Literature 2024

Literature Archive: 2020 | 2021 | 2022 | 2023

Not all members of the International Cichorieae Network do have access to botanical libraries. As a service we would like to point to recent publications regarding Cichorieae. However, some articles will escape our attention. Therefore, your hints to recent publications are always welcome. 

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Collected by Norbert Kilian (Berlin) & Robert Parsons (Melbourne)

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4 June 2024

Fateryga V. V., Kiliev B. R., Svirin S. A. & Fateryga A. V. 2024: Lectotypification and comments on the taxonomic status of Taraxacum pobedimovae Schischk. (Asteraceae: Crepidinae). – Turczaninowia 27: 32–38.

Abstract
"Taraxacum pobedimovae Schischk. was previously considered a synonym of T. hybernum Steven. The type of the former species consists of several plants mounted on a single specimen, which were found to belong to two different taxa: typical T. hybernum and the species previously referred to as the pinkish-achened form of T. hybernum. The lectotype of T. pobedimovae corresponding to the pinkish-achened form is designated. Taraxacum pobedimovae differs from T. hybernum by pinkish (not brown) achenes which are longer and with narrower spinules in comparison with those of the latter species. In addition, T. pobedimovae usually has larger and more numerous leaves with prominently purple veins, longer scapes, and larger capitula, as well as a larger and more branched root. The differences between these two species were confirmed by RAPD, ISSR, and SSR markers as well. The length of the achene beak, previously reported as the diagnostic character, is not useful to distinguish T. pobedimovae from T. hybernum."

4 June 2024

Ferrer-Gallego P. P. 2024: Typification of the Linnaean name Crepis vesicaria (Compositae: Cichorieae) revisited. – Taxon 73: 615-618.

Abstract
"The typification of the Linnaean name Crepis vesicaria (Compositae: Cichorieae) is revised. This name had previously been “lectotypified” by Babcock in 1947 on a specimen kept in LINN (Herb. Linnaeus No. 955.3). However, Linnaeus cited in the protologue a specimen from the Joachim Burser Herbarium, currently preserved at UPS-BURSER (Herb. Burser VI: 70). According to the International Code of Nomenclature for algae, fungi, and plants (Art. 9.12 of the Shenzhen Code of 2018), this is a syntype which must be chosen as the lectotype."

4 June 2024

Moonlight P. W., Baldaszti L., Cardoso D., Elliott A., Särkinen T. & Knapp S. 2024: Twenty years of big plant genera. – Proc. R. Soc. B 291(20240702): 1–10.

Abstract
"In 2004, David Frodin published a landmark review of the history and concepts of big plant genera. Two decades of taxonomic activity have taken place since, coinciding with a revolution in phylogenetics and taxonomic bioinformatics. Here we use data from the World Flora Online (WFO) to provide an updated list of big (more than 500 species) and megadiverse (more than 1000 species) flowering plant genera and highlight changes since 2004. The number of big genera has increased from 57 to 86; today one of every four plant species is classified as a member of a big genus, with 14% in just 28 megadiverse genera. Most (71%) of the growth in big genera since 2000 is the result of new species description, not generic re-circumscription. More than 15% of all currently accepted flowering plant species described in the last two decades are in big genera, suggesting that groups previously considered intractable are now being actively studied taxonomically. Despite this rapid growth in big genera, they remain a significant yet understudied proportion of plant diversity. They represent a significant proportion of global plant diversity and should remain a priority not only for taxonomy but for understanding global diversity patterns and plant evolution in general." [includes Hieracium andTaraxacum on ranks 3 and 2, respectively]

30 May 2024

Gottschlich G. 2024: Pilosella multiflora, der korrekte Name für Pilosella guthnikiana. – Kochia 17: 17–20.

Abstract
"Eine bislang unberücksichtigt gebliebene Publikation von Gaudin (1820) macht eine Umbenennung von Pilosella guthnikiana zu P. multiflora nötig. Für das Basionym Hieracium multiflorum Schleich. ex Gaudin wird ein Schleicher-Beleg aus dem Herbarium Lausanne (LAU-0122837) als Neotypus festgelegt und dieser abgebildet. Zwei zugehörige Unterarten werden zu P. multiflora kombiniert."

29 May 2024

Roxo G., Silva L., Borges Silva L., Rego R., Resendes R. & Moura M. 2024: Early detection of Youngia japonica (L.) DC. (Asteraceae) in São Miguel Island, Azores, Portugal. – Invasive Pl. Sci. Managem. 17: 3–8.

Abstract
"Youngia japonica (L.) DC. was recently discovered on the Azorean island of São Miguel. This species is a cosmopolitan herb that has been reported to be invasive in several regions of the world. It is unclear when and how this plant arrived in São Miguel, Azores. Nevertheless, we hypothesize that this is an unintentional and recent introduction. The populations are expanding in São Miguel, and action is needed to mitigate potential damage to native ecosystems."

27 May 2024

Šarhanová P., Majeský Ľ. & Sochor M. A. 2024: A novel strategy to study apomixis, automixis, and autogamy in plants. – Pl. Reprod. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00497-024-00499-6.

Abstract
"Reproduction may be seen as one of the driving forces of evolution. Flow cytometric seed screen and genotyping of parents and progeny are commonly employed techniques to discern various modes of reproduction in flowering plants. Nevertheless, both methods possess limitations constraining their individual capacity to investigate reproductive modes thoroughly. We implemented both methods in a novel manner to analyse reproduction pathways using a carefully selected material of parental individuals and their seed progeny. The significant advantage of this approach lies in its ability to apply both methods to a single seed. The introduced methodology provides valuable insights into discerning the levels of apomixis, sexuality, and selfing in complex Rubus taxa. The results may be explained by the occurrence of automixis in Rubus, which warrants further investigation. The approach showcased its effectiveness in a different apomictic system, specifically in Taraxacum. Our study presents a comprehensive methodological approach for determining the mode of reproduction where flow cytometry loses its potential. It provides a reliable and cost-effective method with significant potential in biosystematics, population genetics, and crop breeding."

27 May 2024

Gianguzzi V., Di Gristina E., Barone G., Sottile F. & Domina G. 2024: Seed germination and vegetative and in vitro propagation of Hieracium lucidum subsp. lucidum (Asteraceae), a critically endangered endemic taxon of the Sicilian flora. – PeerJ 12(e16839): 1–20.

Abstract
"Hieracium lucidum subsp. lucidum is a critically endangered endemic taxa of the Sicilian flora. It is a relict of the Tertiary period surviving on the cliffs of Monte Gallo (NW-Sicily). This research focused on finding the best protocols for seed germination and vegetative and in vitro propagation to contribute to ex situ conservation. Seed germination tests were carried out using constant temperatures of 15 °C, 20 °C and 25 °C in continuous darkness and an alternating temperature of 30/15 °C (16 h/8 h, light/dark). The seeds had no dormancy, and a high germination capacity (70–95%) was obtained at all tested thermoperiods. The possibility of vegetative propagation of the taxon was evaluated through the rooting capacity of stem cuttings treated or not treated with indole-3-butyric acid (IBA). All cuttings were treated with IBA rooted within 2 months, while only 50% of the untreated cuttings were rooted within a longer time. An efficient protocol for rapid in vitro propagation from leaf portions was developed. The response of explants was tested on hormone-free Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium and MS enriched with different types of cytokinins: 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP) and meta-Topolin (mT) in combination with naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA) and 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) at the same concentration. The combination of mT (2 mg L−1) and 2,4-D (1 mg L−1) in the medium was the most effective and showed the highest percentage of callus induction and the mean number of regenerated shoots. The maximum rate of root regeneration and the maximum number and length of roots were obtained on hormone-free MS and MS enriched with IBA at concentrations of 1 mg L−1. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that H. lucidum subsp. lucidum can be successfully propagated using one of the tested techniques, subject to the availability of the material for reproduction."

23 May 2024

Sennikov A. 2024: The taxonomic circumscription and nomenclatural history of Pilosella suecica (Asteraceae): a special case of grey literature in taxonomic botany. – Plants 13(10, 1301): 1–19.

Abstract
"The taxonomic history, nomenclature and application of the oldest species names available for the common hybrids between Pilosella caespitosa and P. lactucella are reviewed. Elias Fries created a nomenclatural and bibliographical collision when he replaced a printed label of his exsiccata Herbarium normale with its second version, distributed at a later date, in which the protologue of Hieracium suecicum had appeared. In this protologue, the new species name was validly published with a mere reference to the original description of H. auricula var. majus, thus being based on the type of the latter. In a later fascicle of the same exsiccata, Fries excluded this synonym and distributed a different morphotype of H. suecicum, which caused taxonomic confusion and re-description of the same taxon under the name H. fennicum. The surviving original material of H. auricula var. majus is rejected, and its neotype is designated, making H. suecicum the correct name for the hybrids strictly intermediate between P. lactucella and P. caespitosa. Such hybrids constitute the most common hybridogenous taxon of Pilosella in Scandinavia, Finland and neighbouring Russia, with many synonyms described from this area and partly typified here. Another hybridogenous taxon of the same origin, more similar to P. lactucella and previously known as P. cochlearis, is correctly named P. stipitiflora comb. nov. The nomenclatural value and bibliographic complexity of exsiccata, a commonly underestimated kind of grey literature in taxonomic botany, are further highlighted."

14 May 2024

Dudáš M., Kolarčik V., Šuvada R. & Vašut J. 2024: Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma (Asteraceae, Cichorioideae) in Slovakia IV. Distribution of T. erythrospermum and synonymisation of T. slovacum. – Phytotaxa 646: 265–281.

Abstract
"The group of lesser dandelions (Taraxacum sect. Erythrosperma) is represented by more than 215 species growing in mostly xerothermic habitats throughout Europe. The only known species with sexual reproduction in this section is the diploid T. erythrospermum. It occurs in southern parts of Europe and reaches its northern limit in central Europe. In this study, we aimed at a detailed mapping of the species distribution in Slovakia in order to understand the spatial distribution at its northern range limits. We found that it is the most common xerothermous species in Slovakia, growing on various substrates such as limestone, dolomite, travertine, volcanic rocks and sands, while it is less common on brown soils and ruderal biotopes. It is a characteristic species of the class Festuco-Brometea with an altitudinal range extending from 120 to 650 m above sea level. We delimited the northern distribution and documented its highest occurrence at approximately ca 1500 m a.s.l. Two taxa, T. slovacum and T. punctatum, were described from the territory of Slovakia and we discuss their relationships to T. erythrospermum, with which T. slovacum is synonymised here for the first time. We also present new data on the genome size of T. erythrospermum in Slovakia, which range from 1.529 to 1.604 pg with a mean of 1.554 pg (± 0.024 SD), and provide chorological data on a remarkable morphological variant with grey-coloured achenes."

29 April 2024

Szeląg Z. 2024: Two new species in Hieracium sect. Alpestria (Asteraceae) from Mt. Babia Góra, Western Carpathians, Poland. – Phytotaxa 645: 278–285.

Abstract
"Two apomictic, tetraploid (x=9) species in Hieracium sect. Alpestria are described from Mt. Babia Góra, the northernmost mountain massif in the whole Carpathian chain with an alpine belt. Hieracium babiogorense combines the morphological features of H. prenanthoides s.lat. and H. bifidum s.lat., and H. besseri is of presumably hybrid origin between H. prenanthoides s.lat. and H. caesium s.lat. Both new species are illustrated with photos of the holotypes and live plants in the type localities."

29 April 2024

Fainelli F. Gottschlich G. & Orsenigo S. 2024: Nomenclatural notes on some names in the Hieracium tenuiflorum group (Asteraceae) of the Alps. – Phytotaxa 645: 131–148.

Abstract
"The names belonging to the Hieracium tenuiflorum group (sect. Hieracium) as published by Zahn and others are discussed and typified. The accepted names are H. tenuiflorum, H. tenuiflorum subsp. austrosilvularum, H. tenuiflorum subsp. glaucoviolascens, H. tenuiflorum subsp. pictoprasinum, H. tenuiflorum subsp. pseudomerianum, H. tenuiflorum subsp. sebini and H. murorum subsp. nemorensifolium. Where possible, also names at the ranks lower than species and subspecies (i.e. varieties, subvarieties, forms and subforms) were typified. Hieracium tenuiflorum is typified by specimens preserved in Herbarium Bicknell. All the subspecies were typified by specimens preserved in G, PAV and TR, except H. tenuiflorum subsp. austrosilvularum whose original material went very likely lost. Eight varieties, two subvarieties, fifteen forms and three subforms were typified by specimens preserved in B, BASBG, G, GRM, PAV, TR and Z/ZT."

29 April 2024

Xu Q., Yang L., An M.-T., Yu J.-H., Liu F. & Li Z. 2024: Ixeridium malingheense (Asteraceae), a new species from southwestern Guizhou, China. – Phytotaxa 645: 163–171.

Abstract
"A new Asteraceae species, Ixeridium malingheense Z.Li & Q.Xu sp. nov., from Xingyi City, south-western Guizhou, China, is described and illustrated based on morphological and molecular analyses. Compared with the other species of the genus, the species is most similar to I. yunnanense in a small stature, linear-lanceolate stem leaves, and short phyllaries. However, it is easily distinguished from the latter by its smaller basal leaves 18–34 × 5–13 mm (vs. 10–25 × 5 mm), spatulate or long-spatulate (vs. elliptic, lanceolate, or oblanceolate), petioles ca. 30–55 mm (vs. 10 mm to absent), outer phyllaries 1-seriate (vs. 2-seriate, unequal), achenes smaller 2.0–3.0 × 0.5–1.0 mm (vs. 3.2 × 0.6 mm), and a flowering period of March to May (vs. June). Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on nuclear ITS sequence data determined the systematic position of I. malingheense in Ixeridium."

29 April 2024

Ingimundardóttir G. V., Tyler T., Cronberg N., Hedrén M. & Andersson S. 2024: Dressed for the occasion! Ecotypic divergence, phenotypic plasticity and taxonomic value of capitulum characters of Scorzoneroides autumnalis (Asteraceae). – Nordic J. Bot. 2024(e04211): 1–11.

Abstract
"Scorzoneroides autumnalis is a highly polymorphic perennial with several described infraspecific taxa, largely differing in involucre colour and indumentum intensity. Here, we examine the role of ecotypic divergence and phenotypic plasticity in shaping large-scale geographical variation in these characters. We collected phenotypic data from herbarium specimens and garden-grown plants of S. autumnalis, representing several habitats throughout Scandinavia and Iceland, and subjected progenies from controlled crosses within a subset of the common garden material to different temperature regimes to assess patterns of phenotypic plasticity. Our results strongly suggest that colour and indumentum of involucral bracts, as well as the size of capitula (measured by ligule length), are environmentally plastic and much affected by temperature. Reduced temperature resulted in significantly larger capitula, with both thicker and darker involucre indumentum. Since dark colouration, dense indumentum and large floral structures have been shown to facilitate heat retention and insect visitation in other plant species growing in cold climate, we hypothesize that plants of S. autumnalis benefit from possessing these features under cool conditions, and that much of the geographical variation in capitulum characters reflects adaptive phenotypic plasticity rather than ecotypic divergence. For this reason, we deem these characters to have a low taxonomic value for distinguishing infraspecific taxa within S. autumnalis."

29 April 2024

Akyalçin H. & Altan S. 2024: Palynology of taxa of Crepis L. genus growing in Çanakkale, Türkiye. – KSU J. Agric. Nat. 27(1): 82–91.

Abstract
"This study investigated the pollen morphology of the taxa belonging to the genus Crepis L. collected from various localities in Çanakkale in 2015. Wodehouse (1935) and Acetolysis (Erdtman, 1960) methods were used in the research. Pollen morphologies of 3 species and two subspecies belonging to the Crepis L. genus were defined according to light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examinations. In LM, pollens are monad, radially symmetrical and isopolar. Pollens are suboblate and oblate spheroidal, Amb shape is inter-hexagonal-subtriangular. The pollen of the genus is tricolporate. The view from the equator is circular and oval. In the examinations made with LM, the ornamentation is echinulophate. Pollen has 15 lacunae as 3 poral, 6 abporal, 6 paraboral. Ornamentation is echinulophate; the tectum surface is microperforate. SEM micrographs of C. smyrnaea and C. commutata pollen show depressions at the corners of the polar field. The collapses are located on the paraboral lacunae and are distinctly lacuna-like. As a result, in this study, palynological features of C. smyrnaea DC., C. micrantha Czerep., C. commutata (Spreng.), C. reuterana Boiss. & Heldr. subsp. reuterana taxa were studied for the first time. C. smyrnaea DC. ex Froel. was collected for the first time in Çanakkale within the scope of this study, according to the type records in Flora of Turkey."

21 March 2024

Crawford D. J., Kelly J. K. & Anderson G. J. 2024: Reproductive biology of Asteraceae on oceanic islands. – Bot. Rev. 90: 67–108.

Abstract
"Asteraceae are among the most abundant angiosperm families on oceanic islands. The reproductive biology of Asteraceae is reviewed and the attributes of the family contributing to their success on islands are discussed. Asteraceae are effective dispersers (the small, single-seeded fruits are moved great distances by wind and birds), and colonization is most likely limited by establishment. The pollinators of the colonizing ancestors rarely disperse with them to islands. Divorced from the pollinators of their ancestral habitats, the capitulum of aggregated small, shallow flowers typical of Asteraceae facilitates pollination of colonizers by various novel biotic visitors and by wind. Self-compatible (SC) colonizing ancestors are common, permitting establishment of sexual populations from one or few propagules. However, several large insular lineages of Asteraceae originated from functionally self-incompatible (SI) colonizers that may have also possessed the capacity to set some self-seed. Establishment may also be facilitated by dominance relationships among S-alleles in the sporophytic SI (SSI) system of Asteraceae, increasing cross-compatibility within small populations. Factors potentially promoting outcrossing in SC Asteraceae are: gynomonoecy, with temporal separation of receptive pistillate ray florets and pollen presentation in the hermaphroditic disc florets of a capitulum (interfloral protogyny); and intrafloral protandry where pollen presentation occurs before stigmata become receptive. Dioecy, gynodioecy, and monoecy are infrequent sexual systems in insular Asteraceae. Multiple paternity is similar in island composites to other Asteraceae, suggesting that neither compatible mates nor pollinators are typically limiting. Additional studies, particularly with genomic markers, are needed for more refined insights into mating systems and paternity in island Asteraceae as these results have important conservation implications."

18 March 2024

Xu L.-S., Song Z.-Q., Liao S.-Y. & Chen Y.-S. 2024: Qineryangia, a new genus from the Hengduan Mountains and new insights into the phylogeny of the subtribe Crepidinae (Cichorieae, Asteraceae). –  J. Syst. Evol.
https://doi.org/10.1111/jse.13066.

Abstract
"The Crepidinae are the largest subtribe of the Cichorieae (Asteraceae). Debate remains over the circumscription and phylogeny of this subtribe, mainly due to its complex morphology and the poor phylogenetic signal provided by traditional Sanger sequencing markers. In this study, a well-resolved phylogeny of the subtribe Crepidinae, consisting of seven highly supported clades, was obtained for the first time using nuclear data with a phylogenomics approach (Hyb-Seq). Using this phylogeny along with other evidence, we propose a new taxonomic framework for the Crepidinae with seven lines and 29 genera, which merges subtribe Chondrillinae with the Crepidinae. We also describe a new monotypic genus, Qineryangia, that is characterized by broad involucres, loose imbricate phyllaries with wavy margins, and thick pappus bristles."

18 March 2024

Gültepe M., Makbul S., Güzel M. E., Türker Z. & Coşkunçelebi K. 2024: Tragopogon davutii-turanii: a new species of Tragopogon from Anatolia. – Nordic J. Bot. 2024: e04178.

Abstract
"A new salsify species, Tragopogon davutii-turanii, is described from Anatolia based on micro-/macro-morphological and molecular evidence. The new species is morphologically similar to T. vvedenskyi and T. abbreviatus, but differs from T. vvedenskyi mainly in ligule colour and from T. abbreviatus by achene characters and number of phyllaries. In contrast to morphological similarities, based on the phylogenetic tree obtained from nrDNA ITS sequences T. davutii-turanii is closely related to T. stenophyllus and T. coelesyriacus. Diagnostic characters, description, and conservation status of the new species, as well as micro- and macro-morphological features of its achenes and pollen grains, are provided."

18 March 2024

Xu J.-J., Wang Z.-H., Dong H.-J., Tian Q., Chen L. & Zhong Q.-Q. 2024: Melanoseris penghuana (Lactucinae, Cichorieae, Asteraceae), a new species from North-central Yunnan, China. – PhytoKeys 238: 1–10.

Abstract
"In this paper, we describe a new species, Melanoseris penghuana, from Mt. Jiaozi Xueshan located in North-central Yunnan, China. Despite its morphological similarities to M. likiangensis, M. penghuana exhibits distinct differences in leaf texture, shape of terminal lobes, indumentum of leaves, peduncles, and involucres, as well as the length of the achenes. Additionally, the conservation status of this species is classified as Vulnerable through data analysis from two field surveys."

18 March 2024

Uhlemann I. & Thiele K. 2024: On artificial F1-hybrids and backcrosses between Taraxacum koksaghyz and species of Taraxacum sect. Taraxacum (T. officinale s. l.) and their invasive potential. – Schlechtendalia 41: 1–16.

Abstract
"Taraxacum koksaghyz, a rubber producing plant grown in temperate regions, is used together with diploid Taraxacum linearisquameum (sexual T. officinale s. l.) or triploid species of T. sect. Taraxacum (agamospermous (micro-)species of T. officinale s. l.) as parental plants to get artificial rubber producing hybrids. T. koksaghyz × T. oblongatum and T. ‘Hybrid 207’ are extremely rare triploid offspring examples for 2×/3× combinations. The invasive potential of T. ‘Hybrid 207’ seems to be low, but interspecific competition with weeds is stronger than in T. koksaghyz which completely failed to compete against weeds. Artificial hybrids from 2×/2× combinations (T. koksaghyz × T. linearisquameum and reciprocal and backcrosses with parents) are diploid, generally have a morphological intermediate appearance between parents and partially produce rubber (0.1–3.7%). The fertility of achenes of offsprings depends on the parental function (pollen recipient or pollen donor). In case of T. linearisquameum as pollen recipient, fertility will be high (85–97%) and in case of T. koksaghyz as pollen recipient, fertility is low (1.5–9%)."