Literature 2022

Literature Archive2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022 | 2023

Not all members of the International Cichorieae Network do have access to botanical libraries. As a service we would like to point to recent publications regarding Cichorieae. However, some articles will escape our attention. Therefore, your hints to recent publications are always welcome. 

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Collected by Norbert Kilian (Berlin) & Robert Parsons (Melbourne)

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13 January 2023

Beharav A. 2022: Lactuca georgica Grossh. is a wild species belonging to the secondary lettuce gene pool: additional evidence, obtained by KASP genotyping. – Genet. Resources Crop Evol. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10722-022-01502-7.

Abstract
"This work evaluated the genetic relationships among 442 single-seed descent accessions, representing eight Lactuca spp., including five wild Lactuca relatives (WLRs) (Lactuca georgica, L. altaica, L. saligna, L. serriola, L. aculeata), L. tuberosa, L. undulata, and the domesticated lettuce, L. sativa, 437 of them representing a core subset of the Institute of Evolution's Wild Lettuce Gene Bank (IoE's WLGB) collection. The analysis was performed by profiling 115 single-nucleotide polymorphism markers with the fluorescent KASP genotyping assay. KASP marker fragments were scored as either allele “A” or allele “B”, and then treated as bi-allelic data, but the dataset also included a relatively high number of U-scores, noting the absence of the specific sequence, that were treated as missing data. Often U-scores were specific for a certain species. Data analysis of the five WLRs showed that allele frequencies of 103 (97.2%) out of 106 differentiating loci varied significantly among the species, where 59.7% of the KASP marker diversity was between species. A neighbor-network analysis involving samples of the five WLRs and a single L. sativa cv. clearly clustered all 430 samples in accordance with their taxonomic determination. These results obtained from multiple complementary analyses of large natural populations and individuals, question the assignment of L. georgica to the primary lettuce gene pool. Together with our previous results obtained by using TRAP markers and hybridization experiments, we conclude that L. georgica is a constituent of the secondary lettuce gene pool. Our analyses shed also light on the proper placement of L. altaica."

11 January 2023

Makbul S. , Coşkunçelebi K. & Güven S. 2022: Güncel veriler ışığında Scorzonera hieraciifolia (Asteraceae)’nın taksonomik durumunun değerlendirilmesi. – Bağbahçe Bilim Dergisi 9: 21-28.

Abstract
"In this study, the morphology, global threat level and taxonomic status of the halophytic endemic Scorzonera hieraciifolia (Asteraceae) was investigated of new data. Detailed examinations on newly collected samples from the natural areas of the species and the specimens kept in national/international herbaria indicated that S. hieraciifolia is characterized by crisped hairs at the stem base; simple (lanceolate, ovate or elliptical) or compound (pinnate with deeply linear segments) leaves, ovate and corniculate outer phyllaries; glabrous or lanate, 4-6 mm length, verrucose and stipitate achenes. The populations of the species currently detected in salt marsh and steppe areas (10 different areas) are appraised strong, however considering that it could be affected by changes that may occur in saline areas due to global climate changes. It has evaluated in near threatened (NT) category in a global scale. The distribution areas of the species were revealed by evaluating both the literature and current data obtained within the scope of the project supported by TUBITAK. Finally, the taxonomic status of S. hieraciifolia has been clarified by comparing with close (relative) species in terms of morphology and chorology."

3 January 2023

Hatami, E., Khajoei Nasab F. & Safavi S. R.  2022: Conservation priorities and distribution patterns of the genus Pseudopodospermum in Iran. – Iran. J. Bot. 28: 128-138.

Abstract
"The present study provides an overview of geographic distribution patterns as well as the conservation priorities assessment of the genus Pseudopodospermum in Iran, using a GIS framework. A set of geographic distribution data was compiled through field studies, reviews of Flora Iranica, Flora of Iran, and examination of the herbarium specimens deposited at various herbaria. The geographic distribution mappings of the genus were analyzed using ArcView and DIVA-GIS software. High species richness was observed in Kurdo-Zagrosian Province, followed by Fars-Kerman, Atropatanean, and Northern Khorasan Provinces in Irano-Turanian phytogeographical region. Regarding our results, it could be concluded that effective conservation management in Kurdo-Zagrosian Province would lead to protecting a high percentage of Pseudopodospermum species against the threat of extinction."

3 January 2023

Gottschlich G. 2022:  Die Hieracium-Kollektion im Herbarium Tubingense (TUB) – Ergebnisse einer Revision. – Jahreshefte Ges. Naturk. Württemberg 178: 5–31.

Abstract
"The collection of the genus Hieracium (Compositae) of the herbarium of the University of Tuebingen (TUB) with its 3.195 specimens is revised. The collection is valuable because it includes the collections of Josef Alois Froelich, an early
monographer of the genus, the herbarium Hochstetter with many specimens collected by the “Botanischer Reiseverein Esslingen” (an association for the purpose of collecting and distributing herbarium specimens), and the herbarium of the monastery of Beuron (ERZ). The collection includes 183 species, 299 subspecies, including 157 type specimens, however many of them only for names of taxa of now irrelevant taxonomic ranks. One new combination (upgrade) is made (Hieracium bifidum subsp. trinitatimontis (Zahn) Gottschl.)."

9 November 2022

Štěpánek J. & Kirschner J. 2022: A hotspot of endemism: Oreophytic Taraxacum species (Compositae, Crepidinae) in the mountains of Bulgaria. – Phytotaxa 569: 1-139.

Abstract
The genus Taraxacum (Compositae, Crepidinae) is rather underexplored in the Balkan Peninsula, in spite of high sectional and species diversities and a considerable proportion of endemism to be expected. We focussed our research on mountain areas of Bulgaria. If occasional occurrence of otherwise lowland groups is disregarded, the following Taraxacum sections were recorded: T. sect. Erythrocarpa (treated in a separate paper), T. sect. Rhodocarpa (= T. sect. Alpestria; fourteen species, twelve newly described), T. sect. Crocea (previously referred to as T. sect. Fontana, with six species, five newly described), T. sect. Obliqua (four species, three newly described), and a new section, T. sect. Bulgarica (18 species, seventeen newly described). A single supramontane to subalpine species with an unknown sectional position, T. erzincanense, is also included. The new section, T. sect. Bulgarica, is characterized by a dwarf growth, very short leaves tightly appressed to the ground, enormously broadly winged petioles, appressed, dark, usually narrowly bordered outer phyllaries, and variously coloured achenes, most often with a conical to subcylindrical cone. The diversity of T. sect. Crocea, T. sect. Obliqua and T. sect. Bulgarica involves a high proportion of local endemism, and, in each section, it is concentrated around local sexual species, T. (Obliqua) pyrenaicum subsp. balcanicum, T. (Crocea) paludosiforme and T. (Bulgarica) bulgaricum. The other representatives of mountain sections are agamospermous and polyploid (triploid to hexaploid). The Taraxacum records published by Doll (1978) are revised; the names T. paludosiforme Doll and T. pseudovernelense Doll are lectotypified. Contrary to the published records, species described from the Alps are absent from Bulgaria; there is a single species of T. sect. Rhodocarpa with its geographical range extending from the Romanian Southern Carpathians to Bulgaria. The high proportion of local endemism is accounted for by the young age of the Bulgarian species."

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9 November 2022

Ferrer-Gallego P. P., Mateo G., Sáez L. & Rosselló J. A. 2022: Lectotype designation of the name Hieracium loscosianum (Asteraceae). – Phytotaxa 568: 289-295.

Abstract
The name Hieracium loscosianum Scheele is lectotypified using a specimen preserved at COI herbarium."

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12 October 2022

Chu R., Xu X.-M., Lu Z.-W., Ma Y.-G., Cheng H., Zhu S.-X., Bakker F. T., Schranz M. E. & Wei Z. 2022: Plastome-based phylogeny and biogeography of Lactuca L. (Asteraceae) support revised lettuce gene pool categories. Frontiers Pl. Sci. 13(978417): 1-18.

Abstract
This study generated and analyzed complete plastome and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data of 46 Lactuca species, 13 African endemic (AE) Lactuca species, and 15 species from eight related genera in Lactucinae. The new plastome and nuclear ITS sequences were then used to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships of Lactuca species. The whole-plastome data were used to estimate divergence time and ancestral area reconstruction of the identified major Lactuca lineages. The results showed that Lactuca species are generally similar in plastome size, Guanine and Cytosine (GC) content, gene structure, and categories, although crop lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and its gene pool relatives were found to have one unique pseudogene (ψ ndhF), and accD, atpF, cemA, clpP, and rpl22 showed signs of positive selection. Our phylogenomic analysis demonstrated that Lactuca is monophyletic after excluding Lactuca alatipes Collett and Hemsl and AE Lactuca species. AE Lactuca species are morphologically distinct from core Lactuca lineage and need to be excluded from Lactuca. The core Lactuca species most likely originated from Asia-Temperate W ~6.82 Mya and then dispersed globally and formed nine clades. Finally, the lettuce gene pool concept was amended according to the phylogenetic and historical biogeographic analyses. This study revised the circumscription of Lactuca, revealed robust phylogenetic relationships within the genus, and provided insights into Lactucinae phylogeny. The lettuce gene pool species could be used as potential genetic resources for lettuce breeding."

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7 October 2022

Fehrer J., Bertrand Y. J. K., Hartmann M., Caklová P., Josefiová J., Bräutigam S. & Chrtek J. A. 2022: A multigene phylogeny of native American hawkweeds (Hieracium subgen. Chionoracium, Cichorieae, Asteraceae): origin, speciation patterns, and migration routes. – Plants 11(2584): 1–30.

Abstract
Native American hawkweeds are mainly mountainous species that are distributed all over the New World. They are severely understudied with respect to their origin, colonization of the vast distribution area, and species relationships. Here, we attempt to reconstruct the evolutionary history of the group by applying seven molecular markers (plastid, nuclear ribosomal and low-copy genes). Phylogenetic analyses revealed that Chionoracium is a subgenus of the mainly Eurasian genus Hieracium, which originated from eastern European hawkweeds about 1.58–2.24 million years ago. Plastid DNA suggested a single origin of all Chionoracium species. They colonized the New World via Beringia and formed several distinct lineages in North America. Via one Central American lineage, the group colonized South America and radiated into more than a hundred species within about 0.8 million years, long after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama and the most recent uplift of the Andes. Despite some incongruences shown by different markers, most of them revealed the same crown groups of closely related taxa, which were, however, largely in conflict with traditional sectional classifications. We provide a basic framework for further elucidation of speciation patterns. A thorough taxonomic revision of Hieracium subgen. Chionoracium is recommended. "

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7 October 2022

Kirschner J,, Stepanova N. Y., Nosova M. B. & Štěpánek J. 2022: Sexual reproduction in Taraxacum sect. Borealia (Asteraceae, Crepidinae) first documented in the continental Russian Far East. – Turczaninowia 25: 155–162.

Abstract
Modes of reproduction vary considerably in the genus Taraxacum. In particular, the extent and distribution of sexuality are decisive criteria for the evaluation of variation and the taxonomic conclusions in this complicated genus. Taraxacum sect. Borealia is widespread in the Arctic and Subarctic regions of the Asiatic part of Russia, but sexual reproduction has not been known to occur there, unlike T. sect. Arctica with a number of sexually reproducing species in the continental Far East. A detailed analysis of the herbarium material of Taraxacum kolymense Khokhryakov, using pollen size analysis and achene set examination, revealed sexuality in this distinctive member of T. sect. Borealia. The lectotype is selected for T. kolymense from a rich type gathering consisting of seven herbarium specimens, and a new consolidated description was compiled."

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7 October 2022

Maroofi H. & Rastegar A. 2022: Lactuca adenophora, a new record for the flora of Iran. – Iran. J. Bot. 28: 41–44.

Abstract
Lactuca adenophora Boiss. & Kotschy (Asteraceae), is reported here as a new record from Nacarouz and Dalanpar Mountains for the flora of Iran. The geographical distribution of the new record and its distinguishing characters plus its detailed photos are presented."

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30 September 2022

Encinas-Viso F., Morin L., Raghu S., Knerr N., Roux C. & Broadhurst L. 2022: Population genomics reveal multiple introductions and admixture of Sonchus oleraceus in Australia. – Diversity Distribution 28: 1951–1965.

Abstract
Aim: The goal of this study was to investigate the invasion history of the weed Sonchus oleraceus in Australia by comparing the population genetic structure of individuals at different locations in Australia, and in the most likely areas of origin in the native range.
Location: Samples were collected in Europe and Morocco, North Africa (27 locations), and Australia (17 locations).
Methods: We performed population genetic analyses using a large dataset comprising 2883 single nucleotide polymorphism markers from 547 plant samples and investigated the invasion history of S. oleraceus with Approximate Bayesian Computation and Random Forest classification algorithms. We compared single and multiple invasion scenarios considering admixture having occurred before and after introduction.
Results: Our results revealed high levels of inbreeding within sampling locations in the two ranges. Analyses also showed that S. oleraceus was possibly introduced to Australia at least twice: a first introduction around 1000 years ago before British settlement and a more recent introduction (~65 years ago) from Europe and North Africa. We also found evidence of post-introduction admixture and a potential reintroduction of S. oleraceus from Australia back to its native range.
Main conclusions: We conclude that the invasion history of S. oleraceus into Australia is probably historic (i.e. prior to British settlements) and complex showing recent evidence of post-introduction admixture. The complex invasion history of S. oleraceus in Australia poses challenges for the search of potential biological control agents."

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30 September 2022

Bahadur S., Tai S., Long W.-X & Ahmad M. 2022: Pollen morphology and its implication in the taxonomy of some selected tribes of the Asteraceae of Hainan Island South China. – Bot. Review 88: 271-298

Abstract
Pollen morphological traits are mostly used in resolving taxonomic problems at various taxonomic ranks to define species boundaries for long in the systematics and evolution. This study aims to provide new and useful information regarding the extent of pollen morphological diversity among the Asteraceae taxa and thus to contribute a better understanding of the taxonomy of studied species. These species belonged to three subfamilies Asteroideae having eight tribes (Senecioneae, Heliantheae, Milleriae, Eupatorieae, Coreopsideae, Inulaceae, Plucheeae, Tageteae, followed by Cichorioideae (Cichorieae) and the Vernonioideae (Vernonieae). Both light and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the ultrastructure of the exine. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the relationship among the Asteraceae taxa. The results showed two main types the echinolophate and echinate pollen. The echinate and echinolophate features were found to have a significant taxonomic value at the family level that delimits the Asteraceae from rest of the families. Besides, the ehinolophate feature was found to be the diagnostic trait of the tribe Vernonieae (Elephantopus tomentosus), Cichorieae (Youngia japonica) and echinate mixed with other morphological features in the inter-spinal area i.e. perforate, verrucate, scabrate, micro-reticulate and psilate were found in rest of the tribes. Aperture traits were found useful to differentiate between tribes. The maximum spines length was found in Bidens pilosa (5.43 μm) while maximum pollen size was observed in Elephantopus tomentosus (28.43 × 21.93 μm) followed by Tagetes erecta (28.36 × 19.51 μm). Furthermore, the size, spines length, density, arrangement and number of the spines at the apocolpium region were found useful taxonomically important to discriminate the species. The overlapped features showed interspecies relationships because to be in the same families while the interspecies variation in pollen traits validate their existence as distinct species. The PCA analysis showed that the spine length, polar axis, equatorial diameter, colpus length and width, P/E ratio and inter-spinal area were found useful pollen morphological traits. In conclusion, our results showed that pollen morphology has a significant taxonomic potential to identify and define species boundaries at the tribe and generic levels. Hence, the pollen features can be used as an additional tool for regrouping taxa within the family Asteraceae by using both light and scanning electron microscopic techniques."

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22 August 2022

Jang Y.-J., Park B. K., Son D. C., Choi B.-H. 2022: Morphological and molecular evidence of the hybrid origin of Crepidiastrum ×muratagenii in Korea. – Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 52: 85-96.

Abstract
The plant “Hong-do-go-deul-ppae-gi” has been considered as Crepidiastrum × muratagenii, a hybrid between C. denticulatum and C. lanceolatum, based on its morphological traits and geographical distribution. To reveal the hybrid origin of Hong-do-go-deul-ppae-gi, we examined additional morphological traits of this plant and its putative parents (C. denticulatum, C. lanceolatum, C. platyphyllum) and analyzed one nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and four chloroplast regions (trnT-L, trnL-F, rpl16 intron, and rps16 intron). As a result of examining the morphological traits, putative hybrid individuals were classified into three types based on the habit, cauline leaf, outer phyllary, and achene beak traits. A molecular analysis found that the ITS sequences of Type 1 and Type 2 individuals showed additive species-specific sites of C. denticulatum and C. lanceolatum. Plastid sequences of Type 1 and Type 2 individuals showed C. denticulatum and C. lanceolatum sequences, respectively. However, Type 3 individuals had ITS and plastid sequences corresponding to C. denticulatum. Accordingly, Type 1 and Type 2 individuals not only share morphological traits with C. denticulatum and C. lanceolatum but also show additive species-specific sites for C. denticulatum and C. lanceolatum, and not C. platyphyllum, supporting its origin as a hybrid between C. denticulatum and C. lanceolatum. Type 3 had morphological traits similar to other hybrid types but was distinguished with respect to outer phyllaries and demonstrated some resemblance to C. denticulatum. In a molecular analysis, Type 3 was found to be identical with regard to the sequence of C. denticulatum and was judged to be an ecological variation of C. denticulatum."

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22 August 2022

Abid R., Mehdi S. R. Riaz S., Kanwal D., Imran R. & Ather A. 2022: Cypsela morphology and its taxonomic significance within the genus Scorzonera L. (Cichoreae-Asteraceae) from Pakistan and Kashmir. – Pakistan J. Bot. 54: 2219-2231.

Abstract
Morphological characters of cypsela for 17 species of the genus Scorzonera L. were examined from Pakistan and Kashmir to assess their taxonomic significance. Macro and micro morphological characters of cypsela, pappus and carpopodium were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The genus showed considerable variations in the morphological characters of cypsela. However, linear shape was found to be dominant and ribbed surface was prevalent within the genus. Pappi were found in one or two series. Carpopodium was basal or sub basal with the variety of shapes. The data obtained was also analyzed numerically and found rewarding to strengthen the taxonomic decisions at specific levels."

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22 August 2022

Abid R. & Qaiser M. 2022: Pollen morphology of Lactuca L. (s. lat.) (Cichorieae: Asteraceae) from Hindukush, Western Himalayan and Karakorum ranges and its taxonomic significance. – Palynology 2022(2089927): 1-13.

Abstract
Pollen morphology of 15 species of the genus Lactuca L. (s. lat.) of the tribe Cichorieae from the Hindukush, Western Himalayan and Karakorum Ranges was studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The pollen morphology of six speciesm viz. L. erostrata Bano & Qaiser, L. glaucifolia Boiss., L. persica Boiss., L. crambifolia (Bunge) Boiss., L. chitralensis (Tuisl.) Ghafoor, Qaiser & Roohi Bano and L. picridiformis Boiss., was never studied before. Pollen were found to be isopolar, spheroidal to oblate-spheroidal, elliptic to rarely circular in equatorial view, hexagonal in polar view, trizonocolporate and echinolophate with 15 lacunae. Morphometric analysis of the pollen characters was conducted using agglomerative cluster analysis with Euclidean distance and Ward’s method to compute the dissimilarity matrix, and a dendogram was prepared. Two pollen types, based primarily on the diameter of the polar and equatorial axes of the pollen grain, were recognized. Keys to the pollen types, subtypes and species are provided. The present palynological findings are to a great extent in agreement with the results of recent phylogenetic studies based on molecular evidence. Moreover, both the pollen types are well correlated with the general morphology of the investigated species of the genus Lactuca L. (s. lat) and provide additional micromorphological characters for the delimitation of the species."

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5 July 2022

Hatami E., Jones K. E. & Kilian N. 2022: New insights into the relationships within subtribe Scorzonerinae (Cichorieae, Asteraceae) using hybrid capture phylogenomics (Hyb-Seq). – Frontiers Pl. Sci. 13(851716): 1-29.

Abstract
Subtribe Scorzonerinae (Cichorieae, Asteraceae) contains 12 main lineages and approximately 300 species. Relationships within the subtribe, either at inter- or intrageneric levels, were largely unresolved in phylogenetic studies to date, due to the lack of phylogenetic signal provided by traditional Sanger sequencing markers. In this study, we employed a phylogenomics approach (Hyb-Seq) that targets 1,061 nuclear-conserved ortholog loci designed for Asteraceae and obtained chloroplast coding regions as a by-product of off-target reads. Our objectives were to evaluate the potential of the Hyb-Seq approach in resolving the phylogenetic relationships across the subtribe at deep and shallow nodes, investigate the relationships of major lineages at inter- and intrageneric levels, and examine the impact of the different datasets and approaches on the robustness of phylogenetic inferences. We analyzed three nuclear datasets: exon only, excluding all potentially paralogous loci; exon only, including loci that were only potentially paralogous in 1–3 samples; exon plus intron regions (supercontigs); and the plastome CDS region. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed using both multispecies coalescent and concatenation (Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses) approaches. Overall, our phylogenetic reconstructions recovered the same monophyletic major lineages found in previous studies and were successful in fully resolving the backbone phylogeny of the subtribe, while the internal resolution of the lineages was comparatively poor. The backbone topologies were largely congruent among all inferences, but some incongruent relationships were recovered between nuclear and plastome datasets, which are discussed and assumed to represent cases of cytonuclear discordance. Considering the newly resolved phylogenies, a new infrageneric classification of Scorzonera in its revised circumscription is proposed."

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5 July 2022

Cho M. S., Yang J., Mejías J. A. & Kim S.-C. 2022: Phylogenomic insight into dysploidy, speciation, and plastome evolution of a small Mediterranean genus Reichardia (Cichorieae; Asteraceae). – Sci. Rep. 12(11030): 1-14.

Abstract
Reichardia Roth is a small Mediterranean genus comprising ten homogeneous species with basic chromosome numbers of 7, 8, and 9. To assess the plastid genome evolution and differentiation of Reichardia species, we assembled the complete plastome sequences of seven Reichardia and two Launaea species and conducted various phylogenomic analyses comparatively with nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences. Reichardia and Launaea plastomes were highly conserved in gene content and order, containing 130 genes. Plastid phylogenomic reconstruction strongly suggested that Reichardia was a sister to Launaea, and its common ancestor initially diverged into two major lineages: the first containing species with n = 8 chromosomes exclusively, and the other with n = 9, 8, and 7 chromosomes. Although the ancestral Reichardia karyotype was suggested to most likely be n = 9 from ancestral chromosome number reconstruction, the pattern of descending dysploidy indicated by the phylogenetic trees based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS was less evident in the trees based on the plastome. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed."

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30 June 2022

Palomino J. & Mejías J. A. 2022: Morphometrics as a robust tool for disambiguation in plant taxonomy: the case of Lactuca livida, a commonly accepted but never delimited taxon. – Pl. Biosystems https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2022.2089759.

Abstract
An important goal of taxonomy is to clarify the identity of ambiguous taxa. Since lineage divergence usually involves ecological shifts that are associated with plant morphology, we propose that searching for fixed, non-overlapping morphological characters and specific associations of features should be the first task in disambiguation. We applied this idea in an analysis of the taxonomic identity of Lactuca livida, an Iberian endemic relative of L. virosa that, despite an extremely imprecise delimitation, is usually recognized in standard floras and germplasm banks. We analysed 24 possible diagnostic characters across the Iberian Peninsula, drawn from related taxonomic literature. No discontinuities in frequency variability distribution characters were found, even in two bimodal quantitative characters: leaf lobation and number of florets per capitulum. There were no notable patterns of association among characters, and the PCA/PCoA score plots did not show any distinctive groupings. Leaf lobation followed a significant geographic pattern, but there was no effective segregation of leaf shapes. We conclude that the variability found is symplesiomorphic, as it is present throughout the Serriola group of Lactuca, to which L. virosa belongs. The analyses, together with previous biological knowledge, indicates that Lactuca livida should be considered a synonym of L. virosa."

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28 June 2022

Laime B., Tjarve D., Znotiņa & Laukalēja Z. 2022: Distribution and ecology of neophyte Lactuca tatarica population on the East Baltic Sea coast in Latvia. – Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci, Sect. B, 76: 267-277.

Abstract
There is an increasing need for species occurrence data at a regional level for the global assessment of invasiveness of neophytes. Therefore, the distribution and habitats of Lactuca tatarica (L.) C.A. Mey. in Latvia (Baltic Sea region) was studied. L. tatarica was observed for the first time in Latvia in 1920. During the next 60 years, it was mainly found in synanthropic habitats. Since the 1980s, the species has spread along the Gulf of Riga (the Baltic Sea) coast. In 2019, recent data on the distribution of L. tatarica were obtained in a large-scale habitat mapping project. Lactuca tatarica was observed in 147 polygons (total area of 230 ha) representing nine habitat types of EU importance. The largest proportion of L. tatarica localities was recorded in beach habitats, and the highest abundance and total area in white and grey dunes. Lactuca tatarica was observed in the following associations: Cakiletum maritimae, Honckenyetum peploidis, Elymo-Ammophiletum arenariae, and Festucetum polesicae. In most localities, L. tatarica genets are scattered or in small groups covering small areas. In some coastal sections (southern part of the Gulf), L. tatarica forms dense stands that tend to spread. Lactuca tatarica in Latvia is considered as a neophyte successfully naturalised mainly in coastal dune habitats, and in some locations it corresponds to the criteria of invasive species with a high risk to endanger natural habitats."

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22 June 2022

Kirschner J., Štěpánek J., Buryy V. V., Chernyagina O. A. & Efimov P. G. 2022: A new species of Taraxacum sect. Arctica (Asteraceae, Crepidinae) from northern Kamchatka, Russia, with a synoptic survey and a nomenclator of the section in Russia. – Phytotaxa 550: 171–185.

Abstract
Taraxacum sect. Arctica (Asteraceae, Crepidinae) is a circumpolar and alpidic group, relatively satisfactorily explored and studied. It is comprised of more than 55 species, five of them having sexual reproduction (mostly confined to NE Russia and the Aleutians), the majority with agamospermous reproduction. We examined representative material, including types, of almost all taxa formally recognized in the literature, compiled a synoptic survey of T. sect. Arctica in Russia (46 taxa) and a nomenclatural checklist (55 names), and evaluated new collections from Kamchatka. A new species was revealed in the material from northern Kamchatka, distinct in blackish purple to black-violet achenes with sparse and short spinulosity and a very gradual body/cone transition, a short cone, the absence of pollen, and tubular florets. It is newly described as T. atropurpureum."

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21 June 2022

Štěpánek J. & Kirschner J. 2022: Taraxacum rhodocarpum and T. schroeterianum (Asteraceae, Crepidinae) are not synonyms, and T. sect. Rhodocarpa is the correct name for T. sect. Alpestria. – Phytotaxa 548: 295-300.

Abstract
Taraxacum schroeterianum Hand.-Mazz. was published to cover distinctive red-fruited slender West Alpine plants with appressed outer phyllaries; it traditionally included T. rhodocarpum Dahlst. as a synonym. A separate section, T. sect. Rhodocarpa van Soest was even erected; its type is T. rhodocarpum on the basis of Art. 10.8 of the ICN. We present a detailed evidence for the separate status of T. schroeterianum and T. rhodocarpum. They differ in a series of morphological features and in the chromosome number. While the former represents a rather isolated taxon, the latter is close to the group of T. reophilum van Soest, the type of T. sect. Alpestria (van Soest) van Soest. Taraxacum sect. Rhodocarpa is therefore considered as the correct name for T. sect. Alpestria. The names T. schroeterianum and T. rhodocarpum are typified, and both these species together with T. sect. Rhodocarpa are supplemented with full descriptions. The name T.  sagii Sonck was reassessed and synonymized with T. schroeterianum."

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9 June 2022

Mort M. E. et al. 2022: Multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG) data resolve phylogenetic relationships within and among archipelagos in Macaronesian Tolpis. – Amer. J. Bot.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1866

Abstract
Premise: Plants endemic to oceanic archipelagos are suitable for studying evolution, being isolated on substrates of different ages. Evolution has been recent, rendering traditionally employed sequences insufficiently variable for resolving relationships. This study includes sampling in the genus Tolpis (Asteraceae) from the Azores, Madeira, and Cape Verde, and expands upon an earlier study demonstrating the efficacy of multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG) for resolving relationships in Canarian Tolpis.

Methods: Genomic libraries for 90 accessions of Tolpis and two from the outgroup were generated for genotyping individuals using MSG. Loci were de novo assembled with iPyrad, which clusters MSG loci within and between samples. A maximum likelihood phylogeny was generated with RAxML. Ancestral area reconstruction was inferred using R package BioGeoBEARS.

Results: MSG data recovered a highly resolved phylogeny from population to inter-archipelago levels. Ancestral area reconstruction provided biogeographic hypotheses for the radiation of Macaronesian Tolpis.

Conclusions: Four major clades were resolved. The Madeiran endemic T. macrorhiza is sister to other Tolpis. Species from the Canaries, Cape Verdes, and the continent are sister to T. succulenta from Madeira, which has a sister subclade of Azorean populations composed of T. succulenta and T. azorica. Population-level resolution suggests unrecognized taxa on several archipelagos. Ancestral reconstruction suggests initial dispersal from the continent to Madeira, with dispersal to the Azores, then dispersal from Madeira to the Canary Islands, with both subsequent dispersal to the Cape Verdes and back-dispersal to the continent. Single-island radiations and inter-island dispersal are implicated in divergence in Macaronesian Tolpis."

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9 May 2022

Hidalgo O., Balant M. & Pellicer J. 2022: Urospermum ×siljakii (Asteraceae), a new natural homoploid hybrid between U. dalechampii and U. picroides. Phytotaxa 544: 220-222.

Abstract
n/a

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6 May 2022

Güzel M. E., Kilian N., Sennikov A. N., Coşkunçelebi K., Makbul S. & Gültepe M. 2022: Caucasoseris, a new genus of subtribe Chondrillinae (Asteraceae: Cichorieae) for the enigmatic Prenanthes abietina. – Willdenowia 52: 103–115

Abstract
A new genus, Caucasoseris, is established to accommodate Prenanthes abietina, a species of hitherto uncertain systematic position distributed in the western Caucasus and northeasternmost Turkey in montane conifer and mixed forests. Agreement has existed that the species belongs somewhere in the Crepidinae or Lactucinae but its morphological features do not match any genus and previous molecular phylogenetic analyses could not establish its sister group. This study provides additional micro- and macromorphological, palynological and anatomical data, and used a molecular phylogenetic sampling designed to ascertain its relationship. A sister group relationship with the Chondrillinae is inferred from the phylogenetic tree based on nrITS. In the plastid DNA tree, where the Chondrillinae are resolved as a clade nested inside the Crepidinae, the species is resolved further remote from the Chondrillinae clade and in a rather early diverging position of the Crepidinae. In agreement also with the anatomical and micro- and macromorphological findings, it is considered an orphan lineage with affinities to the Chondrillinae, best treated as a genus of its own. A key to the genera of the Chondrillinae including Caucasoseris is provided."

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29 March 2022

Štěpánek J. & Kirschner J. 2022: Taraxacum sect. Erythrocarpa in Europe in the Alps and eastwards: A revision of a precursor group of relicts. – Phytotaxa 536: 7-52.

Abstract
A taxonomic revision of Taraxacum sect. Erythrocarpa in the eastern part of Europe and in the Alps is presented. Seventeen species are recognized, nine of them are described as new. Most species occupy relatively restricted geographical ranges, the most characteristic habitats being limestone cliffs and mountain summit areas. The highest species diversity of this section is situated in the mountain ranges of Greece and the adjacent regions of Bulgaria and North Macedonia; only two species are known from the Alps, and a new species is described also from Crimea, Ukraine. Taraxacum pindicola is the only sexual diploid among the taxa studied, the other taxa exhibit agamospermy. The name T. pindicola is newly lectotypified. The northernmost representative of T. sect. Erythrocarpa, T. pieninicum (S. Poland), is conspecific with T. erythrocarpum of the western Slovakia. The names T. albomarginatum A.J. Richards and T. voricola A.J. Richards are later synonyms of T. olympophilum Sonck. Taraxacum sect. Erythrocarpa is characterized and, for each species, nomenclature, typification, a detailed description or a reference to it, diagnostic notes, distribution and habitat, and a list of herbarium specimens studied are given. Most species are illustrated, and for selected ones, distribution maps are provided."

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29 March 2022

Güzel M. E. 2022: A new subgenus of Sonchus (Asteraceae: Cichorieae) inferred from molecular data. – Phytotaxa 531: 211-229.

Abstract
A new subgenus, Sonchus subg. Palustres, is established to accommodate S. erzincanicus endemic to Turkey and former Sonchus ser. Palustres including S. palustris and S. sosnowskyi. Although the exclusive placement of S. palustris has already been documented by previous studies based on molecular phylogenetic analyses without morphological evidence, there has not been any study of S. erzincanicus above the specific level. The present study proposes a new subgenus based on chiefly molecular data, and contribute macro- and micro-morphological features (i.e. pollen grains and achenes) of the studied species together with the phylogenetic position based on nrITS and matK with multiple sampling. Further literature and morphological studies evidently showed that S. erzincanicus and S. palustris have slightly heteromorphic achenes which is a subtle character and underestimated up to now in the infrageneric classification of the genus Sonchus. Besides, the molecular analyses revealed that S. erzincanicus and S. palustris are sister taxa, forming an exclusive clade of their own within the genus. Moreover, the Palustres clade is the first diverged one among the clades of the genus Sonchus based on the nrITS
data. Consequently, S. erzincanicus, S. palustris and S. sosnowskyi are treated as members of the suggested new subgenus. Therefore, the slightly heteromorphic achene feature could be taken into consideration for species delimitation in the genus Sonchus as a supportive morphological character. Furthermore, S. araraticus is suggested as a synonym of S. erzincanicus based on its morphological and ecological characteristics."

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29 March 2022

Szeląg Z. 2022: Hieracium boratynskii (Asteraceae), a new species in the H. canescens aggregate from the Sudetes in Poland. – Phytotaxa 541: 209-212.

Abstract
n/a

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29 March 2022

Gottschlich G. & Villa M. 2022: Hieracium racemosum subsp. spinidentatum (Asteraceae), a new hawkweed from Lombardy, Italy. – Phytotaxa 521: 78-82.

Abstract
A new hawkweed endemic to Northern Italy, Hieracium racemosum subsp. spinidentatum, is described and illustrated. Information on its morphology, distribution, ecology and taxonomic relationship is provided."

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29 March 2022

Iamonico D., Fortini P. & Di Pietro R. 2022: Epitypification of the Linnaean name Crepis bursifolia (Asteraceae). – Taxon 71: 207-209.

Abstract
The epitypification of the Linnaean name Crepis bursifolia is discussed. An illustration from Boccone's Museo di piante rare della Sicilia, Malta, Corsica, Italia, Piemonte, e Germania was correctly designated as lectotype by Jiménez López & al. in 2013 according to Art. 7.11 of the ICN. However, this image lacks some of the important characters required for a critical identification of the species (i.e., hairiness of receptacle, length of achenes, number of ribs on the achene surface, and presence of a distinct apical beak on the achene). Following Art. 9.9 of the ICN, an epitype deposited at HFLA is selected to serve as an interpretative type of the lectotype of C. bursifolia."

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29 March 2022

Wei, Z., Chu R., Luan M., Lu Z.-W., Ma Y.-G., Luo X.-R., Lu Y., Xu X.-M. & Zhu S.-X. 2022: Morphology and micro-morphology of achenes and their taxonomic implications to Lactuca species (Cichorieae; Asteraceae). – Taiwania 67: 171-180.

Abstract
Lactuca L. is the central genus of Lactucinae (Cichorieae; Asteraceae), containing cultivated lettuce and its wild relatives. In this study, we used Scanning Electron Microscope, Plain Stereo Microscope and Automated Digital Microscope to observe, record and discuss the achene characters and surface micro-features of Lactuca (including taxa of ex-Pterocypsela Shih) and Notoseris Shih species. The taxon sampling consisted of fifteen globally distributed Lactuca species and Chinese originated Notoseris species. The results indicated that the morphological and micro-morphological features of achenes were of great importance to identify Lactuca species at the genus and species level. We conclude that two key features, the presence or absence of beak and the arrangement and shape of epidermal cells, can be used to distinguish Lactuca from Notoseris. The shape and margin of the achene body, the beak length and the number of ribs on either side of achene are key features to classify Lactuca species. The ornamentation of epidermal cells can also provide extra evidence to determine closely related Lactuca species. The interspecific relationships among the Lactuca species based on achene features are consistent with the results of previously molecular systematics of these species."

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22 February 2022

Badalamenti N., Sottile F. & Bruno M. 2022: Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, biological, and nutritional properties of genus Crepis—a review. – Plants 11(4, 519): 1–28.

Abstract
The genus Crepis L., included within the Asteraceae family, has a very wide distribution, expanding throughout the northern hemisphere, including Europe, northern Africa, and temperate Asia. This genus has a fundamental value from biodynamic and ecological perspectives, with the different species often being chosen for soil conservation, for environmental sustainability, and for their attraction towards pollinating species. Furthermore, various species of Crepis have been used in the popular medicine of several countries as medicinal herbs and food since ancient times. In most cases, the species is consumed either in the form of a decoction, or as a salad, and is used for its cardiovascular properties, as a digestive, for problems related to sight, for the treatment of diabetes, and for joint diseases. This literature review, the first one of the Crepis genus, includes publications with the word ‘Crepis’, and considers the single metabolites identified, characterised, and tested to evaluate their biological potential. The various isolated compounds, including in most cases sesquiterpenes and flavonoids, were obtained by extracting the roots and aerial parts of the different species. The secondary metabolites, extracted using traditional (solvent extraction, column chromatography, preparative thin layer chromatography, preparative HPLC, vacuum liquid chromatography), and modern systems such as ultrasounds, microwaves, etc., and characterised by mono- and bi- dimensional NMR experiments and by HPLC-MS, have a varied application spectrum at a biological level, with antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antitumor, antiviral, antiulcer, phytotoxic, and nutritional properties having been reported. Unfortunately, in vitro tests have not always been accompanied by in vivo tests, and this is the major critical aspect that emerges from the study of the scientific aspects related to this genus. Therefore, extensive investigations are necessary to evaluate the real capacity of the different species used in food, and above all to discover what the different plants that have never been analysed could offer at a scientific level."

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14 February 2022

Hatami E. & Mirtadzadini M. 2022: Notes on the identity of Scorzonera picridioides and Scorzonera paradoxa (Asteraceae). – Feddes Repert. 10.1002/fedr.202100044

Abstract
Due to confusion in the identity of Scorzonera paradoxa and Scorzonera picridioides and their inconsistent taxonomic treatments in previous literature and regional floras, we performed a detailed bibliographic and morphological revision of both species in order to elucidate their taxonomic identities. Examination of specimens in the field or various herbaria and critical surveys of type specimens and previous literature represented that S. paradoxa and S. papposa possessed a considerable overlap in the morphology and geographic distribution, and consequently, S. paradoxa was confirmed as a synonym of S. papposa. We also found that S. papposa and S. paradoxa were morphologically different from S. picridioides in plant height, shape of basal leaves, color of florets, color of anther tube, and pappus bristles, thus, S. picridioides was re-established as an independent species. In accordance with a recent taxonomic revision of subtribe Scorzonerinae that split Scorzonera s. l. into independent genera and placed S. papposa in genus Pseudopodospermum, we proposed the placement of S. picridioides in Pseudopodospermum, and provided an updated morphological description and geographic distribution notes for Pseudopodospermum papposum and Pseudopodospermum picridioides."

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28 January 2022

Pellicer J., Balant M., Fernández P., Rodríguez González R. & Hidalgo O. 2022: Morphological and genome-wide evidence of homoploid hybridisation in Urospermum (Asteraceae). – Plants 11(2,182): 1–15

Abstract
The genus Urospermum is distributed in the Mediterranean region and Macaronesia, and has been introduced to other extra-Mediterranean regions. Although the two species constituting the genus, U. dalechampii and U. picroides, are frequently found together, hybrids have so far only been reported once, from Morocco. However, we found certain individuals in Catalonia, whose intermediate morphology suggested a potential hybrid origin. In this study, we applied morphological and molecular methods to investigate the origin of those individuals. Intermediate features at phenotype, karyological, cytogenetic, and genomic levels were identified in morphologically intermediate individuals, supporting their homoploid hybrid origin. Chloroplast sequence data suggest that U. dalechampii is the maternal progenitor of the hybrid. Together with the intermediate traits displayed, the lack of fertile seeds suggests that hybrids are probably F1. Future monitoring studies will be, nonetheless, needed to evaluate the extent of hybridisation and its potential impact on the biology of the genus."

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21 January 2022

Hind N., Moore R. & King C. 2022: Launaea cervicornis. Compositae. – Curtis's Bot. Mag. 1011.

Abstract
Launaea cervicornis (Boiss.) Font Quer & Rothm. (Compositae: Lactuceae: Hyoseridinae) is illustrated and described. The species is endemic to the Balearics, and is the dominant species in the limestone cliff-top plant association Launaeion cervicornis (O. Bolòs & Vigo ex Y. Gil & Llorens) Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi) on the islands. Notes on cultivation, propagation, pests and diseases and availability are provided. The position of Launaea Cass. in the tribe Lactuceae (= Cichorieae) subtribe Hyoseridinae Less. is discussed, as is the position of the species within the genus, as the sole taxon in Launaea sect. Cervicornes N. Kilian. The reproductive biology of the species is discussed. The species exhibits a particularly short flowering time (per floret) and flowering period, maximizing on calm periods and an abundance of flower visitors/pollinators. The plant possesses three different dispersal mechanisms – anemochory (for solitary achenes), and atelechory and barochory for mature, unopened involucres. The former ensuring there is some movement away from the parent plant, and the latter two effectively ensuring that propagules are not instantly blown off the cliffs into the sea."