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The circumscription of Prenanthes, in particular its delimitation from the Lactuca-Cicerbita alliance, has puzzled generations of botanists. As we know today, Prenanthes s.l. was a dustbin for a number of totally unrelated elements. Re-circumscription on the basis of morphological data was attempted by Shih (1987), Sennikov (2000), Sennikov & Illarionova (2000). Molecular phylogenies based on both nuclear and plastid markers combined with morphological analyses (Kilian & Gemeinholzer 2007; Kilian & al. 2009; Wang & al. 2013; Kilian & al. 2017) indicate a very narrow circumscription of Prenanthes, to the effect that the genus is even monospecific, with the chiefly European P. purpurea, which provides the type of the generic name, being its only species. Species of the former Prenanthes s.l. belong to a large part to the subtribe Crepidinae (Nabalus s.l.), other parts to genera of the Lactucinae (Cicerbita, Lactuca, Notoseris, Melanoseris) and the Cichoriinae (Erythroseris, Kilian & Gemeinholzer 2007).

Kilian & al. (2017) showed that Prenanthes forms an isolated lineage of the Lactucinae, which is sister to all other clades of the subtribe, in both the nrITS and plastid DNA phylogenies. Earlier findings of an affinity of Prenanthes with the Hypochaeridinae in nrITS phylogenies, which is in striking contradiction to morphology and cytology (Kilian & al. 2009; Enke & al. 2012; Wang & al. 2013), seem to be due to long branch attraction in scarce samplings.


Enke N., Gemeinholzer B. & Zidorn C. 2012: Molecular and phytochemical systematics of the subtribe Hypochaeridinae (Asteraceae, Cichorieae). – Org. Divers. Evol. 12: 1–16. // ➪ //

Kilian N. & Gemeinholzer B. 2007: Studies in the Compositae of the Arabian Peninsula and Socotra. 7. Erythroseris, a new genus and the previously unknown sister group of Cichorium (Cichorieae subtribe Cichoriinae). – Willdenowia 37: 283–296. // ➪ //

Kilian N., Gemeinholzer B. & Lack H. W. 2009: Tribe Cichorieae. – In: Funk V. A., Susanna A., Stuessy T. & Bayer R. (ed.), Systematics, evolution, and biogeography of the Compositae. – Vienna: IAPT.

Kilian N., Sennikov A., Wang Z.-H., Gemeinholzer B. & Zhang J.-W. 2017[a]: Sub-Paratethyan origin and Middle to Late Miocene principal diversification of the Lactucinae (Cichorieae, Compositae) inferred from molecular phylogenetics, divergence-dating and biogeographic analysis. – Taxon 66: 675-703. // ➪ //

Koopman W. J. M, Guetta E., Wiel C. C. M. van de, Vosman B., & Berg R. G. van den 1998: Phylogenetic relationships among Lactuca (Asteraceae) species and related genera based on ITS-1 DNA sequences. – Amer. J. Bot. 85: 1517–1530.

Sennikov A. N. 2000: O rodakh iz rodstva Prenanthes L. (Asteraceae). – Novosti Sist. Vyssh. Rast. 32: 178-181.

Sennikov A. N. & Illarionova I. D. 2001: Morfologicheskoe i anatomicheskoe stroenie semyiok vidov roda Prenanthes s.l. (Asteraceae). – Bot. Zhurn. 86(10): 56-66.

Shih C. 1987: On the circumscription of the genus Prenanthes L. and Notoseris Shih: a new genus of Compositae from China. – Acta Phytotax. Sin. 25: 189-203.

Wang Z.-H., Peng H., Kilian N. 2013: Molecular phylogeny of the Lactuca alliance (Cichorieae subtribe Lactucinae, Asteraceae) with focus on their Chinese centre of diversity detects potential events of reticulation and chloroplast capture. – PLoS ONE 8(12): e82692. // ➪ //

Watanabe K. 2013: Index to chromosome numbers in Asteraceae.,2
1. ORDER: 2, 2. ORDER: 1

Chromosome numbers

Diploid, x = 9.A


Asia-Temperate: North Caucasusnative (Karacheyevo-Cherkessiyanative, Krasnodarnative, Severo-Osetiyanative); Transcaucasus (Abkhaziyanative, Adzhariyanative, Azerbaijannative, Georgianative); Turkeynative Europe: Albanianative; Austrianative (Austrianative, Liechtensteinnative); Belgium (Luxembourgnative: formerly native); Bulgarianative; Corsenative; Czechoslovakia (Czech Republicnative, Slovakianative); Denmarkintroduced; Francenative; Germanynative; Greecenative; Hungarynative; Italynative; Krymnative; Norwayintroduced; Polandnative; Romanianative; Spainnative (Andorranative, Spainnative); Switzerlandnative; Ukraine (Ukrainenative); Yugoslavia (Bosnia-Herzegovinanative, Croatianative, Macedonianative: presence questionable, Montenegronative, Serbianative, Slovenianative)

Common names

Albanian (Albania): PrenanteB,3; Bulgarian (Bulgaria): БагреникC,3; Czech (Czech Republic): VěsenkaD,3; French (Corse): PrénantheE,3; German (Germany): HasenlattichF,3; Italian (Italy): LattugaG,3; Polish (Poland): PrzenętH,3; Swedish (Sweden): RödsallaterI,3; Turkish (Turkey): EğikçiçekJ
3. recommended


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