). 1997 (as Pterocypsela elata (Hemsl.) C. Shih)
G. C. Shih, Flora Reipublicae Popularis Sinicae 80(1). 1997 (as Pterocypsela raddeana (Maxim.) C. Shih)
H. Koyama H. - Asteraceae (Compositae) in Iwatsuki K., Yamazaki T., Boufford D. E. & Ohba H. (eds.), Flora of Japan 3(b). 1995 (as Lactuca raddeana var. elata (Hemsl.) Kitam.)
I. Chang C.-S. & al., Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea Peninsula Flora. 2014 (as Lactuca raddeana)
J. Charkevič S. S., Sosudistye rastenija sovetskogo Dal’nego Vostoka 6. 1992 (as Pterocypsela elata (Hemsl.) C. Shih)
K. Gagnepain F. - Composées in Lecomte M. H., Flore générale de l'Indo-Chine 3(4). 1924
L. Lê Kim Biên, Thục-vât-chí-Viêt-Nam / Flora of Vietnam 7. Họ cúc / Asteraceae. 2007 (as Pterocypsela raddeana (Maxim.) C. Shih)