New Literature

Literature Archive: 2018 | 2019 | 2020 | 2021 | 2022

Not all members of the International Cichorieae Network do have access to botanical libraries. As a service we would like to point to recent publications regarding Cichorieae. However, some articles will escape our attention. Therefore, your hints to recent publications are always welcome. 

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Collected by Norbert Kilian (Berlin) & Robert Parsons (Melbourne)

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30 September 2022

Encinas-Viso F., Morin L., Raghu S., Knerr N., Roux C. & Broadhurst L. 2022: Population genomics reveal multiple introductions and admixture of Sonchus oleraceus in Australia. – Diversity Distribution 28: 1951–1965.

Abstract
Aim: The goal of this study was to investigate the invasion history of the weed Sonchus oleraceus in Australia by comparing the population genetic structure of individuals at different locations in Australia, and in the most likely areas of origin in the native range.
Location: Samples were collected in Europe and Morocco, North Africa (27 locations), and Australia (17 locations).
Methods: We performed population genetic analyses using a large dataset comprising 2883 single nucleotide polymorphism markers from 547 plant samples and investigated the invasion history of S. oleraceus with Approximate Bayesian Computation and Random Forest classification algorithms. We compared single and multiple invasion scenarios considering admixture having occurred before and after introduction.
Results: Our results revealed high levels of inbreeding within sampling locations in the two ranges. Analyses also showed that S. oleraceus was possibly introduced to Australia at least twice: a first introduction around 1000 years ago before British settlement and a more recent introduction (~65 years ago) from Europe and North Africa. We also found evidence of post-introduction admixture and a potential reintroduction of S. oleraceus from Australia back to its native range.
Main conclusions: We conclude that the invasion history of S. oleraceus into Australia is probably historic (i.e. prior to British settlements) and complex showing recent evidence of post-introduction admixture. The complex invasion history of S. oleraceus in Australia poses challenges for the search of potential biological control agents."

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30 September 2022

Bahadur S., Tai S., Long W.-X & Ahmad M. 2022: Pollen morphology and its implication in the taxonomy of some selected tribes of the Asteraceae of Hainan Island South China. – Bot. Review 88: 271-298

Abstract
Pollen morphological traits are mostly used in resolving taxonomic problems at various taxonomic ranks to define species boundaries for long in the systematics and evolution. This study aims to provide new and useful information regarding the extent of pollen morphological diversity among the Asteraceae taxa and thus to contribute a better understanding of the taxonomy of studied species. These species belonged to three subfamilies Asteroideae having eight tribes (Senecioneae, Heliantheae, Milleriae, Eupatorieae, Coreopsideae, Inulaceae, Plucheeae, Tageteae, followed by Cichorioideae (Cichorieae) and the Vernonioideae (Vernonieae). Both light and scanning electron microscopy were used to investigate the ultrastructure of the exine. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to show the relationship among the Asteraceae taxa. The results showed two main types the echinolophate and echinate pollen. The echinate and echinolophate features were found to have a significant taxonomic value at the family level that delimits the Asteraceae from rest of the families. Besides, the ehinolophate feature was found to be the diagnostic trait of the tribe Vernonieae (Elephantopus tomentosus), Cichorieae (Youngia japonica) and echinate mixed with other morphological features in the inter-spinal area i.e. perforate, verrucate, scabrate, micro-reticulate and psilate were found in rest of the tribes. Aperture traits were found useful to differentiate between tribes. The maximum spines length was found in Bidens pilosa (5.43 μm) while maximum pollen size was observed in Elephantopus tomentosus (28.43 × 21.93 μm) followed by Tagetes erecta (28.36 × 19.51 μm). Furthermore, the size, spines length, density, arrangement and number of the spines at the apocolpium region were found useful taxonomically important to discriminate the species. The overlapped features showed interspecies relationships because to be in the same families while the interspecies variation in pollen traits validate their existence as distinct species. The PCA analysis showed that the spine length, polar axis, equatorial diameter, colpus length and width, P/E ratio and inter-spinal area were found useful pollen morphological traits. In conclusion, our results showed that pollen morphology has a significant taxonomic potential to identify and define species boundaries at the tribe and generic levels. Hence, the pollen features can be used as an additional tool for regrouping taxa within the family Asteraceae by using both light and scanning electron microscopic techniques."

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22 August 2022

Jang Y.-J., Park B. K., Son D. C., Choi B.-H. 2022: Morphological and molecular evidence of the hybrid origin of Crepidiastrum ×muratagenii in Korea. – Korean J. Pl. Taxon. 52: 85-96.

Abstract
The plant “Hong-do-go-deul-ppae-gi” has been considered as Crepidiastrum × muratagenii, a hybrid between C. denticulatum and C. lanceolatum, based on its morphological traits and geographical distribution. To reveal the hybrid origin of Hong-do-go-deul-ppae-gi, we examined additional morphological traits of this plant and its putative parents (C. denticulatum, C. lanceolatum, C. platyphyllum) and analyzed one nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and four chloroplast regions (trnT-L, trnL-F, rpl16 intron, and rps16 intron). As a result of examining the morphological traits, putative hybrid individuals were classified into three types based on the habit, cauline leaf, outer phyllary, and achene beak traits. A molecular analysis found that the ITS sequences of Type 1 and Type 2 individuals showed additive species-specific sites of C. denticulatum and C. lanceolatum. Plastid sequences of Type 1 and Type 2 individuals showed C. denticulatum and C. lanceolatum sequences, respectively. However, Type 3 individuals had ITS and plastid sequences corresponding to C. denticulatum. Accordingly, Type 1 and Type 2 individuals not only share morphological traits with C. denticulatum and C. lanceolatum but also show additive species-specific sites for C. denticulatum and C. lanceolatum, and not C. platyphyllum, supporting its origin as a hybrid between C. denticulatum and C. lanceolatum. Type 3 had morphological traits similar to other hybrid types but was distinguished with respect to outer phyllaries and demonstrated some resemblance to C. denticulatum. In a molecular analysis, Type 3 was found to be identical with regard to the sequence of C. denticulatum and was judged to be an ecological variation of C. denticulatum."

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22 August 2022

Abid R., Mehdi S. R. Riaz S., Kanwal D., Imran R. & Ather A. 2022: Cypsela morphology and its taxonomic significance within the genus Scorzonera L. (Cichoreae-Asteraceae) from Pakistan and Kashmir. – Pakistan J. Bot. 54: 2219-2231.

Abstract
Morphological characters of cypsela for 17 species of the genus Scorzonera L. were examined from Pakistan and Kashmir to assess their taxonomic significance. Macro and micro morphological characters of cypsela, pappus and carpopodium were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. The genus showed considerable variations in the morphological characters of cypsela. However, linear shape was found to be dominant and ribbed surface was prevalent within the genus. Pappi were found in one or two series. Carpopodium was basal or sub basal with the variety of shapes. The data obtained was also analyzed numerically and found rewarding to strengthen the taxonomic decisions at specific levels."

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22 August 2022

Abid R. & Qaiser M. 2022: Pollen morphology of Lactuca L. (s. lat.) (Cichorieae: Asteraceae) from Hindukush, Western Himalayan and Karakorum ranges and its taxonomic significance. – Palynology 2022(2089927): 1-13.

Abstract
Pollen morphology of 15 species of the genus Lactuca L. (s. lat.) of the tribe Cichorieae from the Hindukush, Western Himalayan and Karakorum Ranges was studied using light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The pollen morphology of six speciesm viz. L. erostrata Bano & Qaiser, L. glaucifolia Boiss., L. persica Boiss., L. crambifolia (Bunge) Boiss., L. chitralensis (Tuisl.) Ghafoor, Qaiser & Roohi Bano and L. picridiformis Boiss., was never studied before. Pollen were found to be isopolar, spheroidal to oblate-spheroidal, elliptic to rarely circular in equatorial view, hexagonal in polar view, trizonocolporate and echinolophate with 15 lacunae. Morphometric analysis of the pollen characters was conducted using agglomerative cluster analysis with Euclidean distance and Ward’s method to compute the dissimilarity matrix, and a dendogram was prepared. Two pollen types, based primarily on the diameter of the polar and equatorial axes of the pollen grain, were recognized. Keys to the pollen types, subtypes and species are provided. The present palynological findings are to a great extent in agreement with the results of recent phylogenetic studies based on molecular evidence. Moreover, both the pollen types are well correlated with the general morphology of the investigated species of the genus Lactuca L. (s. lat) and provide additional micromorphological characters for the delimitation of the species."

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22 August 2022

Wei T. & al. 2021:  Whole-genome resequencing of 445 Lactuca accessions reveals the domestication history of cultivated lettuce. – Nat. Genet. 53: 752–760.

Abstract
Lettuce (Lactuca sativa) is an important vegetable crop worldwide. Cultivated lettuce is believed to be domesticated from L. serriola; however, its origins and domestication history remain to be elucidated. Here, we sequenced a total of 445 Lactuca accessions, including major lettuce crop types and wild relative species, and generated a comprehensive map of lettuce genome variations. In-depth analyses of population structure and demography revealed that lettuce was first domesticated near the Caucasus, which was marked by loss of seed shattering. We also identified the genetic architecture of other domestication traits and wild introgressions in major resistance clusters in the lettuce genome. This study provides valuable genomic resources for crop breeding and sheds light on the domestication history of cultivated lettuce."

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22 August 2022

Fertet A., Graindorge S., Koechler S., Boer G. J. de, Guilloteau-Fonteny E. & Gualberto J. M. 2021: Sequence of the mitochondrial genome of Lactuca virosa suggests an unexpected role in Lactuca sativa's evolution. – Frontiers Pl. Sci. 12(697136): 1-15.

Abstract
The involvement of the different Lactuca species in the domestication and diversification of cultivated lettuce is not totally understood. Lactuca serriola is considered as the direct ancestor and the closest relative to Lactuca sativa, while the other wild species that can be crossed with L. sativa, Lactuca virosa, and Lactuca saligna, would have just contributed to the latter diversification of cultivated typologies. To contribute to the study of Lactuca evolution, we assembled the mtDNA genomes of nine Lactuca spp. accessions, among them three from L. virosa, whose mtDNA had not been studied so far. Our results unveiled little to no intraspecies variation among Lactuca species, with the exception of L. serriola where the accessions we sequenced diverge significantly from the mtDNA of a L. serriola accession already reported. Furthermore, we found a remarkable phylogenetic closeness between the mtDNA of L. sativa and the mtDNA of L. virosa, contrasting to the L. serriola origin of the nuclear and plastidial genomes. These results suggest that a cross between L. virosa and the ancestor of cultivated lettuce is at the origin of the actual mitochondrial genome of L. sativa."

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5 July 2022

Hatami E., Jones K. E. & Kilian N. 2022: New insights into the relationships within subtribe Scorzonerinae (Cichorieae, Asteraceae) using hybrid capture phylogenomics (Hyb-Seq). – Frontiers Pl. Sci. 13(851716): 1-29.

Abstract
Subtribe Scorzonerinae (Cichorieae, Asteraceae) contains 12 main lineages and approximately 300 species. Relationships within the subtribe, either at inter- or intrageneric levels, were largely unresolved in phylogenetic studies to date, due to the lack of phylogenetic signal provided by traditional Sanger sequencing markers. In this study, we employed a phylogenomics approach (Hyb-Seq) that targets 1,061 nuclear-conserved ortholog loci designed for Asteraceae and obtained chloroplast coding regions as a by-product of off-target reads. Our objectives were to evaluate the potential of the Hyb-Seq approach in resolving the phylogenetic relationships across the subtribe at deep and shallow nodes, investigate the relationships of major lineages at inter- and intrageneric levels, and examine the impact of the different datasets and approaches on the robustness of phylogenetic inferences. We analyzed three nuclear datasets: exon only, excluding all potentially paralogous loci; exon only, including loci that were only potentially paralogous in 1–3 samples; exon plus intron regions (supercontigs); and the plastome CDS region. Phylogenetic relationships were reconstructed using both multispecies coalescent and concatenation (Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses) approaches. Overall, our phylogenetic reconstructions recovered the same monophyletic major lineages found in previous studies and were successful in fully resolving the backbone phylogeny of the subtribe, while the internal resolution of the lineages was comparatively poor. The backbone topologies were largely congruent among all inferences, but some incongruent relationships were recovered between nuclear and plastome datasets, which are discussed and assumed to represent cases of cytonuclear discordance. Considering the newly resolved phylogenies, a new infrageneric classification of Scorzonera in its revised circumscription is proposed."

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5 July 2022

Cho M. S., Yang J., Mejías J. A. & Kim S.-C. 2022: Phylogenomic insight into dysploidy, speciation, and plastome evolution of a small Mediterranean genus Reichardia (Cichorieae; Asteraceae). – Sci. Rep. 12(11030): 1-14.

Abstract
Reichardia Roth is a small Mediterranean genus comprising ten homogeneous species with basic chromosome numbers of 7, 8, and 9. To assess the plastid genome evolution and differentiation of Reichardia species, we assembled the complete plastome sequences of seven Reichardia and two Launaea species and conducted various phylogenomic analyses comparatively with nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS sequences. Reichardia and Launaea plastomes were highly conserved in gene content and order, containing 130 genes. Plastid phylogenomic reconstruction strongly suggested that Reichardia was a sister to Launaea, and its common ancestor initially diverged into two major lineages: the first containing species with n = 8 chromosomes exclusively, and the other with n = 9, 8, and 7 chromosomes. Although the ancestral Reichardia karyotype was suggested to most likely be n = 9 from ancestral chromosome number reconstruction, the pattern of descending dysploidy indicated by the phylogenetic trees based on nuclear ribosomal DNA ITS was less evident in the trees based on the plastome. Possible reasons for these findings are discussed."

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30 June 2022

Palomino J. & Mejías J. A. 2022: Morphometrics as a robust tool for disambiguation in plant taxonomy: the case of Lactuca livida, a commonly accepted but never delimited taxon. – Pl. Biosystems https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2022.2089759.

Abstract
An important goal of taxonomy is to clarify the identity of ambiguous taxa. Since lineage divergence usually involves ecological shifts that are associated with plant morphology, we propose that searching for fixed, non-overlapping morphological characters and specific associations of features should be the first task in disambiguation. We applied this idea in an analysis of the taxonomic identity of Lactuca livida, an Iberian endemic relative of L. virosa that, despite an extremely imprecise delimitation, is usually recognized in standard floras and germplasm banks. We analysed 24 possible diagnostic characters across the Iberian Peninsula, drawn from related taxonomic literature. No discontinuities in frequency variability distribution characters were found, even in two bimodal quantitative characters: leaf lobation and number of florets per capitulum. There were no notable patterns of association among characters, and the PCA/PCoA score plots did not show any distinctive groupings. Leaf lobation followed a significant geographic pattern, but there was no effective segregation of leaf shapes. We conclude that the variability found is symplesiomorphic, as it is present throughout the Serriola group of Lactuca, to which L. virosa belongs. The analyses, together with previous biological knowledge, indicates that Lactuca livida should be considered a synonym of L. virosa."

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28 June 2022

Laime B., Tjarve D., Znotiņa & Laukalēja Z. 2022: Distribution and ecology of neophyte Lactuca tatarica population on the East Baltic Sea coast in Latvia. – Proc. Latvian Acad. Sci, Sect. B, 76: 267-277.

Abstract
There is an increasing need for species occurrence data at a regional level for the global assessment of invasiveness of neophytes. Therefore, the distribution and habitats of Lactuca tatarica (L.) C.A. Mey. in Latvia (Baltic Sea region) was studied. L. tatarica was observed for the first time in Latvia in 1920. During the next 60 years, it was mainly found in synanthropic habitats. Since the 1980s, the species has spread along the Gulf of Riga (the Baltic Sea) coast. In 2019, recent data on the distribution of L. tatarica were obtained in a large-scale habitat mapping project. Lactuca tatarica was observed in 147 polygons (total area of 230 ha) representing nine habitat types of EU importance. The largest proportion of L. tatarica localities was recorded in beach habitats, and the highest abundance and total area in white and grey dunes. Lactuca tatarica was observed in the following associations: Cakiletum maritimae, Honckenyetum peploidis, Elymo-Ammophiletum arenariae, and Festucetum polesicae. In most localities, L. tatarica genets are scattered or in small groups covering small areas. In some coastal sections (southern part of the Gulf), L. tatarica forms dense stands that tend to spread. Lactuca tatarica in Latvia is considered as a neophyte successfully naturalised mainly in coastal dune habitats, and in some locations it corresponds to the criteria of invasive species with a high risk to endanger natural habitats."

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22 June 2022

Kirschner J., Štěpánek J., Buryy V. V., Chernyagina O. A. & Efimov P. G. 2022: A new species of Taraxacum sect. Arctica (Asteraceae, Crepidinae) from northern Kamchatka, Russia, with a synoptic survey and a nomenclator of the section in Russia. – Phytotaxa 550: 171–185.

Abstract
Taraxacum sect. Arctica (Asteraceae, Crepidinae) is a circumpolar and alpidic group, relatively satisfactorily explored and studied. It is comprised of more than 55 species, five of them having sexual reproduction (mostly confined to NE Russia and the Aleutians), the majority with agamospermous reproduction. We examined representative material, including types, of almost all taxa formally recognized in the literature, compiled a synoptic survey of T. sect. Arctica in Russia (46 taxa) and a nomenclatural checklist (55 names), and evaluated new collections from Kamchatka. A new species was revealed in the material from northern Kamchatka, distinct in blackish purple to black-violet achenes with sparse and short spinulosity and a very gradual body/cone transition, a short cone, the absence of pollen, and tubular florets. It is newly described as T. atropurpureum."

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21 June 2022

Štěpánek J. & Kirschner J. 2022: Taraxacum rhodocarpum and T. schroeterianum (Asteraceae, Crepidinae) are not synonyms, and T. sect. Rhodocarpa is the correct name for T. sect. Alpestria. – Phytotaxa 548: 295-300.

Abstract
Taraxacum schroeterianum Hand.-Mazz. was published to cover distinctive red-fruited slender West Alpine plants with appressed outer phyllaries; it traditionally included T. rhodocarpum Dahlst. as a synonym. A separate section, T. sect. Rhodocarpa van Soest was even erected; its type is T. rhodocarpum on the basis of Art. 10.8 of the ICN. We present a detailed evidence for the separate status of T. schroeterianum and T. rhodocarpum. They differ in a series of morphological features and in the chromosome number. While the former represents a rather isolated taxon, the latter is close to the group of T. reophilum van Soest, the type of T. sect. Alpestria (van Soest) van Soest. Taraxacum sect. Rhodocarpa is therefore considered as the correct name for T. sect. Alpestria. The names T. schroeterianum and T. rhodocarpum are typified, and both these species together with T. sect. Rhodocarpa are supplemented with full descriptions. The name T.  sagii Sonck was reassessed and synonymized with T. schroeterianum."

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9 June 2022

Mort M. E. et al. 2022: Multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG) data resolve phylogenetic relationships within and among archipelagos in Macaronesian Tolpis. – Amer. J. Bot.
https://doi.org/10.1002/ajb2.1866

Abstract
Premise: Plants endemic to oceanic archipelagos are suitable for studying evolution, being isolated on substrates of different ages. Evolution has been recent, rendering traditionally employed sequences insufficiently variable for resolving relationships. This study includes sampling in the genus Tolpis (Asteraceae) from the Azores, Madeira, and Cape Verde, and expands upon an earlier study demonstrating the efficacy of multiplexed shotgun genotyping (MSG) for resolving relationships in Canarian Tolpis.

Methods: Genomic libraries for 90 accessions of Tolpis and two from the outgroup were generated for genotyping individuals using MSG. Loci were de novo assembled with iPyrad, which clusters MSG loci within and between samples. A maximum likelihood phylogeny was generated with RAxML. Ancestral area reconstruction was inferred using R package BioGeoBEARS.

Results: MSG data recovered a highly resolved phylogeny from population to inter-archipelago levels. Ancestral area reconstruction provided biogeographic hypotheses for the radiation of Macaronesian Tolpis.

Conclusions: Four major clades were resolved. The Madeiran endemic T. macrorhiza is sister to other Tolpis. Species from the Canaries, Cape Verdes, and the continent are sister to T. succulenta from Madeira, which has a sister subclade of Azorean populations composed of T. succulenta and T. azorica. Population-level resolution suggests unrecognized taxa on several archipelagos. Ancestral reconstruction suggests initial dispersal from the continent to Madeira, with dispersal to the Azores, then dispersal from Madeira to the Canary Islands, with both subsequent dispersal to the Cape Verdes and back-dispersal to the continent. Single-island radiations and inter-island dispersal are implicated in divergence in Macaronesian Tolpis."

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9 May 2022

Hidalgo O., Balant M. & Pellicer J. 2022: Urospermum ×siljakii (Asteraceae), a new natural homoploid hybrid between U. dalechampii and U. picroides. Phytotaxa 544: 220-222.

Abstract
n/a

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6 May 2022

Güzel M. E., Kilian N., Sennikov A. N., Coşkunçelebi K., Makbul S. & Gültepe M. 2022: Caucasoseris, a new genus of subtribe Chondrillinae (Asteraceae: Cichorieae) for the enigmatic Prenanthes abietina. – Willdenowia 52: 103–115.

Abstract
A new genus, Caucasoseris, is established to accommodate Prenanthes abietina, a species of hitherto uncertain systematic position distributed in the western Caucasus and northeasternmost Turkey in montane conifer and mixed forests. Agreement has existed that the species belongs somewhere in the Crepidinae or Lactucinae but its morphological features do not match any genus and previous molecular phylogenetic analyses could not establish its sister group. This study provides additional micro- and macromorphological, palynological and anatomical data, and used a molecular phylogenetic sampling designed to ascertain its relationship. A sister group relationship with the Chondrillinae is inferred from the phylogenetic tree based on nrITS. In the plastid DNA tree, where the Chondrillinae are resolved as a clade nested inside the Crepidinae, the species is resolved further remote from the Chondrillinae clade and in a rather early diverging position of the Crepidinae. In agreement also with the anatomical and micro- and macromorphological findings, it is considered an orphan lineage with affinities to the Chondrillinae, best treated as a genus of its own. A key to the genera of the Chondrillinae including Caucasoseris is provided."

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29 March 2022

Štěpánek J. & Kirschner J. 2022: Taraxacum sect. Erythrocarpa in Europe in the Alps and eastwards: A revision of a precursor group of relicts. – Phytotaxa 536: 7-52.

Abstract
A taxonomic revision of Taraxacum sect. Erythrocarpa in the eastern part of Europe and in the Alps is presented. Seventeen species are recognized, nine of them are described as new. Most species occupy relatively restricted geographical ranges, the most characteristic habitats being limestone cliffs and mountain summit areas. The highest species diversity of this section is situated in the mountain ranges of Greece and the adjacent regions of Bulgaria and North Macedonia; only two species are known from the Alps, and a new species is described also from Crimea, Ukraine. Taraxacum pindicola is the only sexual diploid among the taxa studied, the other taxa exhibit agamospermy. The name T. pindicola is newly lectotypified. The northernmost representative of T. sect. Erythrocarpa, T. pieninicum (S. Poland), is conspecific with T. erythrocarpum of the western Slovakia. The names T. albomarginatum A.J. Richards and T. voricola A.J. Richards are later synonyms of T. olympophilum Sonck. Taraxacum sect. Erythrocarpa is characterized and, for each species, nomenclature, typification, a detailed description or a reference to it, diagnostic notes, distribution and habitat, and a list of herbarium specimens studied are given. Most species are illustrated, and for selected ones, distribution maps are provided."

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29 March 2022

Güzel M. E. 2022: A new subgenus of Sonchus (Asteraceae: Cichorieae) inferred from molecular data. – Phytotaxa 531: 211-229.

Abstract
A new subgenus, Sonchus subg. Palustres, is established to accommodate S. erzincanicus endemic to Turkey and former Sonchus ser. Palustres including S. palustris and S. sosnowskyi. Although the exclusive placement of S. palustris has already been documented by previous studies based on molecular phylogenetic analyses without morphological evidence, there has not been any study of S. erzincanicus above the specific level. The present study proposes a new subgenus based on chiefly molecular data, and contribute macro- and micro-morphological features (i.e. pollen grains and achenes) of the studied species together with the phylogenetic position based on nrITS and matK with multiple sampling. Further literature and morphological studies evidently showed that S. erzincanicus and S. palustris have slightly heteromorphic achenes which is a subtle character and underestimated up to now in the infrageneric classification of the genus Sonchus. Besides, the molecular analyses revealed that S. erzincanicus and S. palustris are sister taxa, forming an exclusive clade of their own within the genus. Moreover, the Palustres clade is the first diverged one among the clades of the genus Sonchus based on the nrITS
data. Consequently, S. erzincanicus, S. palustris and S. sosnowskyi are treated as members of the suggested new subgenus. Therefore, the slightly heteromorphic achene feature could be taken into consideration for species delimitation in the genus Sonchus as a supportive morphological character. Furthermore, S. araraticus is suggested as a synonym of S. erzincanicus based on its morphological and ecological characteristics."

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29 March 2022

Szeląg Z. 2022: Hieracium boratynskii (Asteraceae), a new species in the H. canescens aggregate from the Sudetes in Poland. – Phytotaxa 541: 209-212.

Abstract
n/a

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29 March 2022

Gottschlich G. & Villa M. 2022: Hieracium racemosum subsp. spinidentatum (Asteraceae), a new hawkweed from Lombardy, Italy. – Phytotaxa 521: 78-82.

Abstract
A new hawkweed endemic to Northern Italy, Hieracium racemosum subsp. spinidentatum, is described and illustrated. Information on its morphology, distribution, ecology and taxonomic relationship is provided."

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29 March 2022

Iamonico D., Fortini P. & Di Pietro R. 2022: Epitypification of the Linnaean name Crepis bursifolia (Asteraceae). – Taxon 71: 207-209.

Abstract
The epitypification of the Linnaean name Crepis bursifolia is discussed. An illustration from Boccone's Museo di piante rare della Sicilia, Malta, Corsica, Italia, Piemonte, e Germania was correctly designated as lectotype by Jiménez López & al. in 2013 according to Art. 7.11 of the ICN. However, this image lacks some of the important characters required for a critical identification of the species (i.e., hairiness of receptacle, length of achenes, number of ribs on the achene surface, and presence of a distinct apical beak on the achene). Following Art. 9.9 of the ICN, an epitype deposited at HFLA is selected to serve as an interpretative type of the lectotype of C. bursifolia."

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29 March 2022

Wei, Z., Chu R., Luan M., Lu Z.-W., Ma Y.-G., Luo X.-R., Lu Y., Xu X.-M. & Zhu S.-X. 2022: Morphology and micro-morphology of achenes and their taxonomic implications to Lactuca species (Cichorieae; Asteraceae). – Taiwania 67: 171-180.

Abstract
Lactuca L. is the central genus of Lactucinae (Cichorieae; Asteraceae), containing cultivated lettuce and its wild relatives. In this study, we used Scanning Electron Microscope, Plain Stereo Microscope and Automated Digital Microscope to observe, record and discuss the achene characters and surface micro-features of Lactuca (including taxa of ex-Pterocypsela Shih) and Notoseris Shih species. The taxon sampling consisted of fifteen globally distributed Lactuca species and Chinese originated Notoseris species. The results indicated that the morphological and micro-morphological features of achenes were of great importance to identify Lactuca species at the genus and species level. We conclude that two key features, the presence or absence of beak and the arrangement and shape of epidermal cells, can be used to distinguish Lactuca from Notoseris. The shape and margin of the achene body, the beak length and the number of ribs on either side of achene are key features to classify Lactuca species. The ornamentation of epidermal cells can also provide extra evidence to determine closely related Lactuca species. The interspecific relationships among the Lactuca species based on achene features are consistent with the results of previously molecular systematics of these species."

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22 February 2022

Badalamenti N., Sottile F. & Bruno M. 2022: Ethnobotany, phytochemistry, biological, and nutritional properties of genus Crepis—a review. – Plants 11(4, 519): 1–28.

Abstract
The genus Crepis L., included within the Asteraceae family, has a very wide distribution, expanding throughout the northern hemisphere, including Europe, northern Africa, and temperate Asia. This genus has a fundamental value from biodynamic and ecological perspectives, with the different species often being chosen for soil conservation, for environmental sustainability, and for their attraction towards pollinating species. Furthermore, various species of Crepis have been used in the popular medicine of several countries as medicinal herbs and food since ancient times. In most cases, the species is consumed either in the form of a decoction, or as a salad, and is used for its cardiovascular properties, as a digestive, for problems related to sight, for the treatment of diabetes, and for joint diseases. This literature review, the first one of the Crepis genus, includes publications with the word ‘Crepis’, and considers the single metabolites identified, characterised, and tested to evaluate their biological potential. The various isolated compounds, including in most cases sesquiterpenes and flavonoids, were obtained by extracting the roots and aerial parts of the different species. The secondary metabolites, extracted using traditional (solvent extraction, column chromatography, preparative thin layer chromatography, preparative HPLC, vacuum liquid chromatography), and modern systems such as ultrasounds, microwaves, etc., and characterised by mono- and bi- dimensional NMR experiments and by HPLC-MS, have a varied application spectrum at a biological level, with antimicrobial, antioxidant, antidiabetic, antitumor, antiviral, antiulcer, phytotoxic, and nutritional properties having been reported. Unfortunately, in vitro tests have not always been accompanied by in vivo tests, and this is the major critical aspect that emerges from the study of the scientific aspects related to this genus. Therefore, extensive investigations are necessary to evaluate the real capacity of the different species used in food, and above all to discover what the different plants that have never been analysed could offer at a scientific level."

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14 February 2022

Richards A. J. 2021: Field handbook to British and Irish dandelions. – BSBI Handbook 23.

From the BSBI website:
The Field Handbook to British and Irish Dandelions [published in mid-October 2021] is a completely revised edition [original edition from 1997] including new Taraxacum species described over the last 24 years, updated taxonomy and nomenclature, new keys, updated BSBI distribution maps and identification notes. ...The Handbook includes a general introduction, guidance on identification, keys, accounts of the 239 species with revised descriptions, 3-6 colour images per taxon, showing key features with a distribution map, and references, a glossary and an index. The book is B5 in size, 302+vi pages, soft back and has full colour throughout."

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14 February 2022

Hatami E. & Mirtadzadini M. 2022: Notes on the identity of Scorzonera picridioides and Scorzonera paradoxa (Asteraceae). – Feddes Repert. 10.1002/fedr.202100044

Abstract
Due to confusion in the identity of Scorzonera paradoxa and Scorzonera picridioides and their inconsistent taxonomic treatments in previous literature and regional floras, we performed a detailed bibliographic and morphological revision of both species in order to elucidate their taxonomic identities. Examination of specimens in the field or various herbaria and critical surveys of type specimens and previous literature represented that S. paradoxa and S. papposa possessed a considerable overlap in the morphology and geographic distribution, and consequently, S. paradoxa was confirmed as a synonym of S. papposa. We also found that S. papposa and S. paradoxa were morphologically different from S. picridioides in plant height, shape of basal leaves, color of florets, color of anther tube, and pappus bristles, thus, S. picridioides was re-established as an independent species. In accordance with a recent taxonomic revision of subtribe Scorzonerinae that split Scorzonera s. l. into independent genera and placed S. papposa in genus Pseudopodospermum, we proposed the placement of S. picridioides in Pseudopodospermum, and provided an updated morphological description and geographic distribution notes for Pseudopodospermum papposum and Pseudopodospermum picridioides."

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28 January 2022

Krahulcová A. & Krahulec F. 2021: Cytotype variation and clonal diversity in polyploid apomictic populations of Pilosella (Compositeae, Cichorieae) introduced to southern Patagonia. – Bol. Soc. Argentina Bot. 56: 307-326.

Abstract
Introduction and objectives: The members of the genus Pilosella are native in Europe and Asia, but they are successful invasive species on most continents. These species form an agamic complex with common apomixis. Apomictic species hybridize, they have different degree of residual sexuality. Main aim of this paper was to determine if the interspecific hybridization already occurred in Patagonia.

M&M: This study is based on analysis of seed progeny collected at thirteen populations of Pilosella in southern Argentina and Chile. The plants were examined for their taxonomic identity, DNA ploidy level (using flow cytometry), chromosome number, reproduction, formation of parthenogenetic seeds and clonal identity (using isozyme phenotypes).

Results: No mixed-species population was recorded. Two apomictic clones of P. officinarum (one pentaploid and the other hexaploid) were found in populations: eight were hexaploid and one was mixed in cytotype composition. A new species for Patagonia, the apomictic pentaploid P. caespitosa, was represented by plants from two populations in Argentina. Some of the progeny plants cultivated from seeds sampled at three localities represented seed-fertile aneuploids the morphology of which implied a hybrid origin and indicated P. officinarum as one of the parents. 

Conclusions: The presence of seed-fertile, aneuploid and parthenogenetic hybrids among the cultivated plants signifies an increased risk of the formation of new hybridogeneous genotypes of Pilosella in southern Patagonia."

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28 January 2022

Pellicer J., Balant M., Fernández P., Rodríguez González R. & Hidalgo O. 2022: Morphological and genome-wide evidence of homoploid hybridisation in Urospermum (Asteraceae). – Plants 11(2,182): 1–15

Abstract
The genus Urospermum is distributed in the Mediterranean region and Macaronesia, and has been introduced to other extra-Mediterranean regions. Although the two species constituting the genus, U. dalechampii and U. picroides, are frequently found together, hybrids have so far only been reported once, from Morocco. However, we found certain individuals in Catalonia, whose intermediate morphology suggested a potential hybrid origin. In this study, we applied morphological and molecular methods to investigate the origin of those individuals. Intermediate features at phenotype, karyological, cytogenetic, and genomic levels were identified in morphologically intermediate individuals, supporting their homoploid hybrid origin. Chloroplast sequence data suggest that U. dalechampii is the maternal progenitor of the hybrid. Together with the intermediate traits displayed, the lack of fertile seeds suggests that hybrids are probably F1. Future monitoring studies will be, nonetheless, needed to evaluate the extent of hybridisation and its potential impact on the biology of the genus."

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28 January 2022

Lu Y.-F, Xu Y.-L., Xie W.-Y., Zhang H.-W., Zheng Z.-H., Cai X. & Jin X.-F. 2021: Two new species and a new combination from Zhejiang, East China. – PhytoKeys 184: 111–126.

Abstract
As the supplement of the flora of Zhejiang, East China, two new species were described with illustrations. Cerastium huadingense Y.F.Lu, W.Y.Xie & X.F.Jin (Caryophyllaceae) differs from C. qingliangfengicum in having sterile stems absent, leaves sessile, petals slightly longer than sepals, and stamens slightly shorter than sepals. Ixeridium dimorphifolium Y.L.Xu, Y.F.Lu & X.Cai (Asteraceae) differs from I. beauverdianum in having plant stoloniferous, basal leaves dimorphic, involucre 8‒10 mm long, inner phyllaries 8, and florets 7‒10. Paraphlomis setulosa C.Y.Wu & H.W.Li (Lamiaceae) was reviewed and morphological characters of the corolla and stamens of its type and the specimens collected in the field survey were critically examined. With barbate anthers and strongly divergent anther cells, Paraphlomis setulosa was transferred to Sinopogonanthera, and S. setulosa (C.Y.Wu & H.W.Li) H.W.Zhang & X.F.Jin was consequently combined."

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21 January 2022

Jiménez J. F., Ramírez-Rodríguez R., Melendo-Luque M., Suárez-Santiago V. N. & Sánchez-Gómez P. 2021: Genetic diversity and structure of the narrow endemic species Crepis granatensis: implications for conservation. – Pl. Biosystems https://doi.org/10.1080/11263504.2021.2013336.

Abstract
In this study, we studied the genetic diversity and population genetic structure of the endangered endemic Crepis granatensis, using amplified fragments length polymorphism (AFLP) and plastid DNA (cpDNA). No genetic divergences were obtained using cpDNA markers. Three primers combinations selected from a total of 12 produced a total of 421 fragments, of which 418 (99.3%) were polymorphic. The total genetic diversity of C. granatensis was moderate (Ht = 0.260). Neís gene diversity ranged from 0.202 to 0.258. The fixation index (Fst) was 0.137, suggesting low to moderate genetic differentiation among populations. The AMOVA analysis revealed that genetic diversity was mainly concentrated among individuals within populations (74%), while 8% was found among populations and 18% among regions. The Bayesian analysis and PCoA identified two genetic clusters: one corresponded to La Sagra population and the other corresponded to the Mágina populations. Based on our genetic results, it is necessary to preserve the evolutionary potential of C. granatensis by protecting all extant populations. Both in situ and ex-situ conservation measures should be considered. Reinforcement, reintroduction, and translocation programmes could be performed if necessary. Finally, such conservation strategies should be considered both in the current recovery plan and management actions for the species."

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21 January 2022

Hind N., Moore R. & King C. 2022: Launaea cervicornis. Compositae. – Curtis's Bot. Mag. 1011.

Abstract
Launaea cervicornis (Boiss.) Font Quer & Rothm. (Compositae: Lactuceae: Hyoseridinae) is illustrated and described. The species is endemic to the Balearics, and is the dominant species in the limestone cliff-top plant association Launaeion cervicornis (O. Bolòs & Vigo ex Y. Gil & Llorens) Rivas-Martínez, Fernández-González & Loidi) on the islands. Notes on cultivation, propagation, pests and diseases and availability are provided. The position of Launaea Cass. in the tribe Lactuceae (= Cichorieae) subtribe Hyoseridinae Less. is discussed, as is the position of the species within the genus, as the sole taxon in Launaea sect. Cervicornes N. Kilian. The reproductive biology of the species is discussed. The species exhibits a particularly short flowering time (per floret) and flowering period, maximizing on calm periods and an abundance of flower visitors/pollinators. The plant possesses three different dispersal mechanisms – anemochory (for solitary achenes), and atelechory and barochory for mature, unopened involucres. The former ensuring there is some movement away from the parent plant, and the latter two effectively ensuring that propagules are not instantly blown off the cliffs into the sea."

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7 January 2022

Woellner R., Bräuchler C., Kollmann J. & Wagner T. C. 2021: Biological flora of Central Europe: Chondrilla chondrilloides (Ard.) H. Karst. – Perspectives Pl Ecol. Evol. Syst. 54, 125657: 1-20.

Abstract
Chondrilla chondrilloides (Asteraceae) is a rare and endangered early-successional plant species endemic to the Eastern European Alps. Its distribution is restricted to near-natural braided rivers and to alluvial fans. The species was common along Alpine gravel rivers, but has declined markedly due to river regulation and degradation in the 19th and 20th century, while some recent restoration projects benefit the plant. Its population declines were caused by habitat fragmentation and destruction as a consequence of extensive hydro-engineering. This paper summarises the published material on taxonomy, morphology, habitat requirements and distribution of the species. The review is complemented by own research data and a phylogenetic assessment of extant and extinct populations within the infrageneric context. A summary on location, size and structure of the remaining populations in the north-eastern and south-eastern Alps is combined with data on seed germination and the habitat niche of the species, with a particular focus on differences between northern and southern populations. Chondrilla chondrilloides forms meta-populations on consolidated gravel bars and older terraces, with extinction and recolonisation due to floodplain dynamics; small populations quickly recover from few founder individuals. Populations in the southern parts of the species’ range are larger with bigger plants and more reproduction, while germination is very high in all populations. Thus, C. chondrilloides has characteristics that allow it to respond rapidly to degradation and restoration of its habitats along gravel rivers in the Eastern Alps."